TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational resource for the prediction of peptide binding to Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules. AU - Peters, B.. AU - Bui, H. H.. AU - Sidney, J.. AU - Weng, Z.. AU - Loffredo, J. T.. AU - Watkins, D. I.. AU - Mothé, B. R.. AU - Sette, A.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Non-human primates, in general, and Indian rhesus macaques, specifically, play an important role in the development and testing of vaccines and diagnostics destined for human use. To date, several frequently expressed macaque MHC molecules have been identified and their binding specificities characterized in detail. Here, we report the development of computational algorithms to predict peptide binding and potential T cell epitopes for the common MHC class I alleles Mamu-A*01, -A*02, -A*11, -B*01 and -B*17, which cover approximately two thirds of the captive Indian rhesus macaque populations. We validated this method utilizing an SIV derived data set encompassing 59 antigenic peptides. Of all ...
The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca1. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus macaque. Comparison with the previously sequenced Indian rhesus macaque reveals that all three macaques maintain abundant genetic heterogeneity, including millions of single-nucleotide substitutions and many insertions, deletions and gross chromosomal rearrangements. By assessing genetic regions with reduced variability, we identify genes in each macaque species that may have experienced positive selection. Genetic divergence patterns suggest that the cynomolgus macaque genome has been shaped by introgression after hybridization with the Chinese rhesus macaque. Macaque genes display a high degree of sequence similarity with human disease gene orthologs and drug targets. However, we identify several ...
The impact of maternal kinship on social behaviour has been studied in detail for many primate species, but it is difficult to assess the importance of kin selection in shaping the evolution of social behaviour when studies are limited to maternal kin, completely ignoring paternal kinship. This thesis aimed to investigate the extent of paternal kinship and its impact on the social relationships among adult females in one group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living on the island of Cayo Santiago. The main findings can be summarised as follows: Firstly, in order to access the extent of paternal kinship, paternity has been analysed for all infants of the study group born between 1993 and 1998. Results revealed that male reproduction was highly skewed over the study period as few males have sired a high number of offspring, but the majority of potential sires have sired no or few offspring. This created a kinship structure in which nearly all animals born during the study period ...
Borries C, Larney E, Kreetiyutanont K, Koenig A. 2002. The diurnal primate community in a dry evergreen forest in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, northeast Thailand . Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 50(1): 75-88. Catchpole HR, van Wagenen G. 1975. Reproduction in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. In: Bourne GH, editor. The rhesus monkey: management reproduction, and pathology, Volume 2. New York : Academic Pr. 117-40.. Chapais B. 1986. Why do adult male and female rhesus monkeys affiliate during the birth season? In: Rawlins RG, Kessler MJ, editors. The Cayo Santiago macaques: history, behavior, and biology. Albany (NY): State Univ New York Pr. p 173-200. Deutsch JC, Lee PC. 1991. Dominance and feeding competition in captive rhesus monkeys. Int J Primatol 12(6): 615-28.. Dixson AF, Nevison CM. 1997. The socioendocrinology of adolescent development in male rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ). Horm Behav 31(2): 126-35).. Fan Z, Song Y. 2003. Chinese primate status and primate captive breeding for biomedical ...
To the Editor.-The article by Gamache and Myers (Arch Neurol 32:374, 1975) describing the effects of hypotension on Rhesus monkeys demands our comment not only
From the Back Cover The Rhesus Monkey Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates is the most comprehensive, detailed atlas of the monkey brain ever constructed. The first chapter, Photographic and Diagrammatic Atlas of the Rhesus Monkey Brain, presents 151 plates illustrating the subcortex and parts of the cortex in high magnification, and 151 corresponding diagrams complementing each image. The second chapter, Delineation of the Rhesus Monkey Cortex on the Basis of the Distribution of a Neurofilament Protein, consists of 64 fully labeled plates depicting an entire hemisphere. Jointly, the two chapters constitute the most serious morphological work ever undertaken on the monkey. Key Features * Provides the first comprehensive delineations of cortical and subcortical structures of any primate species * Depicts the entire brain in 151 photographs paired with 151 detailed diagrams * Alternates sections stained for Nissl substance with sections reacted for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) * Contains 64 fully labeled
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex dimorphisms in the cognitive-enhancing action of the Alzheimers drug donepezil in aged Rhesus monkeys. AU - Buccafusco, J. J.. AU - Jackson, W. J.. AU - Stone, J. D.. AU - Terry, Alvin V. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Brain acetylcholinesterase has been targeted for the development of novel treatments for memory deficits associated with Alzheimers disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The long-acting AChE inhibitor donepezil (Aricept™) is used to improve memory and other aspects of cognition in AD patients. Because donepezil and other cholinesterase inhibitors are effective in a restricted population of AD patients, this study was to designed to determine whether aged females monkeys receive the same level of benefit to the mnemonic action of donepezil as do males. In this study, six male and six female rhesus monkeys (,20 years) who were proficient in the performance of a delayed matching-to-sample task each received an ascending series of four doses ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the fetal or neonatal non-human primate (NHP) brain to isoflurane or ketamine for 5 h causes widespread apoptotic degeneration of neurones, and exposure to isoflurane also causes apoptotic degeneration of oligodendrocytes (OLs). The present study explored the apoptogenic potential of propofol in the fetal and neonatal NHP brain.. METHOD: Fetal rhesus macaques at gestational age 120 days were exposed in utero, or postnatal day 6 rhesus neonates were exposed directly for 5 h to propofol anaesthesia (n=4 fetuses; and n=4 neonates) or to no anaesthesia (n=4 fetuses; n=5 neonates), and the brains were systematically evaluated 3 h later for evidence of apoptotic degeneration of neurones or glia.. RESULTS: Exposure of fetal or neonatal NHP brain to propofol caused a significant increase in apoptosis of neurones, and of OLs at a stage when OLs were just beginning to myelinate axons. Apoptotic degeneration affected similar brain regions but to a lesser extent than we previously ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anomaly in aortic arch alters pathological outcome of transient global ischemia in Rhesus macaques. AU - Hara, Koichi. AU - Yasuhara, Takao. AU - Maki, Mina. AU - Matsukawa, Noriyuki. AU - Yu, Guolong. AU - Xu, Lin. AU - Tambrallo, Laura. AU - Rodriguez, Nancy A.. AU - Stern, David M.. AU - Yamashima, Tetsumori. AU - Buccafusco, Jerry J.. AU - Kawase, Takeshi. AU - Hess, David C.. AU - Borlongan, Cesario V.. PY - 2009/8/25. Y1 - 2009/8/25. N2 - We investigated a non-human primate (NHP) transient global ischemia (TGI) model which was induced by clipping the arteries originating from the aortic arch. Previously we demonstrated that our TGI model in adult Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) results in marked neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal region, specifically the cornu Ammonis (CA1) region. However, we observed varying degrees of hippocampal cell loss among animals. Here, we report for the first time an anomaly of the aortic arch in some Rhesus macaques that appears as a key ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal and maternal outcome after administration of tenofovir to gravid rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). AU - Tarantal, Alice F. AU - Castillo, Alesha. AU - Ekert, Jason E.. AU - Bischofberger, Norbert. AU - Martin, R. Bruce. PY - 2002/3/1. Y1 - 2002/3/1. N2 - Tenofovir has been shown to cross the placenta in quantities sufficient to sustain reductions in viral load in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected fetal monkeys. With chronic exposure (30 mg/kg), however, significant bone-related toxicity has been shown in ∼25% of infants studied. Further investigations were conducted to determine whether the bone-related toxicity observed was initiated during fetal life. Gravid rhesus monkeys (n = 4) were administered tenofovir subcutaneously once daily from 20 to 150 days of gestation (30 mg/kg; term: 165 ± 10 days). Fetuses were monitored sonographically, and maternal and fetal blood and urine samples were collected to assess hematologic parameters, clinical chemistry, ...
Primate research animal. Head of an adult rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This monkey may be used to study primate behaviour & biology, the development & transmission of human diseases, or to test novel drugs. Photographed at the New England Regional Primate Research Centre, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, USA. - Stock Image G352/0185
Fig. 2. Monthly injections of GSK744 LA protect rhesus macaques against three intravaginal SHIV challenges.. (A) Study design. Twelve female rhesus macaques were injected intramuscularly with 30 mg of Depo-Provera on weeks −3 and 2. Eight rhesus macaques were injected intramuscularly in the quadriceps with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) at two time points, weeks 0 and 4. Four Depo-Provera-treated rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals were challenged intravaginally on week 1 with 300 TCID50 of SHIV162P3. GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were further challenged on weeks 5 and 7. All rhesus macaques were followed for 24 weeks. (B) Kaplan-Meier plot of GSK744 LA-treated and control rhesus macaques remaining aviremic after three intravaginal SHIV challenges. (C) Viral loads of control rhesus macaques (in gray) and GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques (in color). Open symbols represent samples sequenced for the integrase-coding region. Dotted line represents the limit of quantitation (LOQ), ,40 SHIV ...
NRMU - Newborn Rhesus Monkey Uterus. Looking for abbreviations of NRMU? It is Newborn Rhesus Monkey Uterus. Newborn Rhesus Monkey Uterus listed as NRMU
The SIV-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of AIDS disease systems, providing insight into pathogenesis and a model system for testing novel vaccines. The understanding of cellular immune responses based on the identification and study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC:peptide-binding motif, provides valuable information to decipher outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. Detailed characterization of Mamu-B*039:01, a common allele expressed in Chinese rhesus macaques, revealed a unique MHC:peptide-binding preference consisting of glycine at the second position. Peptides containing a glycine at the second position were shown to be antigenic from animals positive for Mamu-B*039:01. A similar motif was previously described for the Dd mouse MHC allele, but for none of the human HLA molecules for which a motif is known. Further investigation showed that one additional macaque allele, present in Indian rhesus macaques, Mamu-B*052
AbeBooks.com: Rhesus Monkeys / UK-Version 2017: Part B: The Rhesus Monkey (Macaca Mulatta) is a Primate of the Species of Macaques Within the Family Cercopithecidae (Calvendo Animals) (9781325152605) by Angelika Kimmig and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally infected with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) derived from SIVmac239 lacking vpr, vpx, or both vpr and vpx genes. These auxiliary genes are not required for virus replication in cultured cells but are consistently conserved within the SIVmac/human immunodeficiency virus type 2/SIVsm group of primate lentiviruses. All four rhesus monkeys infected with the vpr deletion mutant showed an early spike in plasma antigenemia, maintained high virus burdens, exhibited declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations, and had significant changes in lymph node morphology, and two have died to date with AIDS. The behavior of the vpr deletion mutant was indistinguishable from that of the parental, wild-type virus. Rhesus monkeys infected with the vpx deletion mutant showed lower levels of plasma antigenemia, lower virus burdens, and delayed declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations but nonetheless progressed with AIDS to a terminal stage. The ...
Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), partial datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Cannabis-related impairments to cognitive function may represent novel therapeutic targets for cannabis-use disorder, although the nature, persistence, and reversibility of those deficits remain unclear. Adult male rhesus monkeys (N=6) responded in the mornings on tasks designed to assess different cognitive domains using CANTAB touchscreens followed by responding maintained under a fixed-ratio (FR) 10 schedule of food presentation in different operant chambers. First, the acute effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0.01-0.56 mg/kg, i.v.) on cognitive performance, FR responding and body temperature were determined. Next, THC (1.0-2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered daily after FR10 sessions for 12 weeks during which the residual effects of THC (i.e., 22 hrs after administration) on cognition were examined and the acute effects of THC were redetermined. In a subgroup of monkeys, dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability was assessed after 4 weeks of chronic THC exposure and compared to drug-naive ...
Purpose: To translate a recombinant peptide containing the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted magnetic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (uPAR-targeted human ATF-IONPs) into clinical applications, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of this nanoparticle in normal rhesus monkeys. Methods: We assessed the changes in the following: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from pretreatment stage to 14 days posttreatment, serum iron concentrations from 5 minutes posttreatment to 12 weeks posttreatment, routine blood examination and serum chemistry analysis results from pretreatment stage to 12 weeks after administration, and results of staining of the liver with Perls Prussian Blue and hematoxylin-eosin at 24 hours and 3 months posttreatment in two rhesus monkeys following an intravenous administration of the targeted nanoparticles either with a polyethylene glycol (ATF-PEG-IONP) or without a PEG (ATF-IONP) coating. ...
Purpose: To translate a recombinant peptide containing the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted magnetic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (uPAR-targeted human ATF-IONPs) into clinical applications, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of this nanoparticle in normal rhesus monkeys. Methods: We assessed the changes in the following: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from pretreatment stage to 14 days posttreatment, serum iron concentrations from 5 minutes posttreatment to 12 weeks posttreatment, routine blood examination and serum chemistry analysis results from pretreatment stage to 12 weeks after administration, and results of staining of the liver with Perls Prussian Blue and hematoxylin-eosin at 24 hours and 3 months posttreatment in two rhesus monkeys following an intravenous administration of the targeted nanoparticles either with a polyethylene glycol (ATF-PEG-IONP) or without a PEG (ATF-IONP) coating. ...
Macaca mulatta Mamu-B 01 antigen: a MHC class I B locus allele-restricted similan immunodeficiency virus envelope CTL epitope in rhesus monkeys; amino acid sequence given in first source
... - MADISON, Wis. - University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers studying monkeys have shown that one infection with Zika virus protects against future infection, though pregnancy may drastically prolong the time the virus stays in the body.. The researchers, led by UW-Madison pathology Professor David OConnor, published a study today (June 28, 2016) in the journal Nature Communications describing their work establishing rhesus macaque monkeys at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center as a model for studying the way Zika virus infections may progress in people.. The team of UW and Duke University scientists - which includes specialists in emergent and insect-borne diseases, genetics and immunology, pediatrics and pregnancy - have been working with infected monkeys for months.. "What weve shown in the monkey model matches a lot of what people have observed in epidemiological studies of humans," says Emma Mohr, a pediatric infectious disease fellow at UW-Madison and first author on ...
Background: Vincristine has been used as standard therapy for adult and pediatric malignancies for 50 years. Cumulative neurotoxicity often requires capping the maximum single and cumulative VCR dose. VSLI is a novel preparation of VCR encapsulated in sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes. Following clinical trials that demonstrated safety, tolerability and efficacy in adults with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia, VSLI has been granted FDA accelerated approval at a dose of 2.25 mg/m2given once weekly for that population. A pediatric Phase I trial is ongoing. We evaluated plasma and CSF PK of intravenously (IV) administered VCR and total VSLI (liposomal encapsulated and non-encapsulated) in our NHP model.. Methods: 0.1 mg/kg (1.2 mg/m2 human-equivalent dose) VCR over 1 minute or VSLI over 15 minutes was administered on separate occasions to each of 3 adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Serial paired plasma and CSF samples were collected for up to 48 hrs. Drug concentrations were ...
The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (ST), and hippocampus (HC) of adult rhesus monkeys (n = 9), fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0.7 µmol/kg body weight/day, ~5 µmol/kg body weight/day, respectively). α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS) respectively. α-Tocopherol (ng/mg protein) was highest in nuclear
British Publication, The Daily Mirror is reporting that a vaccine which could completely clear the body of all traces of the Aids virus has been developed.". "Scientists have successfully controlled the disease in monkeys, raising hopes they may finally conquer the human form," the report goes on to say.. This large experimental study was in 67 male rhesus macaque monkeys that were given the monkey form of HIV, called Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). The vaccine was tested in 24 monkeys, 13 of which showed complete control over the SIV virus. Further analysis showed that 12 of these were still protected after a year. In contrast, macaques that did not get the vaccine continued to show high levels of the virus.. This research has re-ignited debate within the research community that a HIV vaccine for humans may be possible. Experts have called this early research exciting and described it as a breakthrough. The technique will now need to be adapted to see if it can be used in treating ...
The present experiments provide some insight into the time course of perceptual learning for chromatic targets. Access to this information is difficult to obtain from previous comparative experiments, which often used aversive conditioning that over time engenders a long-term avoidance response to the testing situation. The present results show that subjects needed a variable number of sessions to reach plateau performance for different colors, but that the range was the same between monkey and human subjects (one to seven sessions). Monkeys and humans also showed similar variability in the number of sessions necessary to reach plateau performance (SD = 1.9 for monkeys, 1.8 for humans). Once plateau performance was achieved, optimal performance was maintained across long time gaps in task activity (Supplementary Figure S2). The results show a striking asymmetry in the improvement in performance over training for the +S versus −S targets for both humans and monkeys: the learning effect for +S ...
Buy highly-enriched (typically | 90%) rhesus monkey NK cells and other high-quality cellular products (for research only) at iQ Biosciences.
The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is conventional for biomedical and mental reports. consequently, an incredible fund of clinical details comes in papers and a few gathered facts. This booklet is mostly a suite of knowledge from over 2000 papers on rhesus monkey. It covers subject matters at the cerebral angiography, electrocardiogram, and vector cardiogram of the rhesus monkey. It additionally offers more information on morphology and serve as of rhesus kidney; the improvement and eruption of tooth in rhesus; and the histology and histochemistry of the rhesus monkey ...
Have you fed a monkey when you are at a place of worship, or at a bus stand? This act of kindness towards a fellow primate can cause changes to entire forest food webs and ecosystem processes, finds a recent study. For starters, the amount of fruits monkeys ate decreased by almost half when they had access to human food.. Asmita Sengupta from the National Institute of Advanced Studies and her advisors have recently conducted a study to understand the effects of provisioning - providing of extra food - by humans on the rhesus macaque. Although the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is not recognized to be a keystone species, a recent study shows thatit is an important seed disperser for many fruit species in the forests. Interestingly, these monkeys are also highly tolerant to human disturbances and are often provisioned with human food even in protected areas.. Provisioning of wild animals have been shown to have several ill effects at both the individual level and at the population level. This ...
In response to the recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in North and South America, there is an urgent need for animal models to test vaccines and therapeutics against this zoonotic pathogen. Non-human primates models are often needed for vaccine and immunomodulatory therapeutic evaluation due to their close evolutionary proximity to humans and the similarity of their physiology and immunology. IITRI has developed a Rhesus macaque Zika infection model for the preclinical testing of vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. ###Experimental Summary###
Liu J, Li H, Iampietro MJ, Barouch DH. Accelerated heterologous adenovirus prime-boost SIV vaccine in neonatal rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2012 Aug; 86(15):7829-35 ...
Subjects. Five male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used in studies of schedule-controlled responding, three male monkeys were used in studies of thermal nociception, three male and female monkeys were used in the single-key assay of drug self-administration, and three male monkeys were used in studies of food versus drug choice. Subjects weighed 4.5 to 12 kg during the course of these studies. All monkeys had prior exposure to drugs (primarily dopaminergic and opioid compounds) and to the behavioral procedures in which they were tested. The subjects were individually housed, and water was freely available. Their diet consisted of PMI Feeds Jumbo monkey diet (two to six biscuits per day; PMI Feeds, Inc., St. Louis, MO). This diet was supplemented with fresh fruit twice daily. In addition, monkeys in the assays of schedule-controlled behavior and food versus drug choice could earn additional food pellets during experimental sessions. A 12-h light/12-h dark cycle was in effect (lights on from ...
Specific staining protocols10,11 were as follows: Our DeOlmos cupric silver method and nonfluorescent staining methods for AC3 have been described previously.4,8-12 For MBP (1:100; MAB 395; EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA), fractin (1:400; AB3150; EMD Millipore), Iba1 (1:500; 019-18741; Wako Chemicals, Richmond, VA), and CC-1 (1:200; OP80; Calbiochem, San Diego, CA) immunostaining methods, we used the Vectastain Elite ABC kit with Vector VIP as chromogen (Vector Laboratories, Inc., Burlingame, CA).4,8-12 Immunofluorescent detection of caspase-mediated cell death employed an AC3 rabbit primary polyclonal antibody (9661B; 1:500; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA). Floating sections were incubated overnight at room temperature. After the sections were rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (3 × 5 min) they were incubated for 2 h at room temperature with fluorescent goat antirabbit Alexa Fluor 555 (1:1,000, Invitrogen™, Life Technologies™, Grand Island, NY), rinsed in phosphate-buffered ...
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Read more about Indian-origin man jailed 10 yrs for killing woman in Spore on Business Standard. A 32-year-old Indian-origin man was today sentenced to 10 years of jail and 12 strokes of the cane for murdering a woman 16 years ago during an attempt to rob her at knife-point in a lift. Gunasegaran Ramasamy was sentenced to the maximum 10 years
Cell membrane receptor of natural killer/NK cells that is activated by binding of extracellular ligands including BAG6 and NCR3LG1. Stimulates NK cells cytotoxicity toward neighboring cells producing these ligands. It controls, for instance, NK cells cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Engagement of NCR3 by BAG6 also promotes myeloid dendritic cells (DC) maturation, both through killing DCs that did not acquire a mature phenotype, and inducing the release by NK cells of TNFA and IFNG that promote DC maturation.
Receptor for a C-C type chemokine. Binds to eotaxin, MCP-3, MCP-4 and RANTES and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ions level.
MXC will be administered orally to female rhesus monkeys at 2 dose levels from 24 mos of age (approximately equivalent to 8 y of age in humans) to 39 mos of age (14 y in humans). After dosing, the young monkeys will be allowed to recover until the age of full sexual maturation (45 months, 16 y in humans) and then examined for successful completion of adolescence in terms of growth, ovarian cyclicity, reproductive tract morphology and histology, brain development and immune function. Noninvasive methods such as brain EEG, bone scans, urine hormone measures, colposcopy, and characterization of lymphocyte populations in peripheral blood samples will be used. Diethyl stilbestrol (DES) will serve as a positive control. The project period is 3 years. ...
Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endocrine secretion, as well as in pathological states including abnormal mood and cognition. Once released from presynaptic axonal terminals, 5-HT binds to receptors, which have been divided into 7 subfamilies on the basis of conserved structures and signaling mechanisms. These families include the ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors and G-protein-coupled 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT1 (Gi /Go -coupled), 5-HT2(Gq-coupled), 5-HT4/6/7 (Gs-coupled) and 5-HT5 receptors. Presynaptically localized 5-HT1B receptors are thought to be the autoreceptors that suppress excess 5-HT release. 5-HTs actions are terminated by transporter- mediated reuptake into neurons, leading to catabolism by monoamine oxidase ...
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Some of the first HIV vaccines were designed to trigger neutralizing antibody responses as a way to prevent HIV infection. Unfortunately, the first versions of these vaccines were not able to achieve their desired response. An alternative strategy to the antibody approach is the stimulation of HIV-specific CD8 T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. CTL responses were previously demonstrated to play an important role in the control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the HIV equivalent studied in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additionally, other studies suggest CTLs play an important role in viral control during chronic infection. Based on this information, several groups have shifted their focus to the development of CTL-based vaccines, some of which have entered advanced clinical trials.. A DNA/rMVA vaccine strategy is structured to bring about both T cell and antibody responses. The primary vaccination is DNA based and will express only HIV proteins as a way to produce an HIV-focused immune response. A ...
Some of the first HIV vaccines were designed to trigger neutralizing antibody responses as a way to prevent HIV infection. Unfortunately, the first versions of these vaccines were not able to achieve their desired response. An alternative strategy to the antibody approach is the stimulation of HIV-specific CD8 T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. CTL responses were previously demonstrated to play an important role in the control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the HIV equivalent studied in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additionally, other studies suggest CTLs play an important role in viral control during chronic infection. Based on this information, several groups have shifted their focus to the development of CTL-based vaccines, some of which have entered advanced clinical trials.. A DNA/rMVA vaccine strategy is structured to bring about both T cell and antibody responses. The primary vaccination is DNA based and will express only HIV proteins as a way to produce an HIV-focused immune response. A ...
Thankfully, recent animal studies have led to improvements in available vaccines, as well as new prevention methods that might be used in the future to bridge the vaccination gap-whether its caused by limited access for people living in the developing world, or by parental suspicions about vaccines in the west. Researchers typically begin with cell cultures and embryos, thereafter testing drug therapies in species like mice, rodents, and rabbits before moving to larger non-human primate models. These studies, which are credited with paving the way for vaccinations against diseases like polio, measles, and rubella, have contributed to the body of medical knowledge a comprehensive understanding of how immunizations work.. Recent research, especially with primate models, has offered a more complete picture of the human immune system that has improved existing vaccines while proving their safety and effectiveness in people. For example, it was a study with rhesus macaque monkeys that led scientists ...
Since there is still no protective HIV vaccine available, better insights into immune mechanism of persons effectively controlling HIV replication in the absence of any therapy should contribute to improve further vaccine designs. However, little is known about the mucosal immune response of this small unique group of patients. Using the SIV-macaque-model for AIDS, we had the rare opportunity to analyze 14 SIV-infected rhesus macaques durably controlling viral replication (controllers). We investigated the virological and immunological profile of blood and three different mucosal tissues and compared their data to those of uninfected and animals progressing to AIDS-like disease (progressors). Lymphocytes from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and duodenal and colonic biopsies were phenotypically characterized by polychromatic flow cytometry. In controllers, we observed higher levels of CD4+, CD4+CCR5+ and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells as well as lower immune activation in blood and all mucosal sites
University of Wisconsin and NICHD Introduction Rhesus macaque infants typically form strong attachments to their mothers or mother substitutes within the first weeks of life (Harlow & Harlow, 1965). The work of Mason and his colleagues (Mason & Kenney, 1974; Mason & Capitanio, 1988) has demonstrated that rhesus monkeys reared with dogs or inanimate surrogates are capable of redirecting their attachment following separation from the initial attachment figure. However, the possibility of transferral of the attachment bond has not been empirically tested in mother-reared monkey infants. In free-ranging rhesus, individuals other than the mother may provide infant care (Berman, 1982). Whereas redirection of attachment may occur under these conditions, it is unclear whether the bond with the original filial attachment source remains intact, or if the attachment to the new caregiver supercedes the previous filial bond. The present study investigated whether yearling rhesus monkeys which had been living ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
Read more about Chronic stress of life alters immune system: Study on Business Standard. A new study conducted on rhesus monkey shows that the chronic stress of life at the bottom can alter the immune system even in the absence of other risk factors.The research confirms previous animal studies suggesting that social status affects the
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December 18, 2017 An Indian-origin Barclays Bank employee from London has been jailed for over six years for his role in a conspiracy to launder over 2.5 million pounds. Jinal Pethad used the Dridex Trojan malware in the scam, which involved the 29-year-old acting as the personal bank manager to money launderers
An Indian-origin researcher is investigating the use of CT (Computed Tomography) scanning for patients suffering from severe asthma.