Lysophosphatidylserine is a lysophospholipid which triggers TLR 2.[citation needed] A recent study showed that it does not stimulate normal leukocytes. It also enhances glucose transport, lowering blood glucose levels while leaving secretion of insulin unaffected. Park KS, Lee HY, Kim MK, Shin EH, Bae YS (Jul 2005). "Lysophosphatidylserine stimulates leukemic cells but not normal leukocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 333 (2): 353-8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.109. PMID 15946646. Yea K, Kim J, Lim S, Kwon T, Park HS, Park KS, Suh PG, Ryu SH (Jan 2009). "Lysophosphatidylserine regulates blood glucose by enhancing glucose transport in myotubes and adipocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 378 (4): 783-8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.11.122. PMID 19063864. Lysophosphatidylserine at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
To examine the relationship of clone 71 to the putative LPA receptor, an 18-mer antisense oligonucleotide with the sequence of 5′-ATTGTCTAGGGCAGTATT-3′, complementary to the putative N-terminal 5-11 amino acids, was synthesized and injected into Xenopus oocytes. A sense- and a random-sequence oligonucleotide, containing the same relative percentages of the four nucleotides, served as controls. Oscillatory Cl− currents elicited by LPA and cLPA measured with standard two-electrode voltage-clamp recording in the three groups of oligonucleotide-injected oocytes (Fig. 1d) showed no statistically significant differences in the response to cLPA nor were there any differences seen in the oocytes injected with distilled water. In contrast, the LPA response was substantially diminished, by 68 ± 12%, in the group injected with as little as 0.3 fmol of the antisense oligonucleotide. Oocytes injected with sense and nonsense oligonucleotides showed LPA responses similar to those of sham-injected ...
As our knowledge of the myriads of biological effects due to lysophospholipids expands we become witnesses to some other miracle of nature which has endowed the easiest lysophospholipids with functions seemingly ubiquitous to every mammalian cell. C mediator and second messenger LY341495 C assignments of lysophospholipids. Within this paper we offer new data attained concerning LPA-elicited replies using cell lines normally missing or intentionally knocked out of several from the known LPA GPCR, trusted by researchers in the field as cells with LPA receptor null history. Our observations increase caution about having less LPA responsiveness in these cells and underline the unparalleled intricacy and redundancy of lysophospholipid-evoked mobile responses. Launch Until 1996, the mediator function LY341495 from the lysophospholipids sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acidity (LPA) continued to be tentative because of the insufficient an discovered cell surface area receptor. The id ...
2012). As shown in Fig. 5, PTX, a specific inhibitor of Gi/o type G proteins, inhibited [Ca2+]i responses to LPE by 84% and to LPA by 67%, suggesting the involvements of Gi/o proteins in [Ca2+]i responses to LPE and LPA (Fig. 5). In addition, edelfosine (a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C) also partially inhibited responses to LPE and LPA, suggesting the involvement of phospholipase C in these responses (Fig. 5). Next, the involvement of IP3 receptor on Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was tested using 2-APB, a specific inhibitor of IP3R. Pretreatment with 2-APB inhibited completely LPE-induced [Ca2+]i increase, but only partly inhibited LPA-induced [Ca2+]i increase (Fig. 5). To investigate the possibility that Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane contributed to Ca2+ response, we pretreated SHSY5Y cells with EGTA (an extracellular Ca2+ chelator). EGTA partially inhibited LPE- and LPA-induced [Ca2+]i increases, suggesting that Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane contributed ...
Complete information for LPGAT1 gene (Protein Coding), Lysophosphatidylglycerol Acyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
regulates nuclear translocation and the activation of NFKB upon FAS activation or LPA stimulation, and antagonizes FAS-induced apoptosis and further enhances the antiapoptotic effect of LPA in cells that express high levels of TRIP6 ...
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LPA (lysophosphatidic acid), a potent bioactive phospholipid, elicits diverse cellular responses through activation of the G-protein-coupled receptors LPA1-LPA4. LPA-mediated signalling is partially regulated by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases; LPP-1, -2 and -3) that belong to the phosphatase superfamily. This study addresses the role of LPPs in regulating LPA-mediated cell signalling and IL-8 (interleukin-8) secretion in HBEpCs (human bronchial epithelial cells). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting revealed the presence and expression of LPP-1-3 in HBEpCs. Exogenous [3H]oleoyl LPA was hydrolysed to [3H]-mono-oleoylglycerol. Infection of HBEpCs with an adenoviral construct of human LPP-1 for 48 h enhanced the dephosphorylation of exogenous LPA by 2-3-fold compared with vector controls. Furthermore, overexpression of LPP-1 partially attenuated LPA-induced increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, phosphorylation of IκB (inhibitory κB) and translocation of NF-κB (nuclear ...
The serum-derived lipid growth factors, lysophosphatidate (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), activate cells selectively through different members of a family of endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) receptors. Activation of EDG receptors by LPA and S1P provides a variety of signalling cascades depending upon the G-protein coupling of the different EDG receptors. This leads to chemotactic and mitogenic responses, which are important in wound healing. For example, LPA stimulates fibroblast division and S1P stimulates the chemotaxis and division of endothelial cells leading to angiogenesis. Counteracting these effects of LPA and S1P, are the actions of lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP, or phosphatidate phosphohydrolases, Type 2). The isoform LPP-1 is expressed in the plasma membrane with its active site outside the cell. This enzyme is responsible for ecto-phosphatase activity leading to the degradation of exogenous lipid phosphate mediators, particularly LPA. Expression of LPP-1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional comparisons of the lysophosphatidic acid receptors, LP(A)1/VZG-1/EDG-2, LP(A)2/EDG-4, and LP(A)3/EDG-7 in neuronal cell lines using a retrovirus expression system. AU - Ishii, Isao. AU - Contos, James J.A.. AU - Fukushima, Nobuyuki. AU - Chun, Jerold. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid mediator with diverse physiological actions on a wide variety of cells and tissues. Three cognate G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified as mammalian LPA receptors: LP(A)1/VZG-1/EDG-2, LP(A)2/EDG-4, and LP(A)3/EDG-7. The mouse forms of these genes were analyzed in rodent cell lines derived from nervous system cells that can express these receptors functionally. An efficient retrovirus expression system was used, and each receptor was heterologously expressed in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells that neither express these receptors nor respond to LPA in all assays tested. Comparative analyses of signaling pathways that are activated ...
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that signals through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to produce a range of biological responses. A recently reported fourth receptor, LPA(4)/GPR23, was notable for its low homology to the previously identified receptors LPA(1-3) and for its ability to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP and calcium. However, the signaling pathways leading to LPA(4)-mediated induction of cAMP and calcium levels have not been reported. Using epitope-tagged LPA(4), pharmacological intervention, and G protein mini-genes, we provide independent confirmatory evidence that supports LPA(4) as a fourth LPA receptor, including LPA concentration-dependent responses and specific membrane binding. Importantly, we further demonstrate new LPA-dependent activities of LPA(4) that include the following: receptor internalization; G(12/13)- and Rho-mediated neurite retraction and stress fiber formation; G(q) protein and pertussis toxin-sensitive
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an agonist that activates specific G protein-coupled receptors, is present at an elevated concentration in the serum and ascitic fluid of ovarian cancer patients. Although the increased levels of LPA have been linked to the genesis and progression of different cancers including ovarian carcinomas, the specific signaling conduit utilized by LPA in promoting different aspects of oncogenic growth has not been identified. Here, we show that LPA stimulates both migration and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Using multiple approaches, we demonstrate that the stimulation of ovarian cancer cells with LPA results in a robust and statistically significant proliferative response. Our results also indicate that Gα(12), the gep proto-oncogene, which can be stimulated by LPA via specific LPA receptors, is overtly activated in a large array of ovarian cancer cells. We further establish that LPA stimulates the rapid activation of Gα(12) in SKOV-3 cells and the expression of ...
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Neocortical neuroblast cell lines were used to clone G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes to study signaling mechanisms regulating cortical neurogenesis. One putative GPCR gene displayed an in situ expression pattern enriched in cortical neurogenic regions and was therefore named ventricular zone gene-1 (vzg-1). The vzg-1 cDNA hybridized to a 3.8-kb mRNA transcript and encoded a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41-42 kD, confirmed by Western blot analysis. To assess its function, vzg-1 was overexpressed in a cell line from which it was cloned, inducing serum-dependent "cell rounding." Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid present in high concentrations in serum, reproduced the effect seen with serum alone. Morphological responses to other related phospholipids or to thrombin, another agent that induces cell rounding through a GPCR, were not observed in vzg-1 overexpressing cells. Vzg-1 overexpression decreased the EC50 of both cell rounding and Gi activation in response to ...
Kim, K-S, Sengupta, S, Berk, Michael, Kwak, Y-G, Escobar, PF, Belinson, J, Mok, SC and Xu, Y 2006, Hypoxia enhances lysophosphatidic acid responsiveness in ovarian cancer cells and lysophosphatidic acid induces ovarian tumor metastasis in vivo, Cancer research, vol. 66, no. 16, pp. 7983-7990, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4381. ...
Ovarian cancer is an highly metastatic disease characterized by ascites formation and diffuse i.p. adhesion, invasion, and metastasis. Levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are elevated in the plasma of patients with ovarian carcinoma, including 90% of patients with stage I disease, suggesting that LPA may promote early events in ovarian carcinoma dissemination. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is also up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and ascites, and numerous studies have provided evidence for a direct role of MMPs in i.p. invasion and metastasis. Using three-dimensional type I collagen cultures or immobilized beta1 integrin subunit-specific antibodies, we previously demonstrated that beta1 integrin clustering promotes activation of proMMP-2 and processing of membrane type 1 MMP in ovarian cancer cells (S. M. Ellerbroek et al., Cancer Res., 59: 1635-1641, 1999). In the current study, the effect of LPA on MMP expression and invasive activity was investigated. Treatment of ...
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is normally a bioactive phospholipid that affects several biological functions such as for example cell proliferation migration and survival coming from LPA receptors. with cell migration in ovarian cancers cells. We discovered that LPA resulted in a striking upsurge in AMPK phosphorylation in pathways relating to the phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) and calcium mineral/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase kinase Roscovitine β (CaMKKβ) in SKOV3 ovarian cancers cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1 PLC-β3 or (CaMKKβ) impaired the stimulatory ramifications of LPA on cell migration. Furthermore we discovered that knockdown of AMPKα1 abrogated LPA-induced activation of the tiny GTPase RhoA and ezrin/radixin/moesin protein regulating membrane dynamics as membrane-cytoskeleton linkers. In ovarian cancers xenograft choices knockdown of AMPK decreased peritoneal dissemination and lung metastasis significantly. Taken jointly our results claim that activation of AMPK by ...
LPAR6 encodes the protein known as Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6, a member of the family of G protein-coupled receptors that are preferentially activated by adenosine and uridine nucleotides.
It has been shown that specific G protein-coupled receptors mediate the cellular effects of a natural phospholipid, LPA. At least three receptors, LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3, have been identified as cellular receptors for LPA (18) . These consist of 364, 351, and 353 amino acids, respectively, and share 50-54% identical amino acids (18) . The tissue distribution differs markedly among the three LPA receptors (5) . It has been suggested that malignant transformation results in new appearance or quantitative changes in the levels of LPA receptor expression, at least in some tumors. Whereas normal ovarian epithelial cells express LPA1 mRNA but have low levels of LPA2 and LPA3 mRNA, most ovarian cancer cells express elevated levels of LPA2 and LPA3 mRNA and variable levels of LPA1 mRNA without a consistent pattern (3 , 10) . In thyroid cells, LPA2 mRNA expression was increased 3-fold in differentiated thyroid cancer compared with normal thyroid or goiter (7) . These data suggest that LPA2 (or LPA3) may be ...
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has attracted recent attention as a major serum-derived regulator implicated in responses to vascular injury and inflammation, in tumour invasiveness and in neuronal signalling and remodelling. Although the possibility of a specific G-protein-coupled LPA receptor protein has been suggested, characterization of such a receptor is lacking. Since LPA can activate protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in many cells and PKC activators mimic many LPA effects, the possibility of more direct LPA effects on PKC was investigated. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylserine (PS)/diacylglycerol (DAG) lipid vesicles of defined acyl chain composition were used to activate the enzyme. At total concentrations of saturated PC/PS+DAG vesicles (2-3 mM) that provided maximal PKC activation, 1-10 mol% [18:1]-LPA led to a further approx. 2-fold activation of PKCα. At lower lipid concentrations, a greater increase was observed with LPA concentrations up to 16-20 mol%. Higher concentrations of ...
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been suggested to regulate lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes because autotaxin (ATX), the enzyme that generates LPA, is constitutively expressed by lymph node high endothelial venules. However very little is known about the effects of LPA on T cell migration and homing. We studied the effects of LPA (16:0 and 18:1, 1-10 µM) on naïve mouse CD4+ T cells. Using chemotaxis assays, we found that LPA induces CD4+ T cell chemorepulsion (1.5±0.5 fold migration away from 1 µM LPA, n=26, p ,0.0001) but not chemotaxis. In addition, we found that LPA increases the quality of naïve CD4+ T cell migration on ICAM-1/CCL21 coated plates as shown by increased track length, displacement, and velocity of cells in the presence of LPA (p,0.001). We next investigated the expression of LPA receptor mRNA on resting and anti-CD3/CD28 activated CD4+ T cells using qRT-PCR. We found that LPA2, LPA5, and LPA6 are highly expressed on naïve CD4+ T cells, and the expression of these ...
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid mediator that regulates several physiological responses ranging from cell proliferation and differentiation to cell migration and survival, via specific cell membrane and nuclear receptors. Recent studies showed that white adipose tissue secretes a significant amount of LPA and also the key enzyme of LPA production, autotaxin. The expression of ATX is increased in the adipose tissue of obese insulin-resistant individuals and mice. Furthermore, it has been shown that LPA decreased pancreatic insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. By using isolated mouse adipocytes and LPA receptor knockout mice models we aim to investigate the effect of LPA on the production of certain hormones (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) and cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6) involved in the regulation of tissue insulin sensitivity, and also the LPA receptors and intracellular signaling pathways involved in this process.. ...
The intestinal epithelium interacts dynamically with the immune system to maintain its barrier function to protect the host, while performing the physiological roles in absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, water and minerals. The importance of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors in the gut has been progressively appreciated. LPA signaling modulates cell proliferation, invasion, adhesion, angiogenesis, and survival that can promote cancer growth and metastasis. These effects are equally important for the maintenance of the epithelial barrier in the gut, which forms the first line of defense against the milieu of potentially pathogenic stimuli. This review focuses on the LPA-mediated signaling that potentially contributes to inflammation and tumor formation in the gastrointestinal tract.
The major focus of our research is on bioactive lysophospholipids, particularly the lipid growth factor LPA, its cognate receptors, signaling mechanisms and role in health and disease. In addition, we are studying how and where LPA is produced by autotaxin, a secreted phosphodiesterase implicated in tumor progression.. Keywords: Lipid mediators / growth factors / receptors / cell-cell communication. Subject area(s): Membranes & Transport , Molecular Medicine , Signal Transduction. ...
This study was performed to determine the early and delayed metabolic effects of myocardial ischemia on the major membrane phospholipids and to reassess the potential role of lysophospholipids in the genesis of malignant dysrhythmias induced by ischemia. Samples taken from in situ hearts before ant at various intervals up to 40 minutes after abrupt ligation of LAD were extracted by the classical Folch technique with modifications to avoid artifactual lysophospholipid production and losses. Following thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts, phospholipid fractions were quantified by phosphorus estimation and lysophospholipids by a more sensitive method employing gas liquid chromatography. The total phospholipid content with the exception of lysophospholipids remained essentially constant throughout the early phases of acute ischemia, but fell by 6 and 14% after 8 and 24 ours, respectively. At 8 minutes, lysophospholipid levels n ischemic myocardium were significantly increased by 60% compared ...
Vahidy, W.H., Yeo, J.-F., Ong, W.-Y., Farooqui, A.A. (2006). Effects of intracerebroventricular injections of free fatty acids, lysophospholipids, or platelet activating factor in a mouse model of orofacial pain. Experimental Brain Research 174 (4) : 781-785. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-006-0672- ...
Phospholipase A1 is a phospholipase enzyme which removes the 1-acyl. Phospholipase A1 is an enzyme that resides in a class of enzymes called phospholipase that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids. There are 4 classes, which are separated by the type of reaction they catalyze. In particular, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) specifically catalyzes the cleavage at the SN-1 position of phospholipids, forming a fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. PLA1s are present in numerous species including humans, and have a variety of cellular functions that include regulation and facilitation of the production of lysophospholipid mediators, and acting as digestive enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for fast turnover rates of cellular phospholipids. In addition to this, the products of the reaction catalyzed by PLA1 which are a fatty acid and a lysophospholipid are important in various biological functions such as platelet aggregation and smooth muscle contraction. In addition, lysophospholipids can be found as ...
LysoPE(16:0) is a lysophosphatidylethanolamine or a lysophospholipid. The term lysophospholipid (LPL) refers to any phospholipid that is missing one of its two O-acyl chains. Thus, LPLs have a free alcohol in either the sn-1 or sn-2 position. The prefix lyso- comes from the fact that lysophospholipids were originally found to be hemolytic however it is now used to refer generally to phospholipids missing an acyl chain. LPLs are usually the result of phospholipase A-type enzymatic activity on regular phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidic acid, although they can also be generated by the acylation of glycerophospholipids or the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerols. Some LPLs serve important signaling functions such as lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs) can function as plant growth regulators with several diverse uses. (LPEs) are approved for outdoor agricultural use to accelerate ripening and improve the quality of fresh produce. They are also ...
Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP ...
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This gene is a member of the endothelial differentiation, G-protein-coupled (EDG) receptor gene family. EDG receptors bind lysophospholipids or lysosphingolipids as ligands, and are involved in cell signalling in many different cell types. This EDG receptor gene is intronless and is specifically expressed in the lymphoid tissue.[1] ...
NATURE MEDICINE VOLUME 10 | NUMBER 2 | FEBRUARY 2004 131 activator protein-1, leading to the expression of multiple inflammatory proteins that amplify the inflammatory response. In response to several stimuli, ceramide also induces apoptosis, apparently by activating caspases and inducing clustering of death receptors in the cell membrane5. As if that were not enough, ceramide also has a powerful metabolite, sphingosine 1phosphate (S1P)5. Within cells, S1P can mediate the actions of various intracellular kinases and phosphatases. Extracellular S1P can interact with endothelial differentiation gene Gprotein-coupled receptors, which are highly expressed on endothelial cells and activate multiple signal transduction pathways. S1P can also stimulate the release of PAF from endothelial cells6. Several studies implicate sphingomyelin hydrolysis in acute lung injury, as a mediator of stimulatory factors such as TNF-α, Fas/Apo ligand, acid and ionizing radiation. Lung cells express high levels of sphingolipid
The EDG (endothelial differentiation gene) family of G protein coupled receptors consists of eight family members that bind lysophospholipid (LPL)…
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme that produces the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate, is a promising new molecular target for therapeutic intervention in cancer and inflammatory diseases. In view of its importance, the main objective of this work was to find new and more potent inhibitors for this enzyme possessing different structural scaffolds than those of the known inhibitors. Our theoretical and experimental study has allowed us to identify two new structural scaffolds (three new compounds), which could be used as starting structures for the design and then the development of new inhibitors of SphK1. Our study was carried out in different steps: virtual screening, synthesis, bioassays and molecular modelling. From our results, we propose a new dihydrobenzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine and two alkyl{3-/4-[1-hydroxy-2-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]phenyl}carbamates as initial structures for the development of new inhibitors. In addition, our molecular modelling ...
A cDNA homologous to that encoding sheep Edg2 protein was cloned from a human lung cDNA library. The full-length sequence encodes a 364-amino acid protein which belongs to the superfamily of guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors. Human Edg2 mRNA is widely distributed in human tiss …
Summary of Meeting. The identification of many receptors and targets of bioactive lipid mediators has led to research uncovering their roles in regulating many important normal and pathophysiological processes. It has become evident that the biological activities and functions of lipid signaling molecules are dependent on both their molecular structures and complex cell-specific interactions among the different pathways involved in their biosynthesis and metabolism. The growing complexity of these interactions and the thousands of cellular lipids, together with genomics and proteomics technology already in place, has emphasized the need for development of complementary lipidomics technology. The goal of this meeting is to bring investigators studying signaling and metabolism of bioactive lipids together with researchers who are now developing lipidomics methods for exhaustive characterization and systematic measurement by mass spectrometry of the lipidome, ie cellular lipids, their precursors ...
FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The encoded protein is a receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate. The gene product functions in endothelial cells and is involved in vascular and heart development. The gene product mediates HDL and HDL-associated lysophospholipid-induced vasorelaxation, and it coordinates with other lysophospholipid receptors in the process of angiogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010 ...
At 9:35 AM -0400 9/8/02, Alice L. Givan wrote: ,Flowers, ,ModFit software from Verity has a Proliferation Wizard that does ,all the proliferation ,calculations for you from cells stained with CFSE or a PKH dye (for ,example, it ,gives you the precursor frequencies of the proliferating cells and ,it also gives you ,a proliferation index that tells you how many more cells you have ,now than when you ,started the culture). , ,What ModFit does is model the intensity histogram of the cells --- ,so it can use the ,separate or quasi-separate peaks found in some cases with ,CFSE-stained cells. Or it ,models the theoretical positions of the peaks for dividing cells if ,you are staining ,with the PKH dyes (that dont give such good intensity separation) ,or if your CFSE ,staining hasnt given separate peaks. I havent ever used ModFit so I can comment on it directly, but, FlowJo also has a proliferation platform that allows you fit curves to CFSE-type proliferation data and generate various stats and ...
Alix Spiegel has worked on NPR's Science Desk for 10 years covering psychology and human behavior, and has reported on everything from what it's
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I.t. injection of LPA (1 nmol) caused a time-dependent increase in LPA levels in the SC and DR that lasted until 3 h post-treatment, followed by a slight decline in LPA levels at 5 h ...
Lipid breakdown products include unesterified free fatty acids, acyl carnitine, and lysophospholipids, catabolic products that are known to (...)
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LPA2 antagonist 2 (H2L 5226501) is a selective LPA2 antagonist with an IC50 of 28.3 nM, which is >480-fold more selective than LPA3 (IC50 of 13.85 μM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - P21-activated kinase 1. T2 - Convergence point in PDGF- and LPA-stimulated collagen matrix contraction by human broblasts. AU - Rhee, Sangmyung. AU - Grinnell, Frederick. PY - 2006/1/30. Y1 - 2006/1/30. N2 - Fibroblast three-dimensional collagen matrix culture provides a tissue-like model that can be used to analyze cell form and function. The physiological agonists platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) both stimulate human broblasts to contract oating collagen matrices. In this study, we show that the PDGF and LPA signaling pathways required for matrix contraction converge on p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and its downstream effector cofilin1 and that contraction depends on cellular ruffling activity, rather than on the protrusion and retraction of cellular dendritic extensions. We also show that, depending on the agonist, different Rho effectors cooperate with PAK1 to regulate matrix contraction, Rho kinase in the case of PDGF and mDia1 in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lysophosphatidic acid activates TGFBIp expression in human corneal fibroblasts through a TGF-β1-dependent pathway. AU - Jeon, Eun Su. AU - Kim, Jae Ho. AU - Ryu, Hyunmi. AU - Kim, Eung Kweon. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - Granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a R124H point mutation in the transforming growth factor-β-induced gene (TGFBI). However, the cellular role of TGFBI and the regulatory mechanisms underlying corneal dystrophy pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) refers to a small bioactive phospholipid mediator produced in various cell types, and binds G protein-coupled receptors to enhance numerous biological responses, including cell growth, inflammation, and differentiation. LPA levels are elevated in injured cornea and LPA is involved in proliferation and wound healing of cornea epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence has indicated a crucial role for LPA-induced expression of TGFBI ...