TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational resource for the prediction of peptide binding to Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules. AU - Peters, B.. AU - Bui, H. H.. AU - Sidney, J.. AU - Weng, Z.. AU - Loffredo, J. T.. AU - Watkins, D. I.. AU - Mothé, B. R.. AU - Sette, A.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Non-human primates, in general, and Indian rhesus macaques, specifically, play an important role in the development and testing of vaccines and diagnostics destined for human use. To date, several frequently expressed macaque MHC molecules have been identified and their binding specificities characterized in detail. Here, we report the development of computational algorithms to predict peptide binding and potential T cell epitopes for the common MHC class I alleles Mamu-A*01, -A*02, -A*11, -B*01 and -B*17, which cover approximately two thirds of the captive Indian rhesus macaque populations. We validated this method utilizing an SIV derived data set encompassing 59 antigenic peptides. Of all ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of a DNA Aβ42 vaccine in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). T2 - Antibody kinetics and immune profile after intradermal immunization with full-length DNA Aβ42 trimer. AU - Lambracht-Washington, Doris. AU - Fu, Min. AU - Frost, Pat. AU - Rosenberg, Roger N.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by National Institute on Aging grant P30 AG12300-21 from the National Institutes of Health; the Zale Foundation; the Rudman Foundation; the McCune Foundation; the Alliance of Women for Alzheimer Research and Education (AWARE); Presbyterian Village North; and Freiberger, Losinger, and Denker Family Funds.. PY - 2017/4/26. Y1 - 2017/4/26. N2 - Background: Aggregated amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ42), derived from the cellular amyloid precursor protein, is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimers disease (AD). Although active immunization against Aβ42 peptide was successful in AD mouse models and led to removal of plaques and improved memory, a similar ...
The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca1. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus macaque. Comparison with the previously sequenced Indian rhesus macaque reveals that all three macaques maintain abundant genetic heterogeneity, including millions of single-nucleotide substitutions and many insertions, deletions and gross chromosomal rearrangements. By assessing genetic regions with reduced variability, we identify genes in each macaque species that may have experienced positive selection. Genetic divergence patterns suggest that the cynomolgus macaque genome has been shaped by introgression after hybridization with the Chinese rhesus macaque. Macaque genes display a high degree of sequence similarity with human disease gene orthologs and drug targets. However, we identify several ...
The impact of maternal kinship on social behaviour has been studied in detail for many primate species, but it is difficult to assess the importance of kin selection in shaping the evolution of social behaviour when studies are limited to maternal kin, completely ignoring paternal kinship. This thesis aimed to investigate the extent of paternal kinship and its impact on the social relationships among adult females in one group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living on the island of Cayo Santiago. The main findings can be summarised as follows: Firstly, in order to access the extent of paternal kinship, paternity has been analysed for all infants of the study group born between 1993 and 1998. Results revealed that male reproduction was highly skewed over the study period as few males have sired a high number of offspring, but the majority of potential sires have sired no or few offspring. This created a kinship structure in which nearly all animals born during the study period ...
Aikeqing (AKQ) has been shown in clinical studies to improve quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients, but anti-HIV activity has not been determined. The SHIV-infected macaque is an important animal model for testing antiviral drugs. This study aimed to determine the anti-HIV activity of AKQ in chronically SHIV89.6-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Nine Chinese rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SHIV89.6 virus. At 11 weeks post-infection, the animals were arbitrarily divided into three groups: high-dose (AKQ 1.65 g/kg; n = 3), low-dose (AKQ 0.55 g/kg; n = 3), and control (water 1 mL/kg; n = 3). Treatment was administered by the intragastric gavage route once-daily for 8 weeks. Blood (5 mL) was collected biweekly. Viral loads were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays, and T cell counts were monitored by FACS analyses throughout the treatment. AKQ induced a persistent decline (P = 0.02) in plasma viral loads during treatment in the high-dose group
Borries C, Larney E, Kreetiyutanont K, Koenig A. 2002. The diurnal primate community in a dry evergreen forest in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, northeast Thailand . Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 50(1): 75-88. Catchpole HR, van Wagenen G. 1975. Reproduction in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. In: Bourne GH, editor. The rhesus monkey: management reproduction, and pathology, Volume 2. New York : Academic Pr. 117-40.. Chapais B. 1986. Why do adult male and female rhesus monkeys affiliate during the birth season? In: Rawlins RG, Kessler MJ, editors. The Cayo Santiago macaques: history, behavior, and biology. Albany (NY): State Univ New York Pr. p 173-200. Deutsch JC, Lee PC. 1991. Dominance and feeding competition in captive rhesus monkeys. Int J Primatol 12(6): 615-28.. Dixson AF, Nevison CM. 1997. The socioendocrinology of adolescent development in male rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ). Horm Behav 31(2): 126-35).. Fan Z, Song Y. 2003. Chinese primate status and primate captive breeding for biomedical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Volumetric correlates of spatiotemporal working and recognition memory impairment in aged rhesus monkeys. AU - Shamy, Jul Lea. AU - Habeck, Christian. AU - Hof, Patrick R.. AU - Amaral, David G. AU - Fong, Sania G.. AU - Buonocore, Michael H.. AU - Stern, Yaakov. AU - Barnes, Carol A.. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Spatiotemporal and recognition memory are affected by aging in humans and macaque monkeys. To investigate whether these deficits are coupled with atrophy of memory-related brain regions, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and volumes of the cerebrum, ventricles, prefrontal cortex (PFC), calcarine cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were quantified in young and aged rhesus monkeys. Subjects were tested on a spatiotemporal memory procedure (delayed response [DR]) that requires the integrity of the PFC and a medial temporal lobe-dependent recognition memory task (delayed nonmatching to sample [DNMS]). Region of interest analyses ...
To the Editor.-The article by Gamache and Myers (Arch Neurol 32:374, 1975) describing the effects of hypotension on Rhesus monkeys demands our comment not only
From the Back Cover The Rhesus Monkey Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates is the most comprehensive, detailed atlas of the monkey brain ever constructed. The first chapter, Photographic and Diagrammatic Atlas of the Rhesus Monkey Brain, presents 151 plates illustrating the subcortex and parts of the cortex in high magnification, and 151 corresponding diagrams complementing each image. The second chapter, Delineation of the Rhesus Monkey Cortex on the Basis of the Distribution of a Neurofilament Protein, consists of 64 fully labeled plates depicting an entire hemisphere. Jointly, the two chapters constitute the most serious morphological work ever undertaken on the monkey. Key Features * Provides the first comprehensive delineations of cortical and subcortical structures of any primate species * Depicts the entire brain in 151 photographs paired with 151 detailed diagrams * Alternates sections stained for Nissl substance with sections reacted for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) * Contains 64 fully labeled
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex dimorphisms in the cognitive-enhancing action of the Alzheimers drug donepezil in aged Rhesus monkeys. AU - Buccafusco, J. J.. AU - Jackson, W. J.. AU - Stone, J. D.. AU - Terry, Alvin V. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Brain acetylcholinesterase has been targeted for the development of novel treatments for memory deficits associated with Alzheimers disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The long-acting AChE inhibitor donepezil (Aricept™) is used to improve memory and other aspects of cognition in AD patients. Because donepezil and other cholinesterase inhibitors are effective in a restricted population of AD patients, this study was to designed to determine whether aged females monkeys receive the same level of benefit to the mnemonic action of donepezil as do males. In this study, six male and six female rhesus monkeys (,20 years) who were proficient in the performance of a delayed matching-to-sample task each received an ascending series of four doses ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the fetal or neonatal non-human primate (NHP) brain to isoflurane or ketamine for 5 h causes widespread apoptotic degeneration of neurones, and exposure to isoflurane also causes apoptotic degeneration of oligodendrocytes (OLs). The present study explored the apoptogenic potential of propofol in the fetal and neonatal NHP brain.. METHOD: Fetal rhesus macaques at gestational age 120 days were exposed in utero, or postnatal day 6 rhesus neonates were exposed directly for 5 h to propofol anaesthesia (n=4 fetuses; and n=4 neonates) or to no anaesthesia (n=4 fetuses; n=5 neonates), and the brains were systematically evaluated 3 h later for evidence of apoptotic degeneration of neurones or glia.. RESULTS: Exposure of fetal or neonatal NHP brain to propofol caused a significant increase in apoptosis of neurones, and of OLs at a stage when OLs were just beginning to myelinate axons. Apoptotic degeneration affected similar brain regions but to a lesser extent than we previously ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anomaly in aortic arch alters pathological outcome of transient global ischemia in Rhesus macaques. AU - Hara, Koichi. AU - Yasuhara, Takao. AU - Maki, Mina. AU - Matsukawa, Noriyuki. AU - Yu, Guolong. AU - Xu, Lin. AU - Tambrallo, Laura. AU - Rodriguez, Nancy A.. AU - Stern, David M.. AU - Yamashima, Tetsumori. AU - Buccafusco, Jerry J.. AU - Kawase, Takeshi. AU - Hess, David C.. AU - Borlongan, Cesario V.. PY - 2009/8/25. Y1 - 2009/8/25. N2 - We investigated a non-human primate (NHP) transient global ischemia (TGI) model which was induced by clipping the arteries originating from the aortic arch. Previously we demonstrated that our TGI model in adult Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) results in marked neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal region, specifically the cornu Ammonis (CA1) region. However, we observed varying degrees of hippocampal cell loss among animals. Here, we report for the first time an anomaly of the aortic arch in some Rhesus macaques that appears as a key ...
Subjects and surgery. Two adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used in the experiments. For each monkey, we used preoperative whole-head magnetic resonance imaging (4.7 T magnet, 500 μm slices) to identify the stereotaxic coordinates of the auditory cortex and to model a three-dimensional skull reconstruction. From these skull models, we constructed custom-designed, form-fitting titanium head posts and recording chambers (Logothetis et al., 2002). The monkeys underwent sterile surgery for the implantation of a scleral search coil, head post, and recording chamber. The inner diameter of the recording chamber was 19 mm and was vertically oriented to allow an approach to the superior surface of the superior temporal gyrus (Pfingst and OConnor, 1980; Recanzone et al., 2000). All experiments were performed in compliance with the guidelines of the local authorities (Regierungspraesidium, Tuebingen, Germany) and the European Union (European Communities Council Directive 86/609/EEC) for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal and maternal outcome after administration of tenofovir to gravid rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). AU - Tarantal, Alice F. AU - Castillo, Alesha. AU - Ekert, Jason E.. AU - Bischofberger, Norbert. AU - Martin, R. Bruce. PY - 2002/3/1. Y1 - 2002/3/1. N2 - Tenofovir has been shown to cross the placenta in quantities sufficient to sustain reductions in viral load in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected fetal monkeys. With chronic exposure (30 mg/kg), however, significant bone-related toxicity has been shown in ∼25% of infants studied. Further investigations were conducted to determine whether the bone-related toxicity observed was initiated during fetal life. Gravid rhesus monkeys (n = 4) were administered tenofovir subcutaneously once daily from 20 to 150 days of gestation (30 mg/kg; term: 165 ± 10 days). Fetuses were monitored sonographically, and maternal and fetal blood and urine samples were collected to assess hematologic parameters, clinical chemistry, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α-Adrenergic receptor antagonism and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) induced luteinizing hormone release in female rhesus macaques. AU - Urbanski, Henryk F.. AU - Garyfallou, Vasilios T.. AU - Kohama, Steven G.. AU - Hess, David L.. N1 - Funding Information: We wish to thank Sherri Falls, Kevin Grund, Rick Jones, and Ty May for help in caring for the animals, Bill Baughman for surgical assistance, and Evida Katayama for technical assistance with the hormone assays. We are also grateful to Dr. K. Moriyoshi (Kyoto University, Japan) for providing us with the NMDAR1 cDNA clone. Preliminary findings from these studies were reported at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Davis, CA, 1995 [38] . This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (HD-29186, HD-24312, HD-18185 and RR-00163). ORPRC publication number 2015. PY - 1997/1/2. Y1 - 1997/1/2. N2 - The stimulatory influence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate ...
Primate research animal. Head of an adult rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This monkey may be used to study primate behaviour & biology, the development & transmission of human diseases, or to test novel drugs. Photographed at the New England Regional Primate Research Centre, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, USA. - Stock Image G352/0185
Fig. 2. Monthly injections of GSK744 LA protect rhesus macaques against three intravaginal SHIV challenges.. (A) Study design. Twelve female rhesus macaques were injected intramuscularly with 30 mg of Depo-Provera on weeks −3 and 2. Eight rhesus macaques were injected intramuscularly in the quadriceps with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) at two time points, weeks 0 and 4. Four Depo-Provera-treated rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals were challenged intravaginally on week 1 with 300 TCID50 of SHIV162P3. GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were further challenged on weeks 5 and 7. All rhesus macaques were followed for 24 weeks. (B) Kaplan-Meier plot of GSK744 LA-treated and control rhesus macaques remaining aviremic after three intravaginal SHIV challenges. (C) Viral loads of control rhesus macaques (in gray) and GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques (in color). Open symbols represent samples sequenced for the integrase-coding region. Dotted line represents the limit of quantitation (LOQ), ,40 SHIV ...
NRMU - Newborn Rhesus Monkey Uterus. Looking for abbreviations of NRMU? It is Newborn Rhesus Monkey Uterus. Newborn Rhesus Monkey Uterus listed as NRMU
The SIV-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of AIDS disease systems, providing insight into pathogenesis and a model system for testing novel vaccines. The understanding of cellular immune responses based on the identification and study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC:peptide-binding motif, provides valuable information to decipher outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. Detailed characterization of Mamu-B*039:01, a common allele expressed in Chinese rhesus macaques, revealed a unique MHC:peptide-binding preference consisting of glycine at the second position. Peptides containing a glycine at the second position were shown to be antigenic from animals positive for Mamu-B*039:01. A similar motif was previously described for the Dd mouse MHC allele, but for none of the human HLA molecules for which a motif is known. Further investigation showed that one additional macaque allele, present in Indian rhesus macaques, Mamu-B*052
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Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally infected with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) derived from SIVmac239 lacking vpr, vpx, or both vpr and vpx genes. These auxiliary genes are not required for virus replication in cultured cells but are consistently conserved within the SIVmac/human immunodeficiency virus type 2/SIVsm group of primate lentiviruses. All four rhesus monkeys infected with the vpr deletion mutant showed an early spike in plasma antigenemia, maintained high virus burdens, exhibited declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations, and had significant changes in lymph node morphology, and two have died to date with AIDS. The behavior of the vpr deletion mutant was indistinguishable from that of the parental, wild-type virus. Rhesus monkeys infected with the vpx deletion mutant showed lower levels of plasma antigenemia, lower virus burdens, and delayed declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations but nonetheless progressed with AIDS to a terminal stage. The ...
Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), partial datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Cannabis-related impairments to cognitive function may represent novel therapeutic targets for cannabis-use disorder, although the nature, persistence, and reversibility of those deficits remain unclear. Adult male rhesus monkeys (N=6) responded in the mornings on tasks designed to assess different cognitive domains using CANTAB touchscreens followed by responding maintained under a fixed-ratio (FR) 10 schedule of food presentation in different operant chambers. First, the acute effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0.01-0.56 mg/kg, i.v.) on cognitive performance, FR responding and body temperature were determined. Next, THC (1.0-2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered daily after FR10 sessions for 12 weeks during which the residual effects of THC (i.e., 22 hrs after administration) on cognition were examined and the acute effects of THC were redetermined. In a subgroup of monkeys, dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability was assessed after 4 weeks of chronic THC exposure and compared to drug-naive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reversible inactivation of pSTS suppresses social gaze following in the macaque (Macaca mulatta). AU - Roy, Arani. AU - Shepherd, Stephen V.. AU - Platt, Michael L.. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - Humans and other primates shift their attention to follow the gaze of others [gaze following (GF)]. This behavior is a foundational component of joint attention, which is severely disrupted in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Both cortical and subcortical pathways have been implicated in GF, but their contributions remain largely untested. While the proposed subcortical pathway hinges crucially on the amygdala, the cortical pathway is thought to require perceptual processing by a region in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). To determine whether pSTS is necessary for typical GF behavior, we engaged rhesus macaques in a reward discrimination task confounded by leftward- and rightward-facing social distractors following saline or muscimol ...
Ever since CR pioneer Roy Walford died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS - or something resembling ALS), there has been some concern that CR may not protect against, and may in fact hasten, neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those involving dopaminergic neurons, like ALS, Parkinsons Disease (PD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This new study [1] by Ingram et al posted by James in his latest weekly CR research update (thanks James!), suggests otherwise. It found that adult-onset CR in rats was protective against bradykinesia, a slowness of movement which is a hallmark of Parkinsons disease. They also found elevated levels of dopamine in an important brain region implicated in PD, the substantia nigra. This result supports an earlier, perhaps more germane finding from a study of primates done by Ingrams group in 2004 [2]. In [2], Ingram et al found that 30% CR for six months in adult male rhesus monkeys protected against a drop in dopamine level and dopamine neuron cell death when the ...
Purpose: To translate a recombinant peptide containing the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted magnetic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (uPAR-targeted human ATF-IONPs) into clinical applications, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of this nanoparticle in normal rhesus monkeys. Methods: We assessed the changes in the following: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from pretreatment stage to 14 days posttreatment, serum iron concentrations from 5 minutes posttreatment to 12 weeks posttreatment, routine blood examination and serum chemistry analysis results from pretreatment stage to 12 weeks after administration, and results of staining of the liver with Perls Prussian Blue and hematoxylin-eosin at 24 hours and 3 months posttreatment in two rhesus monkeys following an intravenous administration of the targeted nanoparticles either with a polyethylene glycol (ATF-PEG-IONP) or without a PEG (ATF-IONP) coating. ...
Purpose: To translate a recombinant peptide containing the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted magnetic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (uPAR-targeted human ATF-IONPs) into clinical applications, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of this nanoparticle in normal rhesus monkeys. Methods: We assessed the changes in the following: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from pretreatment stage to 14 days posttreatment, serum iron concentrations from 5 minutes posttreatment to 12 weeks posttreatment, routine blood examination and serum chemistry analysis results from pretreatment stage to 12 weeks after administration, and results of staining of the liver with Perls Prussian Blue and hematoxylin-eosin at 24 hours and 3 months posttreatment in two rhesus monkeys following an intravenous administration of the targeted nanoparticles either with a polyethylene glycol (ATF-PEG-IONP) or without a PEG (ATF-IONP) coating. ...
Macaca mulatta Mamu-B 01 antigen: a MHC class I B locus allele-restricted similan immunodeficiency virus envelope CTL epitope in rhesus monkeys; amino acid sequence given in first source
Newswise - MADISON, Wis. - University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers studying monkeys have shown that one infection with Zika virus protects against future infection, though pregnancy may drastically prolong the time the virus stays in the body.. The researchers, led by UW-Madison pathology Professor David OConnor, published a study today (June 28, 2016) in the journal Nature Communications describing their work establishing rhesus macaque monkeys at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center as a model for studying the way Zika virus infections may progress in people.. The team of UW and Duke University scientists - which includes specialists in emergent and insect-borne diseases, genetics and immunology, pediatrics and pregnancy - have been working with infected monkeys for months.. What weve shown in the monkey model matches a lot of what people have observed in epidemiological studies of humans, says Emma Mohr, a pediatric infectious disease fellow at UW-Madison and first author on ...
Background: Vincristine has been used as standard therapy for adult and pediatric malignancies for 50 years. Cumulative neurotoxicity often requires capping the maximum single and cumulative VCR dose. VSLI is a novel preparation of VCR encapsulated in sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes. Following clinical trials that demonstrated safety, tolerability and efficacy in adults with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia, VSLI has been granted FDA accelerated approval at a dose of 2.25 mg/m2given once weekly for that population. A pediatric Phase I trial is ongoing. We evaluated plasma and CSF PK of intravenously (IV) administered VCR and total VSLI (liposomal encapsulated and non-encapsulated) in our NHP model.. Methods: 0.1 mg/kg (1.2 mg/m2 human-equivalent dose) VCR over 1 minute or VSLI over 15 minutes was administered on separate occasions to each of 3 adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Serial paired plasma and CSF samples were collected for up to 48 hrs. Drug concentrations were ...
The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (ST), and hippocampus (HC) of adult rhesus monkeys (n = 9), fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0.7 µmol/kg body weight/day, ~5 µmol/kg body weight/day, respectively). α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS) respectively. α-Tocopherol (ng/mg protein) was highest in nuclear
British Publication, The Daily Mirror is reporting that a vaccine which could completely clear the body of all traces of the Aids virus has been developed.. Scientists have successfully controlled the disease in monkeys, raising hopes they may finally conquer the human form, the report goes on to say.. This large experimental study was in 67 male rhesus macaque monkeys that were given the monkey form of HIV, called Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). The vaccine was tested in 24 monkeys, 13 of which showed complete control over the SIV virus. Further analysis showed that 12 of these were still protected after a year. In contrast, macaques that did not get the vaccine continued to show high levels of the virus.. This research has re-ignited debate within the research community that a HIV vaccine for humans may be possible. Experts have called this early research exciting and described it as a breakthrough. The technique will now need to be adapted to see if it can be used in treating ...
The present experiments provide some insight into the time course of perceptual learning for chromatic targets. Access to this information is difficult to obtain from previous comparative experiments, which often used aversive conditioning that over time engenders a long-term avoidance response to the testing situation. The present results show that subjects needed a variable number of sessions to reach plateau performance for different colors, but that the range was the same between monkey and human subjects (one to seven sessions). Monkeys and humans also showed similar variability in the number of sessions necessary to reach plateau performance (SD = 1.9 for monkeys, 1.8 for humans). Once plateau performance was achieved, optimal performance was maintained across long time gaps in task activity (Supplementary Figure S2). The results show a striking asymmetry in the improvement in performance over training for the +S versus −S targets for both humans and monkeys: the learning effect for +S ...
Buy highly-enriched (typically | 90%) rhesus monkey NK cells and other high-quality cellular products (for research only) at iQ Biosciences.
The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is conventional for biomedical and mental reports. consequently, an incredible fund of clinical details comes in papers and a few gathered facts. This booklet is mostly a suite of knowledge from over 2000 papers on rhesus monkey. It covers subject matters at the cerebral angiography, electrocardiogram, and vector cardiogram of the rhesus monkey. It additionally offers more information on morphology and serve as of rhesus kidney; the improvement and eruption of tooth in rhesus; and the histology and histochemistry of the rhesus monkey ...
Have you fed a monkey when you are at a place of worship, or at a bus stand? This act of kindness towards a fellow primate can cause changes to entire forest food webs and ecosystem processes, finds a recent study. For starters, the amount of fruits monkeys ate decreased by almost half when they had access to human food.. Asmita Sengupta from the National Institute of Advanced Studies and her advisors have recently conducted a study to understand the effects of provisioning - providing of extra food - by humans on the rhesus macaque. Although the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is not recognized to be a keystone species, a recent study shows thatit is an important seed disperser for many fruit species in the forests. Interestingly, these monkeys are also highly tolerant to human disturbances and are often provisioned with human food even in protected areas.. Provisioning of wild animals have been shown to have several ill effects at both the individual level and at the population level. This ...
In response to the recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in North and South America, there is an urgent need for animal models to test vaccines and therapeutics against this zoonotic pathogen. Non-human primates models are often needed for vaccine and immunomodulatory therapeutic evaluation due to their close evolutionary proximity to humans and the similarity of their physiology and immunology. IITRI has developed a Rhesus macaque Zika infection model for the preclinical testing of vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. ###Experimental Summary###
Liu J, Li H, Iampietro MJ, Barouch DH. Accelerated heterologous adenovirus prime-boost SIV vaccine in neonatal rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2012 Aug; 86(15):7829-35 ...
Subjects. Five male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used in studies of schedule-controlled responding, three male monkeys were used in studies of thermal nociception, three male and female monkeys were used in the single-key assay of drug self-administration, and three male monkeys were used in studies of food versus drug choice. Subjects weighed 4.5 to 12 kg during the course of these studies. All monkeys had prior exposure to drugs (primarily dopaminergic and opioid compounds) and to the behavioral procedures in which they were tested. The subjects were individually housed, and water was freely available. Their diet consisted of PMI Feeds Jumbo monkey diet (two to six biscuits per day; PMI Feeds, Inc., St. Louis, MO). This diet was supplemented with fresh fruit twice daily. In addition, monkeys in the assays of schedule-controlled behavior and food versus drug choice could earn additional food pellets during experimental sessions. A 12-h light/12-h dark cycle was in effect (lights on from ...
Specific staining protocols10,11 were as follows: Our DeOlmos cupric silver method and nonfluorescent staining methods for AC3 have been described previously.4,8-12 For MBP (1:100; MAB 395; EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA), fractin (1:400; AB3150; EMD Millipore), Iba1 (1:500; 019-18741; Wako Chemicals, Richmond, VA), and CC-1 (1:200; OP80; Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) immunostaining methods, we used the Vectastain Elite ABC kit with Vector VIP as chromogen (Vector Laboratories, Inc., Burlingame, CA).4,8-12 Immunofluorescent detection of caspase-mediated cell death employed an AC3 rabbit primary polyclonal antibody (9661B; 1:500; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA). Floating sections were incubated overnight at room temperature. After the sections were rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (3 × 5 min) they were incubated for 2 h at room temperature with fluorescent goat antirabbit Alexa Fluor 555 (1:1,000, Invitrogen™, Life Technologies™, Grand Island, NY), rinsed in phosphate-buffered ...
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Rhesus macaque monkeys dont need rewards to learn and remember how items are ranked in a list, a mental feat that may prove handy in the wild.
MK-8591 is a long acting nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) that has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in HIV-1 infected subjects administered a once-weekly (QW) 10 mg dose as monotherapy in a clinical trial and in SIV-infected rhesus macaque models. MK-8591 extended duration dosing potential was suggested by the long-intracellular half-life of MK-8591-triphosphate (MK-8591-TP) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and in preclinical models. Here we describe the tissue distribution of MK-8591 and its anabolites in rats by quantitative whole body autoradiography and in rhesus vaginal and rectal mucosa by biopsy.. Wistar Hannover rats dosed orally at 50 mpk (mg/kg) of [14C]-MK-8591 were sacrificed at 0.5 hr and 24 hr, cryo-sectioned (40 μm thick sagittal), and phosphor imaged for 4 days. Radioactivity in tissues was quantified using the blood standards along with Raytest AIDA image analysis software. For rectal and vaginal tissue distribution ...
Read more about Indian-origin man jailed 10 yrs for killing woman in Spore on Business Standard. A 32-year-old Indian-origin man was today sentenced to 10 years of jail and 12 strokes of the cane for murdering a woman 16 years ago during an attempt to rob her at knife-point in a lift. Gunasegaran Ramasamy was sentenced to the maximum 10 years
Cell membrane receptor of natural killer/NK cells that is activated by binding of extracellular ligands including BAG6 and NCR3LG1. Stimulates NK cells cytotoxicity toward neighboring cells producing these ligands. It controls, for instance, NK cells cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Engagement of NCR3 by BAG6 also promotes myeloid dendritic cells (DC) maturation, both through killing DCs that did not acquire a mature phenotype, and inducing the release by NK cells of TNFA and IFNG that promote DC maturation.
Receptor for a C-C type chemokine. Binds to eotaxin, MCP-3, MCP-4 and RANTES and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ions level.
Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) is a close relative of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8). RRV serves as an in vitro and an in vivo model for KSHV, and the mapping of its transcription program during lytic replication is significant since it represents de novo infection in the absence of stimulation with phorbol esters. Further, the RRV lytic system facilitates the making of recombinant viruses, and hence transcription profiling of the wild-type virus is important. Currently, the kinetics of lytic gene expression of RRV, the function of the RRV Orf50/Rta gene, and the presence of the RRV R8 and R8.1 genes are not known. This study details the transcription profile seen during RRV lytic replication and shows that RRV latency-associated nuclear antigen, viral FLIP (vFLIP), and vCyclin are transcribed during the RRV lytic phase. In addition, this study describes the identification of three new spliced products of the RRV Orf50, R8, and R8.1 genes, which are ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Isolation and Detection of Zika Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Lymph Node Cells and Splenocytes. AU - Haese, Nicole. AU - Hirsch, Alec J.. AU - Streblow, Daniel N.. N1 - Funding Information: The work presented in this manuscript was supported by the Pilot Program support from the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) P51-ODO11092 and R21-HD091032 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Veterinarian and husbandry staff provide excellent care for the animals used in this study. Publisher Copyright: © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is shed in biological fluids promoting vertical and sexual transmission. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV have been ...
ID Q77NJ5_9GAMA Unreviewed; 69 AA. AC Q77NJ5; DT 05-JUL-2004, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 05-JUL-2004, sequence version 1. DT 07-OCT-2020, entry version 24. DE RecName: Full=Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_04042}; GN Name=ORF38 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAF60017.1}; OS Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus H26-95. OC Viruses; Duplodnaviria; Heunggongvirae; Peploviricota; Herviviricetes; OC Herpesvirales; Herpesviridae; Gammaherpesvirinae; Rhadinovirus. OX NCBI_TaxID=69256 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAF60017.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000162467}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAF60017.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000162467} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Macaca mulatta rhadinovirus isolate 26-95 RC {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAF60017.1}; RX PubMed=10708456; DOI=10.1128/JVI.74.7.3388-3398.2000; RA Alexander L., Denekamp L., Knapp A., Auerbach M.R., Damania B., RA Desrosiers R.C.; RT The primary sequence of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus isolate 26-95: sequence RT similarities ...
Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra-connected and hierarchically organized structural systems. Corresponding analyses of data on functional connectivity are required to establish the significance of these structural systems. We therefore built up a relational database by systematically collating published data on the spread of activity after strychnine-induced disinhibition in the macaque cerebral cortex in vivo. After mapping these data to two different parcellation schemes, we used three independent methods of analysis which demonstrate that the cortical network of functional interactions is not homogeneous, but shows a clear segregation into functional assemblies of mutually interacting areas. The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. These results are largely ...
Synapses develop concurrently and at identical rates in different layers of the visual, somatosensory, motor, and prefrontal areas of the primate cerebral cortex. This isochronic course of synaptogenesis in anatomically and functionally diverse regions indicates that the entire cerebral cortex develops as a whole and that the establishment of cell-to-cell communication in this structure may be orchestrated by a single genetic or humoral signal. This is in contrast to the traditional view of hierarchical development of the cortical regions and provides new insight into the maturation of cortical functions. ...
Affiliations: Yerkes National Primate Research Center, New England National Primate Research Center Mission: The Laboratory for Cognitive Neurobiology is focused on understanding the neurological basis in health and disease of higher cognitive functions including learning, memory and executive system functions.. Principal Research Programs: The main program is centered on the effects of aging in the central nervous system of the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Monkeys are initially behaviorally tested to assess their memory and cognitive functions, after which the brains are examined to determine the structural, neurochemical and functional changes that may account for age-related cognitive impairments. Other investigations are examing the interaction of aging with untreated hypertension and with recovery from cortical stroke. Another study using behavioral, anatomical and fMRI methods examines the interaction of the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal limbic system in memory and executive ...
Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimers Abeta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimers disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-Abeta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated Abeta(1-42). Immunized monkeys developed anti-Abeta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma Abeta levels were 5-10-fold higher than the plasma Abeta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of non-human primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimers Abeta. ...
Please see the following statement from PETA Vice President Alka Chandna on the death of a monkey at the Washington National Primate Research Center Please see the following statement from PETA Vice President Alka Chandna on the death of a monkey at the Washington National Primate Research Center following an experimental surgery:
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections that have invaded the germ line of both humans and non-human primates. Most ERVs are functionally crippled by deletions, mutations, and hypermethylation, leading to the view that they are inert genomic fossils. However, some ERVs can produce mRNA transcripts, functional viral proteins, and even non-infectious virus particles during certain developmental and pathological processes. While there have been reports of ERV-specific immunity associated with ERV activity in humans, adaptive immune responses to ERV-encoded gene products remain poorly defined and have not been investigated in the physiologically relevant non-human primate model of human disease. Here, we identified the rhesus macaque equivalent of the biologically active human ERV-K (HML-2), simian ERV-K (SERV-K1), which retains intact open reading frames for both Gag and Env on chromosome 12 in the macaque genome. From macaque cells we isolated a spliced mRNA product
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of the R1 oncogene and its protein product from the rhadinovirus of rhesus monkeys. AU - Damania, Blossom. AU - Li, Mengtao. AU - Choi, Joong Kook. AU - Alexander, Louis. AU - Jung, Jae U.. AU - Desrosiers, Ronald C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) is a gamma-2 herpesvirus that is most closely related to the human Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We have identified a distinct open reading frame at the left end of RRV and designated it R1. The position of the R1 gene is equivalent to that of the saimiri transforming protein (STP) of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) and of K1 of KSHV, other members of the gamma-2 or rhadinovirus subgroup of herpesviruses. The R1 sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a product of 423 amino acids that was predicted to contain an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail reflective of a type I membrane-bound protein. The predicted structural motifs of ...
The aim of this study was to characterize pediatric pharmacokinetics and central nervous system exposure of naproxen after oral administration. The pharmacokinetics of naproxen was studied in 53 healthy children aged 3 months to 12 years undergoing surgery with spinal anesthesia. Children received preoperatively a single dose of 10 mg/kg oral naproxen suspension. A single cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample (n = 52) was collected at the induction of anesthesia, and plasma samples (n = 270) were collected before, during, and after the operation (up to 51 hours after administration). A population pharmacokinetic model was built using the NONMEM software. Naproxen concentrations in plasma were well described by a 2-compartment model. The estimated oral clearance (CL/F) was 0.62 L/h when linearly scaled by weight to 70 kg. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss/F) was 12.5 L/70 kg. The findings are consistent with previously reported pharmacokinetic parameters for children older than ...
CRP is produced by the liver in response to factors released from macrophages and adipocytes. High circulating CRP concentrations are therefore an indicator of inflammation and/or injury. We examined the effects of dietary fructose on plasma CRP concentrations in a nonhuman primate model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Adult male rhesus macaques 12±3 years of age, weighing 16.2±1.9 kg (n=29) maintained on chow (LabDiet 5047) ad libitum were provided with flavored fructose beverages containing 75g of fructose (300 kcal/day). Fasting plasma samples were collected at baseline and after 1 and 3 months. Indices of glucose homeostasis (insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR), adiposity/metabolic homeostasis (leptin, adiponectin) and lipid metabolism (TG, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB, ApoC3 and ApoE) were analyzed. Fructose consumption induced weight gain +1.5±0.2 kg, and insulin resistance, accompanied by increases of plasma leptin, decreased adiponectin, hypertriglyceridemia and increases ...
Rhesus monkeys have the widest geographic distribution of any species of non-human primate, occurring naturally in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, and China. In India, rhesus monkeys live in desert habitats of Rajasthan, the agricultural plains of the Gangetic Basin, the tropical forests of southeastern Asia, the temperate pine forests of the Himalaya mountains, and the rugged mountains of north central China. Rhesus monkeys are the most adaptable of all non-human primates, with the broadest range of habitat, and the most cosmopolitan food habits. These monkeys are generally herbivorous, eating a wide variety of natural and cultivated plants, but they also forage occasionally for insects. In agricultural areas, rhesus monkeys frequently raid both field crops such as rice, wheat, pulses (a leguminous, bean-like plant), and sugar cane, and garden vegetables and fruits, such as bananas, papayas, mangos, tomatoes, squash, and melons. In forest areas, ...
A yellow, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-gliding, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped strain, designated YIM 102600T, was isolated from the faeces of Macaca mulatta dwelling in the Yunnan Wild Animal Park, Yunnan Province, South-West PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 102600T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium , and closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense F3T (96.9 % similarity) and Flavobacterium noncentrifugens R-HLS-17T (96.0 % similarity). Phylogenetic trees showed that strain YIM 102600T formed a clade with F. qiangtangense F3T and F. noncentrifugens R-HLS-17T. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C (optimum, 28 °C), pH 7.0-8.0 (pH 7.5) and NaCl concentration 0-2 % (w/v; 0-1 %, w/v). The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and the sole respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. The calculated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreases in Electrocardiographic R-Wave Amplitude and QT Interval Predict Myocardial Ischemic Infarction in Rhesus Monkeys with Left Anterior Descending Artery Ligation. AU - Sun, Xiaorong. AU - Cai, Jindan. AU - Fan, Xin. AU - Han, Pengfei. AU - Xie, Yuping. AU - Chen, Jianmin. AU - Xiao, Ying. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2013/8/13. Y1 - 2013/8/13. N2 - Clinical studies have demonstrated the predictive values of changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters for the preexisting myocardial ischemic infarction. However, a simple and early predictor for the subsequent development of myocardial infarction during the ischemic phase is of significant value for the identification of ischemic patients at high risk. The present study was undertaken by using non-human primate model of myocardial ischemic infarction to fulfill this gap. Twenty male Rhesus monkeys at age of 2-3 years old were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation. This ligation was performed at varying ...
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptors(pIgR) are key participants in the formation and secretion of secretory IgA(S-IgA), which is critical for the prevention of microbial infection and colonization in the respiratory system. Although increased respiratory colonization and infections are common in HIV/AIDS, little is known about the expression of pIgR in the airway mucosa of these patients. To address this, the expression levels of pIgR in the tracheal mucosa and lungs of SHIV/SIV-infected rhesus macaques were examined by real-time RTPCR and confocal microscopy. We found that the levels of both PIGR mRNA and pIgR immunoreactivity were lower in the tracheal mucosa of SHIV/SIV-infected rhesus macaques than that in non-infected rhesus macaques, and the difference in pIgR immunoreactivity was statistically significant. IL-17A, which enhances pIgR expression, was also changed in the same direction as that of pIgR. In contrast to changes in the tracheal mucosa, pIgR and IL-17A levels were higher in the ...
A combination immunotherapy of IL-21 and IFN-alpha, when added to antiviral therapy, is effective in generating highly functional natural killer cells that can help control and reduce SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) in animal models. This finding, from Yerkes National Primate Research Center scientists in collaboration with Institut Pasteur, could be key for developing additional treatment options to control HIV/AIDS.. The results were published in Nature Communications.. Antiviral therapy (ART) is the current leading treatment for HIV/AIDS, and is capable of reducing the virus to undetectable levels, but is not a cure and is hampered by issues such as cost, adherence to medication treatment plan and social stigma.. To reduce reliance on ART, the Yerkes, Emory and Institut Pasteur research team worked with 16 SIV-positive, ART-treated rhesus macaques. In most nonhuman primates (NHPs), including rhesus macaques, untreated SIV infection progresses to AIDS-like disease and generates natural ...
An additional series of mutational analyses revealed a fine specificity for the lipopeptide recognition by the T cells. The 5-mer Nef peptide conjugated with a shorter (C10) saturated fatty acid (C10-GGAIS) showed reduced T cell stimulation activity compared with C14nef5, and no T cell response was detected for C6-GGAIS (Fig. 1F), further confirming that the peptide modification with a fatty acid of the C14 chain length (myristic acid) was essential for activation of the 2N5.1 cells. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (GGAIS) of the Nef protein matches with a typical N-myristoylation motif, Gly-X-X-X-(Ser/Thr), in which X is any amino acid (3). Whereas the serine-to-threonine substitution (C14-GGAIT) did not affect the antigenic activity, alanine substitution for either the second glycine residue (C14-GAAIS) or the isoleucine residue (C14-GGAAS) located between the conserved flanking amino acid residues totally abrogated the activity (Fig. 1F). Furthermore, addition of an amide linkage to the ...
Among the animal models of tuberculosis (TB), the non-human primates (NHPs), particularly rhesus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca mulatta), share the greatest anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Macaques are highly susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and manifest the complete spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of TB as seen in humans. Therefore, the macaque models have been used extensively for investigating the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines against TB. This review focuses on published major studies that exemplify how the rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have enhanced and may continue to advance global efforts in TB research.
Immunization of rhesus macaques with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection elicits T-cell responses to multiple viral gene products and antibodies capable of neutralizing lab-adapted SIV, but not neutralization-resistant primary isolates of SIV. In an effort to improve upon the antibody responses, we immunized rhesus macaques with three strains of single-cycle SIV (scSIV) that express envelope glycoproteins modified to lack structural features thought to interfere with the development of neutralizing antibodies. These envelope-modified strains of scSIV lacked either five potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp120, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp41, or 100 amino acids in the V1V2 region of gp120. Three doses consisting of a mixture of the three envelope-modified strains of scSIV were administered on weeks 0, 6, and 12, followed by two booster inoculations with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G trans-complemented scSIV on
Five Chinese rhesus macaques which received decellularized porcine corneal lamellae and were followed up for at least 6 months underwent full-thickness corneal allotransplantation. Previous xeno-grafts (7.5mm in diameter) were removed with 8.0mm trephines and 8.5mm-sized grafts from donor macaques were transplanted. Clinically applicable minimal immunosuppression was done based on topical, subconjunctival and systemic corticosteroids. Rejection signs and serial changes in recipients blood profile, including memory T cell subset, anti-Gal and donor pig specific antibodies, and complement were evaluated. Changes in aqueous complement concentration were also assessed at 4 weeks after transplantation. The mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR) was analyzed in three rhesus macaques (KPed rhesus) with clear allografts that survived more than 6 months. MLR was done using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMCs from the recipient rhesus and normal rhesus were used as responder cells and PBMCs from ...
OBJECTIVES : To use SIVmac-infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Ch Rh) to characterize the immunopathology of the long term non-progressor (LTNP) state. The key questions addressed were whether or not LTNP experience an early and rapid loss of mucosal CD4 T cells during the acute infection and the mechanisms by which they maintain the LTNP state. METHODS : Ch Rh were infected with SIVmac239. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to analyze T lymphocyte subsets from blood, lymph nodes and gut tissues during SIV infection. Plasma viral loads were monitored by bDNA assay. Two LTNP were treated with anti-CD8 antibody to deplete CD8 cells in vivo. RESULTS : Thirty-one percent (5/16) of SIVmac239-infected ChRh having low viral loads for as long as 6 years were LTNP. Both LTNP and progressors had similar levels of gut memory CD4/CCR5 T cells (target cells) before infection and there was an early and profound depletion of target cells in both groups. LTNP were distinguished by gradual restoration of
To better understand the role of the α4β7 integrin during acute SIV infection, we administered a rhesus recombinant form of an Ab targeting this integrin molecule to a group of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Two administrations maintained plasma levels of ,10 μg/ml of the Ab for the first 8 wk of SIV infection. What is not clear is whether the Ab administered was able to reach all of the target tissues in an effective manner, particularly the GALT, which comprises 70% of all lymphoid cells in the body as compared with peripheral blood, which represents only 2% of the total lymphoid cells (39). The finding of nearly complete blocking of the α4β7 integrin on cells isolated from all of the tissues examined, including the jejunal and colorectal biopsies of the anti-α4β7 mAb-treated animals, suggests that such therapy was quite effective (see Fig. 1B). The mechanisms by which the in vivo administration of anti-α4β7 mAb delayed and decreased plasma and gut tissue viremia and proviral DNA ...
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) make use of their sense of smell to distinguish between members of their own and other social groups, according to new research, led by Stefanie Henkel (University of Leipzig, Germany), published in Springers journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.
Work on the genome of the rhesus macaque was completed in 2007, making the species the second nonhuman primate whose genome was sequenced.[55] Humans and macaques apparently share about 93% of their DNA sequence and shared a common ancestor roughly 25 million years ago.[56] The rhesus macaque has 21 pairs of chromosomes.[57] Comparison of rhesus macaques, chimpanzees, and humans revealed the structure of ancestral primate genomes, positive selection pressure and lineage-specific expansions, and contractions of gene families. The goal is to reconstruct the history of every gene in the human genome, said Evan Eichler, University of Washington, Seattle. DNA from different branches of the primate tree will allow us to trace back the evolutionary changes that occurred at various time points, leading from the common ancestors of the primate clade to Homo sapiens, said Bruce Lahn, University of Chicago.[58] After the human and chimpanzee genomes were sequenced and compared, it was usually ...
Honing, H., Merchant, H., Háden, G.P., Prado, L. & Bartolo, R. (2012). Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat. PLoS ONE, 7(12): e51369. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051369 It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in ...
Optimal perceptual decisions require sensory signals to be combined with prior information about stimulus probability. Although several theories propose that probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence is encoded in sensory cortex, evidence from neuronal recordings has not yet fully supported this view. We recorded activity from single neurons in inferior temporal cortex (IT) while monkeys performed a task that involved discriminating degraded images of faces and fruit. The relative probability of the cue being a face versus a fruit was manipulated by a latent variable that was not revealed to the monkeys and that changed unpredictably over the course of each recording session. In addition to responding to stimulus identity (face or fruit), population responses in IT encoded the long-term stimulus probability of whether a face or a fruit stimulus was more likely to occur. Face-responsive neurons showed reduced firing rates to expected faces, an effect consistent with expectation suppression,
...Key differences in immune system signaling and the production of speci...Following the identification of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) as ...Surprisingly the natural hosts for the AIDS viruses such as the mang...A team of scientists from Yerkes National Primate Research Center and ...,Why,some,primates,,but,not,humans,,can,live,with,immunodeficiency,viruses,and,not,progress,to,AIDS,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Rhesus macaque monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) harbor immunoglobulin G (IgG) and SIV-specific antibodies and T cells in the foreskin of the penis, according to a study in the July 2012 Journal of ...
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposis associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from TSR1 TSR1, ribosome maturation factor available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is a common virus found in almost every person on the planet. For most of them, it causes no harm and leads to no symptoms. But for newborn babies and people with compromised immune systems, it can lead to birth defects, serious illness and even death.. Now, researchers associated with the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) at the University of California, Davis have discovered that low levels of CMV changed microbe and immune cell populations and response to the flu vaccine in rhesus macaques. CMV infection generally increased immune activity but also diminished antibodies responding to influenza vaccination. The study also found that low levels of CMV make the body susceptible to changes in environmental conditions that could accentuate their impact.. Subclinical CMV infection alters the immune system and the gut microbiota in the host and that impacts how we respond to vaccines, environmental stimuli and pathogens, said Satya Dandekar, who chairs ...
Cross-species transplant in rhesus macaques is step toward diabetes cure for humans Friday, 19 October 2007 With an eye on curing diabetes, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have successfully transplanted embryonic pig pancreatic cells destined to produce insulin into diabetic macaque monkeys - all without the need for risky immune suppression drugs that prevent rejection. The transplanted cells, known as primordia, are in the earliest stages of developing into pancreatic tissues. Within several weeks of the transplants, the cells became engrafted, or established, within the three rhesus macaque monkeys that received them. The cells also released pig insulin in response to rising blood glucose levels, as would be expected in healthy animals and humans. The approach reduced the animals need for insulin injections and has promise for curing diabetes in humans, says senior investigator Marc Hammerman, M.D., the Chromalloy Professor of Renal Diseases in Medicine. ...
Mark, L, Spiller, OB, Okroj, M, Chanas, S, Aitken, JA, Wong, SW, Damania, B, Blom, AM and Blackbourn, DJ (2007) Molecular characterization of the rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) ORF4 gene and the RRV complement control protein it encodes ...
Methods: We evaluated 3 modalities of a 2-dose iPrEP regimen with Truvada in 6 male rhesus macaques by using an established rectal transmission model consisting of 14 weekly virus (simian HIV [SHIV]162p3,10 TCID50) exposures. Truvada at human equivalent dosing was delivered by oral gavage. Drug doses were given at different intervals relative to virus exposure: 2 groups of macaques received the 2 doses of Truvada over a 24-hour period, either 2 hours before and 22 hours after virus exposure (group I) or 22 hours before and 2 hours after exposure (group II). Group III received the first dose of Truvada 3 days before exposure and a second dose 2 hours after exposure. A fourth group of 6 macaques received 2 PEP doses 2 hours and 26 hours after exposure. Infection was monitored by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of SHIV sequences from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of infection in ...
A post we made last week suggested a new vaccine can protect macaques against the monkey equivalent of HIV, however the vaccine using the common virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) as the vector or container of proteins from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protected none of a group of 24 rhesus macaques from infection. But in 13…
Oregon health and Science University is practicing the barbaric act of using primates to test largely preventable human conditions: OBESITY & DIABETES.. Shiva and her colony which are mostly Rhesus Macaques are fattened up being fed daily with fattening foods, allowed no exercise, caged and once obese enough, they test various drugs and procedures on them.. Dr Grove said: Our research model is a sedentary lifestyle with calorically dense diets. Monkeys in this facility receive daily painful insulin shots to treat the human inflicted diabetes, and some develop clogged arteries. One monkey already died from a heart attack at a very young age. The unfortunate primate that is going through this suffers between months and years for human conditions that can largely be prevented by eating a healthy diet, which is obvious from this information. They had to fatten up the monkeys with unhealthy foods to be able to test these preventable diseases.. This doesnt stop there as some endure the painful ...
Anatomical description of the periprostatic nerves in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Ganzer R, Neuhaus J, Gratzke C, Blana A, Wieland WF, Stolzenburg JU. World J Urol. 2011 Jun;29(3):375-80. No mutations of FGFR3 in normal urothelium in the vicinity of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder harbouring activating FGFR3 mutations in patients with bladder cancer. Otto W, Denzinger S, Bertz S, Gaumann A, Wild PJ, Hartmann A, Stoehr R. Int J Cancer. 2009 Nov 1;125(9):2205-8. Mdm2-SNP309 polymorphism in prostate cancer: no evidence for association with increased risk or histopathological tumour characteristics. Stoehr R, Hitzenbichler F, Kneitz B, Hammerschmied CG, Burger M, Tannapfel A, Hartmann A. Br J Cancer. 2008 Jul 8;99(1):78-82. Topographical anatomy of periprostatic and capsular nerves: quantification and computerised planimetry. Ganzer R, Blana A, Gaumann A, Stolzenburg JU, Rabenalt R, Bach T, Wieland WF, Denzinger S. Eur Urol. 2008 Aug;54(2):353-61. Pax-5 protein expression in bladder ...
Photograph of A family of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) groom each other. India & Southeast Asia. Rights managed image. Warren Photographic WP00397
Welcome to Oxford Universitys primate research facility.. This facility has been specially designed to accommodate behavioural neuroscience research involving Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Macaques are socially and cognitively complex animals, characteristics that make them ideal subjects for our behavioural neuroscience studies. Because of these characteristics it is really important that we provide high standards of care.. Our species-specific environmental enrichment program and reward-based training strategies are key to ensuring the animals are appropriately acclimatised to the staff, the laboratory environment and the research procedures.. During this virtual tour you will have an opportunity to meet the staff and animals, to see the facilities and to learn about some of the studies that we carry out.. ...