A magnetic sensor array includes a first three-dimensional magnetic sensor secured to a substrate in a central location of the substrate. A number of second three-dimensional magnetic sensors are secured to the substrate at a first distance from the first magnetic sensor. Additionally, a number of one-dimensional magnetic sensors are secured to the substrate at a second distance from the first magnetic sensor greater than the first distance. Additional magnetic sensors of any dimension may also be included. The magnetic field sensitivity of the first and second three-dimensional magnetic sensors may be less than the magnetic field sensitivity of the one-dimensional magnetic sensors. The sensing range of the first and second three-dimensional magnetic sensors may be greater than the sensing range of the one-dimensional magnetic sensors. The magnetic sensor array may also include a processing circuit coupled to the magnetic sensors.
Exploring giant magnetic anisotropy in small magnetic nanostructures is of technological merit for information storage. Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) over 50 meV in magnetic nanostructure is desired for practical applications. Here we show the possibility to boost the magnetic anisotropy of the smallest magnetic nanostructure-transition metal dimer. Through systematic first-principles calculations, we proposed an effective way to enhance the MAE of an iridium dimer from 77 meV to 223-294 meV by simply attaching a halogen atom at one end of the Ir-Ir bond. The underlying mechanism for the enormous MAE is attributed to the rearrangement of the molecular orbitals which alters the spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian and hence the magnetic anisotropy. Our strategy can be generalized to design other magnetic molecules or clusters to obtain giant magnetic anisotropy. Strong magnetic anisotropic effects in nanostructures are an important property for materials to be used in spintronics and magnetic data
A DC SQUID has a first washer coil for forming a superconducting ring, Josephson junctions and a dampening resistor coupled to both ends of the first washer coil, and a shunting resistor connected in parallel to the Josephson junctions. An input coil is magnetically coupled with the first washer coil, and a first modulation coil is also magnetically coupled with the first washer coil. A ground plane comprising a superconducting film is disposed to cover an area of the Josephson junctions without covering the first washer coil for shielding the Josephson junctions from a magnetic noise. The ground plane prevents a magnetic flux trap from occurring, thus enabling stable operation of the DC SQUID. A washer cover comprising a superconducting film is disposed to cover only a slit portion of the first washer coil to prevent leakage of a magnetic field from the slit portion. The ground plane and the washer cover are simultaneously formed in a same layer of the DC SQUID. A second washer coil can be connected in
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising medical imaging technique producing quantitative images of the distribution of tracer materials (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) without interference from the anatomical background of the imaging objects (either phantoms or lab animals). Theoretically, the MPI platform can image with relatively high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. In practice, the quality of the MPI images hinges on both the applied magnetic field and the properties of the tracer nanoparticles. Langevin theory can model the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and predict the crucial influence of nanoparticle core size on the MPI signal. In addition, the core size distribution, anisotropy of the magnetic core and surface modification of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles also determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the MPI images. As a result, through rational design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the performance of MPI could be effectively
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The discovery of magnetic skyrmions in ultrathin heterostructures has led to great interest in possible applications in memory and logic devices. The non-trivial topology of magnetic skyrmions gives rise to a gyrotropic motion, where, under an applied energy gradient a skyrmion gains a component of motion perpendicular to the applied force. So far, device proposals have largely neglected this motion or treated it as a barrier to correct operation. Here, we show that skyrmions can be efficiently moved perpendicular to an energy step created by local changes in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We propose an experimentally-realizable skyrmion racetrack device which uses voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy to induce a step in magnetic anisotropy and drive a skyrmion unidirectionally using alternating voltage pulses. ...
We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization-magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by ...
We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001), heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C). The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C) exhibited the formation of ~5-8 nm diameter Mn5Ge3 and Mn11Ge8 agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001) crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm) deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. Additional signal to noise benefits are obtained by use of a low noise polarization coil, comprising litz wire or superconducting materials. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.
Progressive miniaturization is an important driving force for technological progress. Nowadays, magnetic multilayer systems for magnetic sensors are comprised of individual films, which are often only a few atomic layers thick. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden and from the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) picked up the well-known fact that it is not sufficient to reduce the thickness of the individual layers to miniaturize these systems. Instead of using multilayer systems a promising alternative is to combine the magnetic properties of the different layer materials within a single film. This goal has now been achieved by scientists from Dresden who produced an ultra-thin striped layer. Traditional multilayer systems are made up of single layers consisting of hard magnetic and soft magnetic materials. Hard magnetic materials exhibit a stable magnetic configuration whereas the magnetization direction of soft magnetic materials can ...
The extreme sensitivity of SQUIDs makes them ideal for studies in biology. Magnetoencephalography (MEG), for example, uses measurements from an array of SQUIDs to make inferences about neural activity inside brains. Because SQUIDs can operate at acquisition rates much higher than the highest temporal frequency of interest in the signals emitted by the brain (kHz), MEG achieves good temporal resolution. Another area where SQUIDs are used is magnetogastrography, which is concerned with recording the weak magnetic fields of the stomach. A novel application of SQUIDs is the magnetic marker monitoring method, which is used to trace the path of orally applied drugs. In the clinical environment SQUIDs are used in cardiology for magnetic field imaging (MFI), which detects the magnetic field of the heart for diagnosis and risk stratification. Probably the most common commercial use of SQUIDs is in magnetic property measurement systems (MPMS). These are turn-key systems, made by several manufacturers, ...
A high-Tc dc SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) gradiometer was developed for magnetic immunoassays where magnetic nanoparticles are used as markers to detect biological reactions. The gradiometer was fabricated on a 5 × 10 mm2 SrTiO3 bicrystal substrate and has a gradiometer resolution of 2.1 pT cm−1 Hz−1/2. A magnetic signal was detected from a sample of 1 μl of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a 40 mg ml−1 solution kept in a microcavity fabricated on Si wafers with Si3N4 membranes using MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems) technology. It was found that volumes as small as 0.3 nl in principle would be detectable with our present device. This corresponds to a total number of particles of 2.2 × 107. The estimated average dipole moment per particle is 4.8 × 10−22 Am2. We are aiming at reading out immunoassays by detecting the Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanoparticles, and we also intend to integrate MEMS technology into our system.
Quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular devices have drawn increasing attention over the past years due to their unique features observed in the conductance spectrum. For the further development of single molecular devices exploiting QI effects, it is of great theoretical and practical interest to develop simple methods controlling the emergence and the positions of QI effects like anti-resonances or Fano line shapes in conductance spectra. In this work, starting from a well-known generic molecular junction with a side group (T-shaped molecule), we propose a simple graphical method to visualize the conditions for the appearance of quantum interference, Fano resonances or anti-resonances, in the conductance spectrum. By introducing a simple graphical representation (parabolic diagram), we can easily visualize the relation between the electronic parameters and the positions of normal resonant peaks and anti-resonant peaks induced by quantum interference in the conductance spectrum. This ...
Abstract. Strontium titanate is a low-temperature, non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor that superconducts to carrier concentrations lower than in any other system and exhibits avoided ferroelectricity at low temperatures. Neither the mechanism of superconductivity in strontium titanate nor the importance of the structure and dielectric properties for the superconductivity are well understood. We studied the effects of twin structure on superconductivity in a 5.5-nm-thick layer of niobium-doped SrTiO3 embedded in undoped SrTiO3. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device susceptometer to image the local diamagnetic response of the sample as a function of temperature. We observed regions that exhibited a superconducting transition temperature Tc≳10% higher than the temperature at which the sample was fully superconducting. The pattern of these regions varied spatially in a manner characteristic of structural twin domains. Some regions are too wide to originate on ...
Correlations, interactions and topology in electronic systems lead to fascinating condensed matter phenomena including superconductivity, magnetism, and topological states of matter. Our group focuses on study of nanoscale phenomena and dissipation in quantum matter and strongly correlated systems using unique scanning probe techniques. We have recently developed the world smallest and most sensitive Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) that resides on the apex of sharp pipette forming the optimal geometry for scanning probe microscopy. These SQUID-on-tip (SOT) devices with size as small as 50 nm can scan at heights of few nm above the sample surface providing the means for investigating local magnetic, electric, and thermal phenomena in novel states of matter.. ...
An inevitable complication of blood transfusions is iron overload. Assessment of iron overload by serum ferritin is widely used, relatively easy to perform and most acceptable, but ferritin fluctuates with infection and inflammation. Therefore, serial measurements and trend of serum ferritin values should be considered.. Assessment of liver iron concentration (LIC) by liver biopsy is invasive and cannot be performed repeatedly. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measures LIC accurately. There are only few SQUID machines available worldwide as it is an expensive equipment to purchase and maintain.. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T2* and R2* relaxation parameters has been used to quantitatively assess iron overload in liver and heart. Cardiac T2* value ,20 milliseconds and liver T2* value, 6.3 milliseconds indicate iron overload.. ...
In ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (ULF-NMR) with strong prepolarization field (B{sub p}), type-II superconducting pick-up coils may be vulnerable to flux pinning from the strong B{sub p}. Pick-up coils made of NbTi, Nb, and Pb were evaluated in terms of acquired NMR signal quality. The type-II pick-up coils showed degraded signals above 61 mT maximum exposure, while the Pb pick-up coil exhibited no such degradation. Furthermore, a negative counter pulse following a strong B{sub p} was shown to follow magnetic hysteresis loop to unpin the trapped flux in the type-II pick-up coil and restore the NMR signal. ...
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In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature at which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism. The Curie temperature is named after Pierre Curie, who showed that magnetism was lost at a critical temperature. The force of magnetism is determined by the magnetic moment, a dipole moment within an atom which originates from the angular momentum and spin of electrons. Materials have different structures of intrinsic magnetic moments that depend on temperature; the Curie temperature is the critical point at which a materials intrinsic magnetic moments change direction. Permanent magnetism is caused by the alignment of magnetic moments and induced magnetism is created when disordered magnetic moments are forced to align in an applied magnetic field. For example, the ordered magnetic moments (ferromagnetic, Figure 1) change and become disordered (paramagnetic, Figure 2) at the Curie temperature. ...
Magnetic micro-robots are small robots under 1mm in size, made of magnetic materials, with relatively simple structures and functionalities. Such micro-robots can be actuated and controlled remotely by externally applied magnetic fields, and hence have the potential to access small and enclosed spaces. Most of the existing magnetic micro-robots can operate in wet environments. When the robots are actuated by the applied magnetic field to move inside a viscous liquid, they invoke flow motions around them inside the liquid. The induced flows are relatively local as the velocity of these flows decays rapidly with the distance from a moving robot, and the flow patterns are highly correlated with the motions of the micro-robots which are controllable by the applied magnetic field. Therefore, it is possible to generate local flow patterns that cannot be easily done using other microfluidic techniques. In this work we propose to use rotational motion of the magnetic micro-robots for local manipulation of flows
This volume presents for the first time a comprehensive description of magnetic sensors with special emphasis placed upon technical and scientific fundamentals. It provides important definitions and a unique overview of concepts, and the nature and principles of magnetic fields. General questions concerning all types of magnetic sensors, such as those pertaining to material, noise, etc. are treated. Each chapter contains physical and mathematical fundamentals and applied technical concepts. In addition, each chapter presents an outline of the most important applications, measurement ranges and accuracy of sensing etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researcher and developers ...
Apparatus for making biomagnetic measurements includes a biomagnetometer for measuring magnetic fields produced by the body and an electromagnetic location measurement and recording system for automatically determining the location of the portion of the body from which the magnetic signals are being gathered. The electromagnetic location recording system permits establishing a real time body frame of reference with respect to the biomagnetometer, so that biomagnetic signals can be correlated directly with body location and structure. The electromagnetic location recording system may be operated continuously at radiation wavelengths which do not interfere with the taking of data, or intermittently with the taking of biomagnetic data, to avoid interference with the measured values of the biomagnetic data. The elements of the electromagnetic location recording system have substantially no residual magnetism when the location recording system is not operating, as the biomagnetic signals are typically so
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fast 3D spatial EPR imaging using spiral magnetic field gradient. AU - Deng, Yuanmu. AU - Petryakov, Sergy. AU - He, Guanglong. AU - Kesselring, Eric. AU - Kuppusamy, Periannan. AU - Zweier, Jay L.. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) provides direct detection and mapping of free radicals. The continuous wave (CW) EPRI technique, in particular, has been widely used in a variety of applications in the fields of biology and medicine due to its high sensitivity and applicability to a wide range of free radicals and paramagnetic species. However, the technique requires long image acquisition periods, and this limits its use for many in vivo applications where relatively rapid changes occur in the magnitude and distribution of spins. Therefore, there has been a great need to develop fast EPRI techniques. We report the development of a fast 3D CW EPRI technique using spiral magnetic field gradient. By spiraling the magnetic field gradient and ...
A magnetic separator for isolating magnetically-labeled substances of interest, such as immunological agents, from a non-magnetic test medium using a method of high gradient magnetic separation. The target substance is contacted with microscopic magnetic particles having a receptor for binding with the target substance. The test medium containing the magnetic particles is held in a non-magnetic container and placed into a gap within an arrangement of magnets for causing the magnetic particles to adhere to selected locations upon the interior wall of the container. The quantity of magnetic particles may be controlled to cause the magnetic particles collected upon the interior wall to form a monolayer. The magnets are arranged upon a yoke which may provide linear, surrounding multipolar, or partially surrounding multipolar configurations of magnetic pole faces about the gap. The magnetic pole faces may be of differing cross-sectional areas to enhance the magnetic field gradient in regions adjacent to the
The WT3000E can be used to evaluate magnetic materials. Energy loss due to hysteresis characteristics or over currents occurring in iron cores is called core loss or iron loss. Measurements of iron loss using an Epstein device can be taken as-is because power calculated from secondary coil voltage and primary coil current does not include copper loss. The WT3000E can measure it accurately when a drive frequency of the power supply is much higher than commercial frequency. Also, if you input frequency, cross-sectional area, and other parameters, you can calculate the magnetic flux density B and AC magnetic field H using user-defined functions and display the results on screen of the WT3000E. ...
The WT3000E can be used to evaluate magnetic materials. Energy loss due to hysteresis characteristics or over currents occurring in iron cores is called core loss or iron loss. Measurements of iron loss using an Epstein device can be taken as-is because power calculated from secondary coil voltage and primary coil current does not include copper loss. The WT3000E can measure it accurately when a drive frequency of the power supply is much higher than commercial frequency. Also, if you input frequency, cross-sectional area, and other parameters, you can calculate the magnetic flux density B and AC magnetic field H using user-defined functions and display the results on screen of the WT3000E. ...
Overall, three main findings emerged. (i) Pigeons can discriminate magnetic compass directions with the left as well as the right eye. This suggests processing of magnetic compass information by either brain hemisphere. (ii) Brain systems associated with the left and the right eye seem to process magnetic cues differently. (iii) Regarding the correct detection of the goal direction, the right eye (left hemisphere) is superior, as in most other cases studied so far.. The first important finding is that pigeons are capable of magnetic compass orientation with the left as well as the right eye and, consequently, with both brain hemispheres. This contrasts with the findings in European robins (Wiltschko et al. 2002), silvereyes (Wiltschko et al. 2003) and domestic chicks (Rogers et al. 2008), but is in line with the recent findings in garden warblers (Hein et al. in press). Interestingly, Rogers et al. (2008) considered the possibility that either brain hemisphere of chicks might, in principle, be ...
Magnetofection is a combination of the words magnet and transfection. Transfection is a process by which genetic material may be introduced into the target cell in order to reach the nucleus and be expressed. The term magnet is used to describe the process of transfection since it makes use of magnetic fields to enable it. Transfection can be done in various ways. It can be mediated using specific chemicals such as calcium phosphate, cationic liposomes, and dendrimers. It can also be through physical means such as magnetofection. Magnetofection is a method that attempts to improve the efficiency of delivery methods. It also prevents toxicity, which is the disadvantage of chemical-based transfection methods. In magnetofection, the nucleic acids need to be associated first with magnetic nanoparticles so that when magnetic force is applied the nucleic acid complex will be driven into the target cell.1 Magnetofection can be used to deliver all types of nucleic acids, such as DNA, siRNA, dsRNA, ...
IBM Press Room - -- IBM researchers have combined nanotechnology with chemistry to make a radically new class of magnetic materials that may one day allow computer hard disks and other data-storage systems to store more than 100 times more data than todaylj products.
Magnetic Material Arrangement In A pis Mellifera Abdomens - Volume 724 - Darci M. S. Esquivel, Eliane Wajnberg, Geraldo R. Cernicchiaro, Daniel Acosta-Avalos, B.E. Garcia
Magnetic bead-based MagJET nucleic acid purification kits provide high-purity DNA and RNA ready to use in routine and demanding downstream applications.
1st Edition Published on December 17, 2008 by Chapman and Hall/CRC One of the Top Selling Physics Books according to YBP Library Services Magnetic Anisotropies
In accordance with the present invention, ferromagnetic thin films of iron that have reduced relaxation rates and methods of making the same are provided. It should be noted that pure iron is a ferromagnet (i.e., has a spontaneous magnetization alignment) with the lowest intrinsic damping rate of all of the ferromagnets. The present invention provides a ferromagnetic structure comprising a substrate and a ferromagnetic thin film of iron (Fe) formed on the substrate. An element selected from the group consisting of titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) (i.e., a lower-Z transition metal element) is alloyed with the ferromagnetic thin film of iron to reduce the relaxation rate of the ferromagnetic thin film.
Spin-torque transfer (STT) effects have brought spintronics ever closer to practical electronic applications, such as MRAM and active broadband microwave spin-torque oscillator (STO), and have emerged as an increasingly attractive field of research in spin dynamics. Utilizing materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in such applications offers several great advantages such as low-current, low-field operation combined with high thermal stability. The exchange coupling that a PMA thin film exerts on an adjacent in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) layer can tilt the IMA magnetization direction out of plane, thus creating a stack with an effective tilted magnetic anisotropy. The tilt angle can be engineered via both intrinsic material parameters, such as the PMA and the saturation magnetization, and extrinsic parameters, such as the layer thicknesses.. STOs can be fabricated in one of a number of forms-as a nanocontact opening on a mesa from a deposited pseudospin-valve (PSV) structure, ...
A magnetoresistive head assembly comprises a silicon substrate, a magnetoresistive element mounted on the substrate, and sapphire members formed around said substrate in a sandwich type configuration. The portion of the head which interacts in transducing relation with a magnetic medium is so configured as to realize improved wear characteristics as well as good heat dissipation with low thermal noise.
Murata Official product details information. Here are the latest datasheet, appearance & shape, specifications, features, applications, product data of AMR Sensors (Magnetic Sensors) MRMS501A.Specifications:Operating Temperature Range=-40℃ to 85℃,Supply Voltage Range=1.6V to 3.5V,Low Level Output Voltage=0.2V,High Level Output Voltage=1.6V,Current Consumption(typ.)=3.0μA,Measure Condition of Current Consumption=Typ. Vcc1.8V,Operating Magnetic Field (Hon)=Max 2.5mT,Operating Magnetic Field (Hoff)=Min 0.5mT,Storage Temperature Range=-40.0℃ to 125.0℃
Magnetophoretic separation is a non-invasive method under development for the sampling of nucleated fetal red blood cells (NRBCs). By inducing a magnetic field gradient symmetrically about a microfluidic separatory channel, blood cells may be separated based on their inherent magnetic properties [1]. Diamagnetic red blood cells (RBCs) are magnetically attracted into lateral side channels, while others cells, e.g. white blood cells (WBCs), are paramagnetic and repelled into the center waste channel. We aimed to model the first phase of a complete lab-on-chip device for the separation of RBCs from maternal circulation in order to isolate NRBCs for fetal diagnostics. Simulation results from COMSOL implementation revealed that seven out of ten RBCs successfully traveled to the intended lateral channels while three out of ten traveled through the center channel. All ten WBCs ended up in the center channel as intended. The three RBCs were collected in the middle channel due to their starting position. ...
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... _Patent US5691208 Magnetic separation 25 11 1997018332Improved magnetic separators, devices and methPatent US5691208 Magnetic separation 25 11 1997018332Improved magnetic separators, devices and meth
The possibilities and implications of photons within the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet behaving as sources of intracellular and intercellular communication and information were investigated experimentally for melanoma cells during the 24 hrs following removal from incubation. Specific wavelengths during different intervals were associated with specific classes of biomolecules that were predicted based on the physical properties associated with their amino acid sequences. Application of a specific intensity and physiologically patterned magnetic field predicted from a model that applied the concept of magnetic moment to the whole cell resulted in photon emissions. They were detected at distances sufficient to allow intercellular communication. The occurrence of macroscopic entanglement or non-locality was shown between two loci of where simple chemically-based photons emissions were generated. Within all three experiments there was marked quantitative congruence between the energies ...
This design process was informed by simulation of magnetic field profiles of the magnetic elements and fabrication processes were created that would allow for arbitrary 3-dimensional structures.. The response to magnetic field applied both parallel and perpendicular to the normal of the wafer of an as-fabricated HBT was investigated. Two different emitter structures were compared, a simple square emitter and a multiple finger emitter, and the ability of the devices to resolve applied field angle was uncovered. The effects of device bias on the field response was also looked at and the optimal bias conditions determined. An analysis of the temperature variation of the magnetic field response was conducted with lower temperatures resulting in higher sensitivity to applied field.. Finally, the response of an HBT with integrated 3-dimensional magnetic structures was investigated. A passivated device was found to be less sensitive to applied magnetic field and a device treated with ion bombardment to ...
Creative Diagnostics, a global leading manufacturer of magnetic particles and related products for immunoassay development, now launches new HPTA Magnetic Particles to support biological researchers. These superparamagnetic particles are widely used as strong anion exchanger and are ideal for separation of antibodies, proteins or peptides.. Actually, magnetic particles with terminal ion-exchange groups can serve as solid phase of ion-exchange chromatography to separate proteins, antibodies, DNA/RNA and other biomolecules. Creative Diagnostics offers various strong and weak ion-exchange magnetic beads to meet the needs of clients, and now the HPTA Magnetic Particles are available as well.. The Absolute Mag™ HPTA Magnetic Particles, 0.75 µm (# WHM-C022) are aqueous dispersion of magnetic silica particles containing 2 hydoxypropyl trimethylammoniumchlorid (HPTA). They are reversibly to charged groups of biomolecules and can be eluted with salt- or pH-gradient. This superparamagnetic particles ...
Creative Diagnostics, a global leading manufacturer of magnetic particles and related products for immunoassay development, now launches new HPTA Magnetic Particles to support biological researchers. These superparamagnetic particles are widely used as strong anion exchanger and are ideal for separation of antibodies, proteins or peptides.. Actually, magnetic particles with terminal ion-exchange groups can serve as solid phase of ion-exchange chromatography to separate proteins, antibodies, DNA/RNA and other biomolecules. Creative Diagnostics offers various strong and weak ion-exchange magnetic beads to meet the needs of clients, and now the HPTA Magnetic Particles are available as well.. The Absolute Mag™ HPTA Magnetic Particles, 0.75 µm (# WHM-C022) are aqueous dispersion of magnetic silica particles containing 2 hydoxypropyl trimethylammoniumchlorid (HPTA). They are reversibly to charged groups of biomolecules and can be eluted with salt- or pH-gradient. This superparamagnetic particles ...
One of the most familiar magnetic materials is magnetized iron. Much of the observed behaviour of iron and related magnetic materials can be understood using existing theoretical results. However, due to limitations of the experimental techniques that were previously available, important characteristics of the excited states of such compounds could not be measured. A team of physicists led by Prof. Bernhard Keimer, a director at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, and researchers from the Technical University of Munich and the Hahn-Meitner Institute, Berlin, have used a recently-implemented, high-resolution neutron technique at the new research reactor FRM II in Munich to perform the first comprehensive, low-temperature measurements of the lifetimes of low-energy excitations in a magnetic material. Their results are published this week in Science magazine (Science, June 30, 2006). These data should help address a longstanding question in the physics of ...
Experimental evidence of the effect of quantum interference on the room-temperature electrical conductance of single-molecules opens the possibility of exploiting quantum interference in single molecules and self-assembled molecular layers.. In this talk, I will present a brief outline of current understanding of quantum interference in organic molecules and then discuss how quantum interference can be exploited to increase the thermoelectric performance of single molecules and assemblies of molecules connected to nano-gap electrodes. Realisation of such materials would allow the generation of electricity from waste heat via the Seebeck effect, which is silent, environmentally friendly and requires no moving parts. Results will be presented for the thermoelectric properties of metallo-porphyrins, endohedral fullerenes and oligoynes.. ...
A theoretical investigation of quantum interference of photonic multistates in simple devices like beam splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers and double-loop devices are presented. Variable transmis
For spin 1/2 nuclei, the energy difference between the two spin states at a given magnetic field strength are proportional to their magnetic moments. However, even if all protons have the same magnetic moments, they do not give resonant signals at the same field/frequency values. This is because this dependent on the electrons surrounding the proton in covalent compounds. Upon application of an external magnetic field, these electrons move in response to the field and generate local magnetic fields that oppose the much stronger applied field. This local field thus "shields" the proton from the applied magnetic field, which must therefore be increased in order to achieve resonance (absorption of rf energy). Such increments are very small, usually in parts per million (ppm). The difference between 2.3487T and 2.3488T is therefore about 42ppm. However a frequency scale is commonly used to designate the NMR signals, even though the spectrometer may operate by sweeping the magnetic field, and thus ...
The response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to an oscillating magnetic field outside the linear response region is important for several applications including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and biodetection. The size and magnetic moment are two critical parameters for the performance of a colloidal MNP dispersion. We present and demonstrate the use of optomagnetic (OM) and AC susceptibility (ACS) measurements vs. frequency and magnetic field strength to obtain the size and magnetic moment distributions including the correlation between the distributions. The correlation between the size and the magnetic moment contains information on the morphology and intrinsic structure of the particle. In OM measurements, the variation of the second harmonic light transmission through a dispersion of MNPs is measured in response to an oscillating magnetic field. We solve the Fokker-Planck equations for MNPs with a permanent magnetic moment, and develop analytical approximations to the ACS and
Nuclei, notably hydrogen, that contain unpaired protons or neutrons are associated with a magnetic moment. In the presence of an external magnetic field, these magnetic moments (or spins) will precess about the field with the precessional frequency determined by the characteristic Larmor frequency (ωL = γB0; γ is the gyromagnetic ratio of the nucleus and B0 is the applied magnetic field strength). The precession of the nuclear spin can be visualized as being similar to the wobbling of a spinning top in the presence of gravity before the top falls over. Hydrogen is the most important biological nucleus because of its abundance in the body in the form of water and lipids. The gyromagnetic ratio for 1H is 42.57 MHz/T. Because the field strengths commonly used are in the range of a few Tesla, the Larmor frequency is on the order of megahertz, or in the radio frequency (RF) range. The net magnetic field experienced by the nucleus is a sum of the external field applied to the tissue and the much ...
Magnetic iron oxides and iron sulfides are present as trace constituents in sediments. These magnetic particles can carry a natural remanent magnetisation (NRM). When the sediment consolidates and lithifies after deposition, the direction of the then ambient field is preserved. The amount of magnetic material is often related to climate. ... read more Moreover, the original magnetic material can be altered by diagenetic processes which are often linked to climate or the sedimentary environment. The NRM therefore contains information on the Earth s magnetic field and on climate or sedimentary environment in the geologic past. The geomagnetic and the climatic signal, however, are often entangled. These signals need to be separated to be able to deduce information on either the geomagnetic field, or the climate and environment. For a correct interpretation of the NRM, its origin has to be known in detail, especially for variations on short geologic time scales of several hundreds to thousands of ...