Resonance energy flow dynamics of coherently delocalized excitons in biological and macromolecular systems: Recent theoretical advances and open issues
TY - CHAP. T1 - Control of Metabolism by Dynamic Macromolecular Interactions. AU - Keleti, T.. AU - OvÁdi, J.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - This chapter discusses the control of metabolism by dynamic macromolecular interactions. Metabolic pathways are controlled and directed by pacemaker, bottleneck, and key enzymes. In general, no single enzyme is responsible for the control of a whole metabolic pathway. In pursuing the pacemaker theory, attempts are made to quantify metabolic regulation, and one studies each enzyme in a sequence separately in situ, determines its kinetic properties in the greatest possible detail and accuracy, and then seeks to determine how it works when it is in the intact cell. In prokaryotes and in eukaryotes the largest macrocompartment is the cytoplasm, containing quantities of soluble enzymes and is full of membranes associated with a great variety of organelles. A theoretical analysis of glycolysis in human erythrocytes has been provided, implicitly assuming ...
The four types of macromolecules are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. These macromolecules are large molecules that make up most of the bodies of living things. They consist of...
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.
acids. In a nutshell, a macromolecule is a very large molecule consisting of many smaller structural units linked together (like how a train is made up multiple cars linked together). All biological macromolecules are made up of a small number of elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. All cells and their organelles are made up of these four macromolecules and each type has its own specific properties and functions. In your main post, in order to help you remember the different types of macromolecules and their general structure and function, I would like you to create 2 different types of analogies for each type of macromolecule (a total of 8 analogies).. Science. ...
Research in our laboratory seeks to fuse computational and experimental efforts to investigate proteins, the fundamental molecules of biology, and their interactions with small molecule substrates, therapeutics, or probes. We develop computational methods with three major ambitions in mind: 1) to enable protein structure elucidation of membrane proteins the primary target of most therapeutics and large macromolecular complexes such as viruses; 2) design proteins with novel structure and/or function to explore novel approaches to protein therapeutics and deepen our understanding of protein folding pathways, and 3) understand the relation between chemical structure and biological activity quantitatively in order to design more efficient and more specific drugs. Crucial for our success is the experimental validation of our computational approaches which we pursue in our laboratory or in collaboration with other scientists ...
We have formed the HIVE Center to characterize at the atomic level the structural and dynamic relationships between interacting macromolecules in the HIV life c...
Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms. Molecules of Life Macromolecules are large organic molecules which are carbon-based 4 Types: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms.
Today, most macromolecules are delivered in traditional invasive injectable formats, which often results in poor patient compliance and are therefore not the most suitable route for long-term treatment. Although oral delivery remains the preferred route for developers of new therapies, it poses a variety of development challenges to formulation scientists, for example:. ...
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This session is dedicated to investigations of novel phenomena at the nanoscale, including unique chemistry, physics, assembly, and structuring, particularly leading to enhanced or unusual properties. Theoretical, computational, and experimental papers are welcome, as well as work aimed at emerging technologies that may arise from nanoscale phenomena. ***Note to faculty candidates: please include a note to the session chair during submission to alert them to your status*** +++Note: this session will be sorted jointly with Nanoscale Structure in Polymers and Polymer Thin Films, Confinement, and Interfaces. Authors may submit to either session.+++. ...
View Notes - Lecture 3 from BIOL 1103 at Carleton CA. 3. Biomacromolecules Iain McKinnell Dept Biology Read your Purple Pages Chemistry of life: Atoms smallest units of matter that can undergo
While antibodies are a major extracellular tool of the highest specificity to answer important biomedical questions, the improvements in electroporation discussed below may make it feasible to also use antibodies as an intracellular deletion tool to study (a) viruses inside the cell, (b) cancer cells, (c) signal transduction, (d) genetics, (e) metabolism, and (f) other structures and mechanisms. Already, others have succeeded in depositing macromolecules, including antibodies (Abs), and nucleic acids inside cells, using many techniques, including electroporation (EP). However, EP has limitations that have precluded its widespread use, particularly its high kill rate for cells and the low percentage of cells that are able to incorporate macromolecules. If these limitations could be overcome for Abs and nucleic acids, then it would be practical to use them as highly specific probes for intracellular molecules. In our experiments using EP, we were able to largely prevent lethality for cells during ...
Herpesviruses assemble in a complex order of consecutive and convoluted morphogenesis events that involve large macromolecular complexes interacting with host-derived membranes. Advances in structural methods allow us now to characterize these transitional states in-situ. Unfortunately, the kinetics and dynamics of these processes often remain unstudied because purification for classical biochemistry usually disables the superstructures and ensemble assays lack resolution. For these reasons, very little is known about the in-situ dynamics and kinetics of herpesvirus assembly intermediates at single-particle resolution. This information is, however, crucial to mechanistically understand the effect of pharmacological inhibitors on virus productivity. To fill this gap, the group Quantitative and Molecular Virology at the MHH & the CSSB develops functional assays to quantify and mechanistically describe the kinetics and dynamics of viral macromolecular complexes in living cells at the single ...
Sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge is a matrix free solution technique with no immobilisation, columns, or membranes required and can be used to study self-association and complex or
Standard experimental techniques for determining the structure of small to moderately-sized molecules are difficult to apply to large macromolecular complexes. These complexes, consisting of multiple protein
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year.Conjugation of cytotoxic drugs with macromolecules improves their pharmacokinetic profile, prolonging the distribution and elimination phases. Furthermore, the slow release of active drug from the carrier may result in sustained high intratumoral drug levels and lower plasma concentrations of the active drug. In order to achieve this combined effect, a macromolecule-drug conjugate should preferentially release the active drug within the tumor tissue. The following components are essential to reach this goal: a biodegradable linkage, a suitable spacer, and a potent bioactive anticancer agent. Among the most widely studied macromolecules are N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA), ...
Structural Cell BiologyMacromolecular crystallography, in combination with other biophysical and biochemical techniques, is the most powerful tool currently available for obtaining the high resolution information necessary to understand the details of the macromolecular interactions governing cell life. Shortly after
Native mass spectrometry can provide insight into the structure of macromolecular biological systems. As analytes under investigation get larger and more complex, instrument capabilities need to be advanced. Herein, modifications to an Orbitrap Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer that increase signal intensity
Article Novel nanoplatform for oral delivery of anti-cancer biomacromolecules. Oral administration of bio-macromolecules is an uphill task and the challenges from varying pH and enzymatic activity are difficult to overcome. In this regard, nanotechno...
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP1B1 gene.[1] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+-ATPases. Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 1 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants ...
Author(s): Palovcak, Eugene Joseph | Advisor(s): Cheng, Yifan | Abstract: Biological macromolecules such as enzymes are nanoscale machines. This is true in a concrete sense: if the atomic structure of a biological macromolecule can be obtained, the theories of mechanics and intermolecular forces can be applied to explain how the machine works in terms that engineers would understand, including motors, ratchets, gates and transducers. Nevertheless, biological macromolecules are complex, fragile and extremely small, so obtaining their structures is a challenging experimental endeavor. Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique for determining the 3D structure of a biological macromolecule from a large set of 2D electron micrographs of individual structurally-identical particles. To obtain such images, a solution of the macromolecules must be prepared in the frozen-hydrated state, embedded in a thin electron-transparent glassy film of water. This specimen must then be imaged
An introductory look at the molecular visualization software to 3D animation software workflow, with step-by-step tutorials to acquaint the user to three of the popular molecular viewing softwares Chimera, Pymol and VMD. Pre-production tasks done in molecular viewing software to prepare PDB files for import into Maya (via the Molecular Maya plugin) will be discussed, including splitting macromolecules into multiple pieces and rebuilding large macromolecular complexes from separate PDB files.. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. ...
The aim of the course Physical Chemistry of Macromolecular systems is to explain kinetic properties of disperse systems, thermodynamics of polymer solutions and their applications in technologies and other fields. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The texas-sized molecular box. T2 - A versatile building block for the construction of anion-directed mechanically interlocked structures. AU - Rambo, Brett M.. AU - Gong, Han Yuan. AU - Oh, Moonhyun. AU - Sessler, Jonathan L.. PY - 2012/8/21. Y1 - 2012/8/21. N2 - Over the last two decades, researchers have focused on the synthesis and development of mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs). The intramolecular motion of mechanical bonds and the ability to induce this effect with the choice of the proper external stimuli has prompted the development of macromolecular systems that possess the ability to perform work at the molecular level. Currently, researchers are working to incorporate interlocked species into complex structural systems, such as molecular frameworks and nanoparticles, and to create ever more elegant noncovalent architectures. This effort provides an incentive to generate new building blocks for the construction of MIMs. In this Account, we describe progress ...
In contrast to other methods used to analyze macromolecules, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) enables characterization of samples in their native state under biologically relevant solution conditions. AUC is the most versatile, rigorous and accurate technology available for determining the molecular weight, hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of a protein or other macromolecule. It can be used to investigate nearly any type of molecule or particle over a wide range of concentrations and in a diverse variety of solvents. For many research questions, there is no satisfactory analytical substitute for AUC.. ...
In contrast to other methods used to analyze macromolecules, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) enables characterization of samples in their native state under biologically relevant solution conditions. AUC is the most versatile, rigorous and accurate technology available for determining the molecular weight, hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties of a protein or other macromolecule. It can be used to investigate nearly any type of molecule or particle over a wide range of concentrations and in a diverse variety of solvents. For many research questions, there is no satisfactory analytical substitute for AUC.. ...
Download Art 4 (PDF). Key words: N, N-dimethylacrylamide; 3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro(5.5)undecane; radical polymerization; smart macromolecular systems. 5. Loredana E. NITA, Aurica P. CHIRIAC, Manuela T. NISTOR and Iordana NEAMTU ...
2011Macromolecular Systems in Soft and Living Matters, Dhont,J.K.G.; Gompper,G.; Lang,P.R.; Richter,R.; Ripoll,M.; Willbold,D.; Zorn,R., Jülich, Lecture Notes of the 42nd IFF Spring School 2011, Schriften des Forschungszentrum Jülich, 2011, Reihe Schlüsseltechnologien, Vol. 20, ISBN 978-3-89336-688-0, D1.1-D1.20 BibTeX , EndNote: XML, Text , RIS http://join2-wiki.gsi.de/foswiki/pub/Main/Artwork/join2_logo100x88.png Contribution to a conference proceedings/Contribution to a book Gensch, T. ; Kaschuba, D. ...
CMCF is an umbrella facility which operates two beamlines, CMCF-ID and CMCF-BM, at the Canadian Light Source. Together, both beamlines enable high-resolution structural studies of proteins, nucleic acids and other macromolecules, satisfying the requirements of the most challenging and diverse crystallographic experiments.
To fully understand a molecule, you first need to learn what it looks like, and then, how it moves. This isnt easy. Ive talked before about how unusual biological molecules can be if youre accustomed to thinking of real-world objects. They are fundamentally flexible and dynamic in a way that everyday objects arent. They move chaotically, at lightning speed, crashing through a molecular mosh pit on the sub-microscopic scale. Protein and nucleic acid macromolecules are… Continue reading ...
A technique for identifying folding patterns of proteins using mass spectrometry that is potentially faster and requires less sample than X-ray crystallographic or NMR methods has been developed by B.W. Gibson and I.D. Kuntz. They believe the time needed to determine the fold family of a protein can be reduced to one week and that less than 10mg of protein may be required to elucidate macromolecular interactions, and multiple conformational states, and to contribute to the design of protein mimetics ...
MNA-G has a MW=16,000 and MNA-M has a doublet of MW=15,000 and 16,000 when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Higher molecular weight species (>5 million Da) are present in samples analyzed by gel filtration ...
Our laboratory is committed to understanding the fundamental mechanisms by which membrane proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules are transported throughout eukaryotic cells. To do so, we take advantage of numerous interdisciplinary approaches, including genetics, biochemistry, structural biology, biophysics, molecular biology and high-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy.. Additionally, we use a variety of experimental systems, ranging from simple animal models (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans) to human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We also aim to recapitulate individual steps of membrane transport in vitro, using recombinant proteins and chemically defined lipids. Our ultimate goal is to identify the regulatory pathways that control membrane deformation, which enable vesicle formation in the endosomal and secretory systems. Although basic research is the cornerstone of our program, we also seek to define pathomechanisms that underlie human disease, focusing on the impact of ...
Compendium of XAFS beamlines in Europe. This compendium of XAFS beamlines is mantained by the Commission on XAFS of the IUCr as a service to the scientific community. We list beamlines on which measurements of XAFS and related techniques, both in the soft and in the hard x-ray regions, are possible; the widest possible range of applications is considered. Both presently operating beamlines and those which are in the construction, commissioning or design phase are included.. See our list of acronyms.. The data is listed to the best of our knowledge; most of it has been obtained from facility websites and in ...
MTs are cylindrical polymers 25 nanometers (nm = 10-9 meter) in diameter, comprised of 13 longitudinal protofilaments which are each chains of the protein tubulin (Figure 8). Each tubulin is a peanut-shaped dimer (8 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm) which consists of two slightly different monomers known as alpha and beta tubulin, (each 4 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm, weighing 55,000 daltons). Tubulin subunits within MTs are arranged in a hexagonal lattice which is slightly twisted, resulting in differing neighbor relationships among each subunit and its six nearest neighbors (Figure 9). Thus pathways along contiguous tubulins form helical pathways which repeat every 3, 5 and 8 rows (the Fibonacci series). Alpha tubulin monomers are more negatively charged than beta monomers, so each tubulin (and each MT as a whole) is a ferroelectric dipole with positive (beta monomer) and negative (alpha monomer) ends.[xxiii ...
Gene Information GEMIN6 is part of a large macromolecular complex localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus that plays a role in the cytoplasmic assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Other members of this complex include SMN (MIM 600354) GEMIN2 (SIP1; MIM 602595) GEMIN3 (DDX20; MIM 606168) GEMIN4 (MIM 606969) and GEMIN5 (MIM 607005).[supplied by OMIM Jul 2002]. ...
Mistake computations and statistical analysis were applied from a book whose writers were Hibbert, D.B & A ; Gooding J.J ( 2006 ) . All the mistakes were in 95 % assurance interval. Specifications of membrane and belongingss of H2O did non incorporate any mistake due to they were measured under standard conditions.. DecisionIn a nutshell, dead terminal membrane filtration is a good method to extinguish H2O out if coveted merchandise is collected from membrane surface. Although it is really expensive and requires high applied force per unit area to keep filtration public presentation, it is able to bring forth high quality and concentrated merchandise. From H2O and yeast solution testings, membrane and bar opposition could be estimated. This experiment besides could look into filtration behavior and macromolecular system based on informations aggregation.. The filtrate volume as a map of clip was used to look into the fouling theoretical account on membrane. In this experiment, the bar was ...
Background: To understand the mechanism by which a protein transmits a signal through the cell membrane, an understanding of the flexibility of its transmembrane (TM) region is essential. Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) has become the method of choice to investigate the slowest motions in macromolecular systems. It has been widely used to study transmembrane channels and pumps. It relies on the hypothesis that the vibrational normal modes having the lowest frequencies (also named soft modes) describe the largest movements in a protein and are the ones that are functionally relevant. In particular NMA can be used to study dynamics of TM regions, but no tool making this approach available for non-experts, has been available so far.. Results: We developed the web-application [email protected] (TransMembrane α-helical Mobility analyzer). It uses NMA to characterize the propensity of transmembrane α-helices to be displaced. Starting from a structure file at the PDB format, the server computes the normal modes of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation. AU - Papaconstantinou, John. PY - 1967/1/1. Y1 - 1967/1/1. N2 - I have presented a series of observations on macromolecular interactions which occur during the terminal stages of lens cell differentiation. These are summarized in Fig. 2. Other cell types that undergo similar changes are the erythrocyte and skin cells (epidermis) during the process of keratinization. These other cells are also involved in the synthesis of highly specific proteins, and there are indications that molecular alterations similar to those described for the lens may also occur in these cells (26). Thus, elucidation of a specific series of macromolecular interactions such as those described may provide a basis for the biochemical definition of the terminal stages of cellular differentiation. Differentiation of the reticulocyte, for example, involves inactivation of the nucleus, stabilization of mRNA, and possibly a ribosomal breakdown such as I have ...
Page contains details about iota carrageenan-FeII supramolecular complexes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Salie, Zhe Li; Kirby, Karen A; Michailidis, Eleftherios et al. (2016) Structural basis of HIV inhibition by translocation-defective RT inhibitor 4-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine (EFdA). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:9274-9 ...
2BZA: Non-Boltzmann thermodynamic integration (NBTI) for macromolecular systems: relative free energy of binding of trypsin to benzamidine and benzylamine.
Secretory granules contain specific proteins and other macromolecules that are destined for secretion into the extracellular space. This slide shows secretory granules in pancreatic acinar cells. Their size is approximately 1 µm in diameter, and they accumulate on the apical side of the cell above the nucleus. ...
Tripisciano, C.; Kozynchenko, O.P.; Linsberger, I.; Phillips, G.J.; Howell, C.A.; Sandeman, S.R.; Tennison, S.R.; Mikhalovsky, S.V.; Weber, V.; Falkenhagen D. (2011). Activation-dependent adsorption of cytokines and toxins related to liver failure to carbon beads. Biomacromolecules, 12(10): 3733-3740 ...
Question 8: In some protein assemblies, one subunit may be referred to as a regulatory subunit and another as a catalytic subunit. An enzyme composed of both regulatory and catalytic subunits when assembled is often referred to as a ________. ...
A user manual is located next to the machine. Beckman also provide An Introduction to Analytical Ultracentrifugation written by G. Ralston and Self-Associating Systems in the Analytical Ultracentrifuge written by D.K. McRorie and P.J. Voelker both of which provide helpful suggestions for setting up experiments.. ...
We had hoped that 2006 would be a calm year for the MX Group, used for consolidation of the work performed during 2005. Of course this has not proven to be the case! During 2006, the MX beamlines welcomed over 2000 visitors carrying out more than 660 separate experimental sessions. Moreover, and as predicted, the availability of sample changing robots has fundamentally altered the way in which the beamlines are used: in the period 1st April to 16th December 2006, the sample changers were used to mount around 13,000 crystals. The availability of sample changers means that users can either screen large numbers of samples before collecting data from the best possible crystal or, in the case of pre-screened samples, collect many datasets very rapidly indeed. Such an intensive use of the beamlines means they must be highly reliable. That they continue to remain so is a tribute to the work of all the members of the MX Group (particularly our technical staff) and the support groups with whom we ...
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The MSKC hosts a number of guest researchers who utilize our facilities for protein production and structural studies. Below, a list of actively underway or concluded projects.
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