TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the initial 8 hr. Elimination studies of antigen-pulsed neutrophils with alloantisera plus complement revealed these antigen-presenting ...
Results Exogenously added IL-7 did not activate B cells directly, in line with the absence of surface IL-7R. However, in the presence of T cells, IL-7 activated both T and B cells (Ki67+ CD4 cells from 1.1±0.2% to 14.4±3.7%, p,0.01 and Ki67+ B cells from 1.9±0.3% to 4.1±0.9%, p,0.05). TLR7A induced B cell activation, as measured by increased proliferation (%Ki67 from 1.2±0.2% to 9.3±1.4%) and up regulation of activation markers on B cells, which was facilitated in the presence of monocytes. TLR7-induced B cell activation in T/B or T/B/monocyte co-cultures was not associated with T cell activation. IL-7 added to TLR7A synergistically increased both B cell (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 9.3±1.4% vs. 33.4±7.3%) and T cell proliferation (IL-7 vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 0.8±0.1% vs. 29.2±5.2%), which for B cells again was further increased by monocytes (TLR7A vs. IL-7/TLR7A; 30.2±8.9% vs. 63.0±8.0%). Similar results were observed for activation marker expression on B cells (CD19, HLA-DR CD25) and on T cells ...
Interleukin (IL)-4 is considered to be essential for T helper (Th)2 cell development, yet in areas of primary T cell activation, CD4+ cells are its only source. This implies that other signals must drive the initial expression of IL-4 production. The role of CD28 co-stimulation in Th2 subset development has been described. However, in mice deficient for CD28, Th2 responses are diminished, but not abrogated. Cytokines produced within the lymphoid tissue, e.g. IL-7, may be important in the primary activation of naive CD4+ cells. We have found that human naive CD4+ cells purified from umbilical cord blood express the IL-7 receptor and respond vigorously to IL-7 during primary stimulation. Naive CD4+ cells grown in IL-4, in the presence or absence of IL-2, fail to produce Th2 cytokines upon restimulation. In contrast, IL-7 induces development of a population of T cells that produce large amounts of IL-4. Growth in IL-7 also increases IL-2-induced production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production. IL
by Barbara Stranger, Ye CJ, Feng T, Kwon HK, Raj T, Wilson MT, Asinovski N, McCabe C, Lee MH, Frohlich I, Paik HI, Zaitlen N, Hacohen N, De Jager P, Mathis D, Regev A, Benoist C. T lymphocyte activation by antigen conditions adaptive immune responses and immunopathologies, but we know little about its variation in humans and its genetic or environmental roots. We analyzed gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during unbiased activation or in T helper 17 (T(H)17) conditions from 348 healthy participants representing European, Asian, and African ancestries. We observed interindividual variability, most marked for cytokine transcripts, with clear biases on the basis of ancestry, and following patterns more complex than simple T(H)1/2/17 partitions. We identified 39 genetic loci specifically associated in cis with activated gene expression. We further fine-mapped and validated a single-base variant that modulates YY1 binding and the activity of an enhancer element controlling the autoimmune-associated ...
DCs are believed to initiate the CD8+ T cell response in the draining LN by providing signals through the TCR and CD28. Beyond this initiation phase, however, the role of DCs and CD28 costimulation during later phases and at the effector site is largely unexplored. Previous studies have suggested that CD8+ T cells responses are programmed during priming and do not require Ag beyond initiation (1-3); however, these conclusions were based on short 3-6 d in vivo expansion or survival of CD8+ T cells (1-3). In these studies, in vitro-activated T cells were transferred in uninfected mice, and it was showed that the cells undergo divisions in the absence of Ag for up to 6 d after transfer into uninfected mice. Our studies show that in the context of a viral infection such as influenza, effector CD8+ T cells fail to fully expand when transferred into uninfected recipients or animals infected with an influenza virus that does not express cognate peptide (Fig. 4B, 4C). Based on the above, it appears that ...
IL-2-regulated genes in PBMCs. Pre-activated, rested human PBMCs were left untreated or restimulated for 4 hr with IL-2, and RNA probes were prepared for hybrid
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nabila Seddiki, Laura Cook, Denise C Hsu, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Kai Brown, Yin Xu, Stephen J Kerr, David A Cooper, C Mee Ling Munier, Sarah Pett, Jintanat Ananworanich, John Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher].
Specificity of T lymphocyte activation ... Molecular rearrangements w/synapse formation ... Two different MAP Kinase pathways are involved in receptor signaling ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 229ace-ZTQ4Y
Germain, R N.; Mayer, S V.; and Mescher, M F., "Role of i-region gene products in t cell activation. I. Stimulation of t lymphocyte proliferative responses by subcellular membrane preparations containing ia alloantigens." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 16 ...
Inflammatory reactions are believed to be triggered by innate signals and have a major protective role by recruiting innate immunity cells, favoring lymphocyte activation and differentiation, and thus contributing to the sequestration and elimination of the injurious stimuli. Although certain lymphocyte types such as TH17 cells co-participate in inflammatory reactions, their generation from the naïve pool requires the pre-existence of an inflammatory milieu. In this context, inflammation is always regarded as beginning with an innate response that may be eventually perpetuated and amplified by certain lymphocyte types. In contrast, we here show that even in sterile immunizations or in MyD88 deficient mice, CD8 T cells produce a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. As few as 56 CD8+ inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node
Doenhoff, M J.; Janossy, G; Greaves, M F.; Gomer, K J.; and Snajdr, J, "Lymphocyte activation. VI. A re-evaluation of factors affecting the selectivity of polyclonal mitogens for mouse t and b cells." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1563 ...
T and B lymphocytes tailor their responses to each pathogenic insult as part of the adaptive immune system. During an infection, activation of B cells causes them to proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize a variety of potential antibodies to pathogenic antigens. Immunological responses also activate T cells, inducing them to differentiate into a wide variety of subtypes, including cytotoxic T cells and T helper cells. Cytotoxic T cells recognize and destroy infected cells, and T helper cells communicate with B cells to mediate appropriate immune responses. Dysregulation of B cell or T cell functions can cause immunodeficiencies. Changes in gene expression and epigenetic regulation play a large part in T and B cell activation mechanisms. Understanding these changes may define how precursor lymphocytes decide their fates under specific experimental conditions ...
Initially, a role for the interaction between CD40, expressed on B cells, and gp39 (CD40L), expressed on activated T cells, has been defined in humoral immunity...
Schematic diagram of CD4+ effector T cell activation at the site of M. tuberculosis infection.A. During the chronic stage of infection, A
Study Flashcards On T cell activation and function at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The molecular process of Antigen Processing and Presentation leads to T lymphocyte activation and function to enable CD4 T cells to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune responses, and CD8 T cel…
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced primarily by mitogen- or antigen-activated T lymphocytes . Human IL-2 (also known as T-cell…
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Researchers, using mathematical models, have defined for the first time how powerfully immune cells respond to infection and disease. The team combined laboratory data with mathematical models to clarify how different external signals impact on T cell proliferation.
Learn about the new personal insight questions on the UC application. Tips & strategies on how to prepare strong responses will be shared with you. For more information, contact the Transfer Counseling Center at (310) 434-4210 ...
Sometimes I wish my politically moderate opinions were as sexy as the extreme ones some use to elicit a strong response from people. I just dont share
LEAD: The article, Taking a Scalpel to Health Care Costs (Jan. 8) prompted an unusually strong response from readers. Some of their comments follow. To the Editor:
T lymphocyte proliferation assay according to the free Medical Dictionary. Measures the strength of response of T memory cells|.
Ethanol consumption is associated with impaired immunity. Our data demonstrate that even a single dose of a biologically relevant concentration (25-150 mM) of ethanol can down-regulate antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast, ethanol augmented mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, suggesting that its inhibitory effect on antigen-specific T cell proliferation was due to its effects on monocytes (m phi s) rather than on T cells. The immunodepressive effects of ethanol on m phi antigen-presenting cell (APC) capacity were manifested whether alcohol treatment was limited to the antigen uptake-processing period only or was present during the entire period of antigen presentation. These inhibitory effects of ethanol were also evident on both the high-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-negative (-31 +/- 17%), and low-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-positive (-42 +/- 15%) m phi subpopulations. Further analysis demonstrated that ethanol inhibits the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel® on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Decker, Dima A.. AU - Higgins, Paul. AU - Becker, Patrice M.. AU - McAloose, Carl A.. AU - Benko, Ann L.. AU - Kovacs, William. PY - 2015/10/27. Y1 - 2015/10/27. N2 - Introduction: Both clinical experience and experimental evidence have suggested that Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) might directly exert immunomodulatory effects not dependent on adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods: The direct effects of H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar), a repository preparation containing a porcine ACTH analogue, on human B lymphocyte function were studied in vitro using peripheral blood B cells isolated using anti-CD19 coated magnetic beads and activated by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cellular proliferation was ...
Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks
Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks
The mixed leucocyte reaction, (MLR), has been applied successfully to peripheral blood leucocytes of the mouse. Before harvest, the leucocytes were mobilized into the peripheral blood by a single intravenous injection of the mice with pertussis vaccine. Mixtures, (50-50), of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse leucocytes were cultured in medium containing low amounts of mouse plasma and supplemented with foetal bovine serum. DNA-synthetic activities at selected times were determined by liquid scintillation counting following pulse labeling of the cell populations with 3H-TdR. DNA synthesis in the mixed cultures attained a maximum value at the 5th to 7th day (7,500 cpm), as contrasted with maximum control values of 200-1000 cpm). Considerable DNA synthesis (1000-2000 cpm), also was observed at zero time, and then declined to low levels (200-300 cpm) at the 18th hour. DNA synthesis did not occur in the mixed leucocyte cultures when the culture medium was supplemented with dog plasma in place of foetal bovine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of K+ channel expression in human peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. AU - Krjukova, J.. AU - Osna, N.. AU - Pilmane, M.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Evaluation of different types of K+ channel expression was performed in resting and PHA (phytohemagglutinine)-activated human peripheral lymphocytes (HPL) of healthy donors by means of flow cytometry. In resting peripheral lymphocytes, the application of kaliotoxin (a selective blocker for voltage-dependent K+ (K(V)) channels), K(V) resulted in pronounced depolarization of lymphocyte membrane potential, with further promotion in the presence of thapsigargin (compound discharging Ca(i) from endoplasmic reticulum). In activated HPL, the expression of various types of K+ channels was estimated utilizing cell-cycle analysis data. In contrast to the resting cells, kaliotoxin-induced depolarization of membrane potential in PHA-activated lymphocytes of the G0/G1 phase was not enhanced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporin A inhibits initiation but not progression of human T cell proliferation triggered by phorbol esters and calcium ionophores. AU - Kumagai, N.. AU - Benedict, S. H.. AU - Mills, G. B.. AU - Gelfand, E. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by Ag and mitogens. In an attempt to further delineate the mechanism of action of CsA, we have examined its effects on T cell proliferation induced by the combination of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. T cells were rendered competent as the result of a 30-min initial incubation with both drugs, after which the drugs were washed out. Competence is defined as the ability to subsequently proliferate in response to exogenously added IL-2 or PDB in the second phase of the culture, but not to synthesize IL-2 or proliferative without these additions. Addition of CsA (1 μg/ml) to the cells in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the age-related refractoriness of T-lymphocyte reactivity in humans. AU - Bátory, Gabriella. AU - Ónody, Clara. AU - Petrányi, G. Gy. PY - 1981/4. Y1 - 1981/4. N2 - Aged individuals could be divided into two groups according to their T-lymphocyte transformation values. The relationship between the PHA (phytohemagglutinin) stimulation indices and spontaneous thymidine incorporation; the PHA dose-response type distribution and the relative number of resting T lymphocytes was similar to the control group in aged subjects of seemingly intact T lymphocyte transformation values. However, their B cell compartment was found to be reduced. On the other hand, the ratio between the stimulation indices and spontaneous thymidine incorporation values of aged subjects of impaired T lymphocyte reactivity deviated from that of the control group. This group had an increased frequency of subjects giving maximal transformation values at relatively high PHA doses (hyposensitives) at ...
Malaria infection has been shown to induce alterations in immune reactivity. This report describes the effect of serum obtained from Plasmodium falciparum infected patients on in vitro proliferation of human blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) isolated from healthy individuals. Serum obtained before initiation of treatment suppressed the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to both Plasmodium-derived antigens and an unrelated antigen (PPD-tuberculin). The suppressive effect was lost if the serum was incubated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and the effect was not HLA-restricted since the inhibition was seen on both autologous and heterologous BMNC. The degree of suppression was not correlated to the duration of the disease, the degree of parasitemia, or the use of chemoprophylaxis. Sera from 7 patients before and from 3 patients 30 days after initiation of treatment were pooled and fractionated. It was found that the strongest suppressive activity was in the serum fraction containing molecules from ...
Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Our experiments explicitly show that: (a) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen induces significant proliferation independent of co-stimulatory signals (e.g., accessory cells, recombinant lymphokines, or tumor promoter), (b) F(ab)2 fragments of mAb directed at the TCR and F(ab)2 anti-CD2, crosslinked with F(ab)2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse IgG, promote the proliferation of highly purified T cells, (c) a prompt and sustained increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration results from crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, (d) T cell proliferation induced by this novel approach is curtailed by EGTA and by direct or competitive inhibitors of PKC, (e) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen ...
NFAT2 null mutant mice die in utero of cardiac failure, precluding analysis of the role of NFAT2 in lymphocyte responses. Only the NFAT2-/-/Rag-1-/- chimeric mice model gave insight into the role of NFAT2 transcription factor in T lymphocyte development, activation and differentiation. As reports are mainly focused on the role of NFAT2 in CD4+ T lymphocytes activation and differentiation, we decided to investigate NFAT2s impact on CD8+ T lymphocytes responses. We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8+ T cells, and upon TCR stimulation is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. To study the role of NFAT2 in CD8+ T responses we employed NFAT2fl/flCD4-Cre mice with NFAT2 deletion specifically in T cells. Interestingly, the absence of NFAT2 in T cells resulted in increased percentage of nonconventional innate-like CD8+ T cells. These cells were CD122+, rapid producer of IFN-γ and had characteristics of conventional memory CD8+ T cells. We also observed
ABSTRACT. In this in vitro study, T cell responses induced by breast tumor cell lysate pulsed monocyte-derived DCs were analyzed in terms of proliferation, specific cytotoxicity and cytokine-release in order to use in immunotherapeutic settings. Nylon wool enriched T lymphocytes from 5 patients with breast cancer stimulated in vitro with tumor cell lysate pulsed monocyte-derived DCs and their proliferation response were analyzed by [3H] thymidine uptake test. Specific cytotoxic activity of tumor antigen primed T cells after three rounds weekly stimulation was evaluated by flow cytometry, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines release assay was carried out 24 hours after last stimulation in the supernatant of primed T cells using commercially available ELISA kits. T cell proliferation assay revealed that tumor cell lysate pulsed DCs could stimulate autologous T cell proliferation response with stimulation indices 4.9 - 30. T cell mediated cytotoxicity assay demonstrated ...
Acute phase samples (9) and post-recovery samples (14) from cases of SJS or TEN to LTG were provided by the RegiSCAR-study group. Controls were persons never exposed to LTG (12), patients exposed without reaction (6), and patients who developed a mild eruption to LTG (6). LTT was performed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation after 3 days of incubation with phytohemmaglutinin, LTG (10 μg/mL) or medium. Stimulation index ≥ 2 was considered positive. In 16 cases LTT was redone after depletion of T-reg by fluorescence activated cell sorting. ...
A simple in vitro experimental system was devised to reflect the in vivo generation of a T cell anamnestic response so that T cell differentiation could be examined at the level of lymphokine gene expression. Comparison of neonatal and adult T cells revealed that both populations expressed the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor, but only adult T cells were capable of transcribing mRNAs for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon gamma, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, neonatal T cells could be induced to undergo functional differentiation in vitro, thereby acquiring the capacity to express the lymphokine gene repertoire characteristic for adult T cells. These data suggest that the T cells generated from neonatal blood by a primary stimulation in vitro are functionally indistinguishable from the T cells in adult blood that presumably have undergone primary stimulation in vivo. Therefore, we propose that the term "memory cell" be applied to those T cells that ...
The close similarity of the reported findings with nicotine on immune function (Caggiula et al., 1992; McAllister et al., 1994) with the results of the studies conducted in our laboratory with morphine led us to further explore the relationship between nicotinic and opioid-induced alterations in immune function. The results (Figs.1-3) with acute systemic morphine, nicotine and epibatidine treatment presented here demonstrated that each of these compounds produce: 1) antinociception, 2) decreased magnitude of peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation responses to mitogen without altering the sensitivity of the lymphocytes, 3) no alteration of either splenic or thymic proliferation responses, and 4) an elevation of circulating corticosterone levels. Collectively, these results indicate that the effects of systemic morphine are largely mimicked by both nicotine and epibatidine treatment.. Although considerable evidence supports the involvement of a central site of action for systemic morphine on ...
Another test, Lymphocyte transformation test, is available from Pharmasan and others. This test measures a different kind of immune response. It is based on FDA approved, commercially available TB tests. The test measures the innate immune response. An initial response which predates acquired immune responses which lead to antibody production. Immune cells patrolling our blood and tissues have the ability to recognize patterns which shouldnt be there (Pattern Recognition Receptors). Killer T cell lymphocytes are the first line of defense. Killer T cells attack offending antigen (Lyme) and turn on other immune responses including the production of cytokines, modulators of immune regulation. When this reaction occurs it leaves behind permanent T memory cells. These memory cells, when exposed to Lyme antigens react by releasing gamma interferon, a potent cytokine. This reaction can be measured. This test may be considered a complement to other tests, such as the Western Blot test. It is somewhat ...
The experiments described in this thesis document the development of two in vivo models, to investigate the effect of competition for peptide-MHC and factors independent of MHC on T cell proliferation, differentiation, generation of memory cells and affinity maturation. The first model made use of 3 strains of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (tg) mice of varying specificity for antigen-MHC class II. To determine the effect of antigen specific and non-specific competition on the early stages of the T cell response, the efficiency with which naïve antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were recruited into an ongoing immune response was investigated. Recruitment into cell division and cytokine production was shown to decrease with an increasing time delay between two cell cohorts of the same specificity, leading to a significant drop in recruitment with a delay of only 24 hours. Injection of additional antigen could partially compensate for this decrease, suggesting that lack of available antigen limited ...
Signaling through CD27 plays a role in T cell activation and memory. However, it is currently unknown how this costimulatory receptor influences CD4 effector T (Teff) cells in inflamed tissues. In the current study, we used a murine model of inducible self-antigen expression in the epidermis to elucidate the functional role of CD27 on autoreactive Teff cells. Expression of CD27 on Ag-specific Teff cells resulted in enhanced skin inflammation when compared with CD27-deficient Teff cells. CD27 signaling promoted the accumulation of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells in skin draining lymph nodes in a cell-intrinsic fashion. Surprisingly, this costimulatory pathway had minimal effect on early T cell activation and proliferation. Instead, signaling through CD27 resulted in the progressive survival of Teff cells during the autoimmune response. Using BH3 profiling to assess mitochondrial cell priming, we found that CD27-deficient cells were equally as sensitive as CD27-sufficient cells to mitochondrial ...
The role of CD4 as a coreceptor that promotes initial T cell Ag receptor-mediated activation events is well established. However, the role of CD4 in regulating previously activated T cells and ongoing immune responses is less well understood. In the present study, we have found that CD4 signaling is required for a distinct checkpoint during Th2 effector cell development, which is independent of initial T cell stimulation. Although production of Th2-associated cytokines is significantly diminished in T cells primed under Th2 conditions in the absence of CD4 signaling, initial Th2 development appeared intact as defined by the appropriate induction of IL-4 and GATA-3 transcription. These findings are quite distinct from other studies in itk, SAP, and fyn-deficient mice in which Th2 development was compromised in cells primed under neutral conditions, but was recovered upon the addition of exogenous IL-4 in conjunction with a high potency TCR stimulus (14, 15, 16). In these cases, the defect in Th2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CD40 ligand expressed by human B cells costimulates B cell responses. AU - Grammer, A. C.. AU - Bergman, M. C.. AU - Miura, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The possibility that activated B cells might express a ligand for CD40 that was of functional importance for B cell responses was examined by using highly purified human peripheral blood B cells, as well as a variety of B lymphoblastoid cell lines and hybridomas. Following stimulation with the combination of a calcium ionophore and a phorbol ester, human B cells bound a soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular portion of CD40 and the Fc region of lgG1 (CD40.lg). A variety of B cell lines and hybridomas also bound CD40.1g, either constitutively or after activation. In addition, CD40.Ig specifically immunoprecipitated a 33-kDa glycoprotein from surface 125I-labeled activated B cells. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the CD40 ligand mRNA ...
In this report, the Global Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Protein Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the e
The CD2 antigen (LFA-2) is a monomeric 50 kDa glycoprotein. It was formerly described as the sheep red blood cell receptor, causing T-cell rosetting, and has been identified as the ligand for CD58 (LFA-3). It is also a receptor for CD48, CD59 and CD15, which binds to the multimeric form of CD2. CD2 is present on the majority of normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and a high percentage of NK cells. It is also expressed by all thymocytes ...
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Here, we reported the identification of a PIP2-derived signaling amplification loop for the initiation of B cell activation (fig. S7). Specifically, we observed that there is a highly dynamic spatial-temporal change of PIP2 within the immunological synapse during B cell activation: PIP2 is efficiently depleted inside the BCR microclusters but is regenerated outside the BCR microclusters. Both events are important for the sustained initiation of B cell activation. Mechanistically, the hydrolysis of PIP2 inside the BCR microclusters induced a positive feedback mechanism for its synthesis outside the BCR microclusters.. The positive feedback nature of the PIP2-derived amplification loop is achieved by the unique Brownian mobility of PIP2 metabolic products. DAG, the product of PIP2 hydrolysis within the BCR microclusters, exhibits high Brownian mobility, which ensures its efficient interaction with DGKζ outside the BCR microclusters. PA, converted from DAG by DGKζ, drastically facilitates the ...
Un metodo per espandere γδ cellule T dalle cellule mononucleate del sangue periferico (PBMC) è descritta. PBMC cellule derivate γδ T...
DREAM is a multifunctional protein able to specifically interact with DNA and/or other proteins to execute defined functions in different cell compartments. In this study, we show that in T lymphocytes DREAM regulates the expression of three cytokine genes, IL‐2, IL‐4 and IFNγ. The proposed repressor mechanism involves recognition and binding to specific DREs located in their promoters. As previously shown for other Ca2+‐activated genes like c‐fos, ICER and AA‐NAT (Carrion et al, 1999; Link et al, 2004), in IL‐2 and IL‐4 promoters DREAM binds to a doublet with one direct and one inverted DRE repeat located downstream from the transcription initiation site and downregulates their activity. In the case of the IFNγ gene, like for the prodynorphin and the fra‐2 promoters, binding of DREAM to a single DRE site downstream from the TATA box is enough to repress transcription (Carrion et al, 1998, 1999; Link et al, 2004). Binding of DREAM or EFmDREAM to DRE sites downstream from the ...
In the absence of foreign antigen, peripheral naive T cells continuously recirculate between different lymphoid organs, in which they interact frequently and shortly with self. We and others have shown that such interactions are required for the long-term survival of naïve T cells. In addition, these TCR/MHC interactions and the resulting associated signaling increase quantitatively T-cell responsiveness towards foreign antigens and influence their function and/or differentiation into effector or memory cells in response to stimulation. Our project is based on our recent data showing that peripheral ab and gd T cells can be subdivided into various subsets according to Ly-6C expression. Interestingly, in CD4 ab T cells, Ly-6C expression inversely correlates with the ability of these cells to interact with self, defining Ly-6C as a new sensor of T cell self-reactivity. In parallel, we are exploring the regulation of T-cell self-reactivity in the context of cancer. Indeed, T cells specific for ...
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Preclinical experiments with allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells11 have opened up a new treatment paradigm and have made the use of allogeneic hCPC via cell banks a more realistic proposition, assuming that cryopreserved cells retain their original characteristics and are immunologically safe. In the present study, we provide the first detailed description of T-cell responses to cryopreserved allogeneic hCPC. We show that cryopreserved hCPC retain their primitive pluripotent and early cardiac lineage-committed phenotype. Tailored immune assays showed that these cells are hypoimmunogenic because, whether under inflammatory conditions or not, they lack the costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 required for conventional Th1 or Th2 type T-cell responses. In contrast, the hCPC express the costimulatory molecule PD-L1, which endows them with the capacity to drive significant allogeneic Treg responses and to attenuate an ongoing immune response.. Patients who experience heart failure after MI have ...
We describe here the potent specific immunosuppression obtained in vitro by LO-CD2a, a rat mAb directed against the human CD2 molecule. Addition of low dose LO-CD2a (40 ng/ml) at the time of mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) initiation inhibits 80% of the proliferation and, more impressive, addition of the mAb 4 days after culture initiation at a similar concentration still suppresses 50% of the MLC. When responder T cells previously treated with LO-CD2a are challenged a second time by the same donor or third party allogeneic cells, hyporesponsiveness occurs in both cases, although reactivity to T cell mitogenic stimulation persists. Finally, the low production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IFN-gamma after incubation of human T cells with LO-CD2a suggests the absence of T cell activation. These results demonstrate that LO-CD2a mAb has a significant immunosuppressive effect and induces hyporesponsiveness in vitro, thereby suggesting potential efficacy in vivo for the treatment ...
You will need to recognize lymphocytes in tissues.. You can find them nearly anywhere. Often they are simply standing watch.. Resting lymphocytes have scanty cytoplasm, since they are not really doing anything but remembering. Resting lymphocytes nuclei always have a preponderance of heterochromatin. It is always clumpy, separated by thin strips of euchromatin.. Plasma cells make antibodies. They have:. ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
The normal adult human body contains on the or- der of a trillion (1012) lymphocytes.… Together, the thymus and marrow produce approximately 109 mature lymphocytes each day, which are then released into the circulation. Tristram G. Parslow(pp40-41) Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses. The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. A hyphen does not appear in these terms, unless they are used adjectivally. Historically, the letters T and B reflected the anatomic sites of maturation of the 2 groups of cells, the thymus
The normal adult human body contains on the or- der of a trillion (1012) lymphocytes.… Together, the thymus and marrow produce approximately 109 mature lymphocytes each day, which are then released into the circulation. Tristram G. Parslow(pp40-41) Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses. The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. A hyphen does not appear in these terms, unless they are used adjectivally. Historically, the letters T and B reflected the anatomic sites of maturation of the 2 groups of cells, the thymus
We thoroughly check each answer to a question to provide you with the most correct answers. Found a mistake? Let us know about it through the REPORT button at the bottom of the page.. Unlike NK cells of the innate immune system, B cells (B lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell that gives rise to antibodies, whereas T cells (T lymphocytes) are a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in the immune response. T cells are a key component in the cell-mediated response-the specific immune response that utilizes T cells to neutralize cells that have been infected with viruses and certain bacteria.. There are three types of T cells: cytotoxic, helper, and suppressor T cells. Cytotoxic T cells destroy virus-infected cells in the cell-mediated immune response, and helper T cells play a part in activating both the antibody and the cell-mediated immune responses. Suppressor T cells deactivate T cells and B cells when needed, and thus prevent the immune response from becoming too ...
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Clone REA980 recognizes the mouse CD357 antigen, also known as glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor (GITR) or TNFRSF18. CD357 is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is expressed at low levels on resting T lymphocytes and at high levels on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of T cells upregulates CD357 expression. Interaction of CD357 (GTITR) with its ligand (GITRL) has been demonstrated to augment T cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production, as well as MAPKs and NF-κB activation. CD357 plays an important role in the function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. Additional information: Clone REA980 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Clone REA980 recognizes the mouse CD357 antigen, also known as glucocorticoid-induced TNF-receptor (GITR) or TNFRSF18. CD357 is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. It is expressed at low levels on resting T lymphocytes and at high levels on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Activation of T cells upregulates CD357 expression. Interaction of CD357 (GTITR) with its ligand (GITRL) has been demonstrated to augment T cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production, as well as MAPKs and NF-κB activation. CD357 plays an important role in the function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. Additional information: Clone REA980 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Lëtzebuerg
T lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that produce factors regulating the function of other cells of immune system thereby shaping the systemic immune response. CD4+ T lymphocytes play a crucial role in directing the immune responses against foreign pathogens, damaged or transformed cells. However, when deregulated, the T cells may also mediate a number of autoimmune diseases such as type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, activated T cells mediate graft rejection and may significantly affect the development and progression of inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Therefore, understanding the complex molecular mechanisms that regulate T cell effector functions may lead to development of therapeutic strategies designed to treat and/or alleviate T cell-mediated immune system disorders in humans. Our research focuses on unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating T cell activation and communication with other cells ...
The invention discloses methods for inducing a desired T helper lymphocyte regulated immune response by delivering an immunogen to a preselected region of the gastrointestinal tract of a subject. The
Mimicking the immunoregulatory properties of primary dendritic cells in vitro − A rational approach to design a test system ...
DNA-synthetic responses of fractionated human lymphocytes exposed to lymphocyte-derived mitogenic factor.: Human peripheral lymphocytes that have been exposed t
CD3ζ see TCRζ in Human non-CD antigens section. The CD3 antigen is a complex of 5 invariable polypeptidic chains, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η, whose molecular weights are respectively 25-28, 21, 20, 16 and 22 kDa. The ζ chain occurs in the CD3 complex as a disulphide linked homodimer or as a heterodimer with the η chain. CD3 is part of a bigger complex which includes the T Cell Receptor (TCR). This complex is expressed by mature T cells and by thymocytes. T cell activation may be induced when a foreign antigen is presented to the TCR through MHC complex.
Define B lymphocyte: any of the lymphocytes that have antigen-binding antibody molecules on the surface, that comprise… - B lymphocyte in a sentence
T Lymphocyte, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). T lymphocytes, or T cells, are a type of white blood cell and components of the bodys immune system. They mature in the thymus. T lymphocytes recognise a specific site on the surface of pathogens or foreign objects (antigens), bind to it, and produce antibodies or cells to eliminate that antigen. Magnification: x12, 000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C026/7800
C. a). d). c). f). b).e). g). Figure S1. NAT2 expression in lymphocytes and monocytes from a healthy volunteer. PBMC from a healthy volunteer were simple immunostaining for surface markers (CD3, CD19 or CD56) or for intracellular NAT2. C) Isotype control-PE. a) Dot plots of FSC and SSC. b) Dot plots of the isotype control-FITC in the lymphocyte gate (P1). c) Histogram of isotype control-FITC in the lymphocyte gate. d) Histogram of isotype control-PE in the lymphocyte gate. e) Dot plots of isotype control-FITC in the monocyte gate (P5). f) Histogram of isotype control-FITC in the monocytes gate. g) Histogram of isotype control-PE in the monocyte gate.
In article 308fu0INNcre at jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu, ejf at welchlink.welch.jhu.edu (Ephraim Fuchs) writes: , Since antigen presenting cells take in antigens randomly from their , environment, how is their delivery of signal two regulated so as to , achieve a self/nonself discrimination? In my opinion it isnt necessary to regulate e.g. the phagocytosis of macrophages to achieve a self/nonself discrimination at the level of T lymphocyte activation. Self/nonself discrimination is achieved by the ability of T-cell receptors (TCR) of CD4+ T lymphocytes to built a complex with MHC-II, the presented anigen and the TCR. No complex (MHC-II-antigen-TCR), no signal for the T lymphocyte. Normally TCRs wont bind to a complex of MHC-II and self-antigen (negative selection). Michael -- Michael Scheinost Internet: ,scheini at bio.rhein-main.de, CompuServe: ,100326,2553 ...
Measurement of proliferative responses of human lymphocytes is a fundamental technique for the assessment of their biological responses to various stimuli
Tangye SG، Nichols KE، Hare NJ، van de Weerdt BC (2003). "Functional requirements for interactions between CD84 and Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins and their contribution to human T cell activation". J. Immunol. 171 (5): 2485-95. PMID 12928397. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.5.2485. ...
If a high content of lymphocytes in addition to other symptoms of the disease is not present, there is no reason for concern.After suffering ARI increased number of these cells can be stored for 2-3 weeks.Sometimes, this period may last 1-2 months.In any case, seek the advice should only be an experienced, who knows what he is talking.Lymphocytes can be increased in the case where the body attacks the virus, and a strong immune system provides resistance to his credit.The body itself to cope with the problem.However, to support him during his illness should still be.To do this, you must follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle: a deep sleep, daily walks on the street, a proper diet, rich in protein and vegetable fats.. If increased lymphocytes in the blood of children, then, of course, consult your doctor.He then carry out the necessary investigations confirm or refute the presence of inflammation in the body.The sooner the doctor to identify the disease and prescribe appropriate treatment, the ...
Peripheral Blood Karyotyping Media optimized for the short term culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Ready to use, fully supplemented
Background and purpose: T cell activation, which is detrimental to the ischemic brain, requires metabolic reprogramming to meet the increased fuel demanding. ACC1 is an enzyme catalyzing the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl CoA, a key substrate in the glycolytic-lipogenic pathway, which is ext
F CD8+ T lymphocytes before operation, but this difference was not statistically BI 78D3 Significant (P.0.05). The percentages of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the
A persons white blood cells. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infection and disease ...
The human immune system is a remarkable collaboration of different types of cells, working together to protect our bodies from bacterial, parasitic, fungal or viral infections, and against the growth of tumors. The process starts when antigens, special markers on the surface of a cell, identify another cell as non-self, and signal the cellular warriors of the immune system to kill the invader. Leading this attack will be the T cells, lymphocytes from the thymus. It is well established that the key to T cell activation is the molecular signal coming off antigen-presenting cell surfaces. This signal must be enhanced and sustained long enough for the T cells to commit to mounting an immune response, and then must be cut off in time to avoid antigen-induced cell suicide or apoptosis of the T cells ...
1MWA: Structural comparison of allogeneic and syngeneic T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility complex complexes: a buried alloreactive mutation subtly alters peptide presentation substantially increasing V(beta) Interactions.
Comments, concepts and statistics about Substrate stiffness governs the initiation of B cell activation by the concerted signaling of PKCβ and focal adhesion kinase.
Dendritic cells (DC) manipulate tissue homeostasis by recognizing dying cells and controlling immune functions. However, the precise mechanisms by which DC recognize different types of dying cells and devise distinct immunologic consequences remain l
Dr. Kipervas responded: Reassurance. At age 8month and up to 5 years old child normally has highly lymphocytes count, what is opposite to adult person.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that come in different forms, reside in different parts of the body, and help the immune system in different ways.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that come in different forms, reside in different parts of the body, and help the immune system in different ways.
A 15 mL separation tube with a porous barrier for optimal separation of lymphocytes and mononuclear cells from blood and tissues.
The bodys means of protection against microorganisms and other foreign substances; it is composed of two major parts: the humoral response (B lymphocytes and production of antibodies) and the cell-mediated response (T lymphocytes that attack foreign substances directly). ...
The CD4 antigen is expressed on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45 percent of peripheral blood lymphocytes and at a lower level on monocytes.
The CD4 antigen is expressed on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45 percent of peripheral blood lymphocytes and at a lower level on monocytes.
Topographical studies of lymphocyte localization using an intracellular fluorochrome.: A procedure for analysing the topographical localization in tissue sectio
The role of lymphocytes is to recognize harmful particles in the body and carry out processes to deal with them. The main types of...
Advances in our understanding of T cell activation at a molecular level have permitted the manipulation of T cell regulation in cancer patients. A newly discove...
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Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. for the forecast year up to 2029. The global t lymphocyte activation antigen cd80 market ...
Looking for online definition of stimulation index in the Medical Dictionary? stimulation index explanation free. What is stimulation index? Meaning of stimulation index medical term. What does stimulation index mean?
0065]Following incubation of the APCs with effector T lymphocytes obtained from a mammal immunized against the pathogen, the inventive method comprises screening for an immune response from the effector T lymphocytes. The immune response can be any suitable effector T lymphocyte immune response known in the art, including, but not limited to, cytokine secretion, effector T cell cytotoxicity, and immune activation of effector T cells. Preferably, the inventive method comprises screening for secretion by the effector T lymphocytes. In this regard, cytokine secretion from an effector T lymphocyte contacting an APC indicates that the effector T lymphocyte recognizes the antigen produced and displayed by the APC. Furthermore, it is well known in the art that effector T lymphocytes, such as effector helper T effector lymphocytes, secrete cytokines upon antigen recognition which promote different activities. In this regard, inflammatory or Th1 CD4 T cells produce interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon gamma ...
We found a selective increase in T-lymphocyte number in morbid obese subjects, which was mainly caused by an increase in CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Also, in morbid obese subjects TREC content was decreased in all T-lymphocyte subpopulations, demonstrating that the increase in T-lymphocytes is mainly caused by increased proliferation. Moreover, in morbid obese subjects we found increased plasma levels of IL-7 and CCL5, both potent enhancers of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Also, plasma of morbid obese subjects enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.. Finally, both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes had some skewing of the TCR repertoire. ...
Recognition by CD8,sup,+,/sup, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) of antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules on target cells leads to sustained calcium mobilization and CTL degranulation resulting in perforin-dependent killing. We report that beta,sub,1,/sub, and beta,sub,3,/sub, integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins on target cells and/or surfaces dramatically promotes CTL degranulation. CTLs, when adhered to fibronectin but not CTL in suspension, efficiently degranulate upon exposure to soluble MHC.peptide complexes, even monomeric ones. This adhesion induces recruitment and activation of the focal adhesion kinase Pyk2, the cytoskeleton linker paxillin, and the Src kinases Lck and Fyn in the contact site. The T cell receptor, by association with Pyk2, becomes part of this adhesion-induced activation cluster, which greatly increases its signaling ...
Natural Killer Cell Activation Structures小鼠单克隆抗体[ANK61](ab36392)可与大鼠样本反应并经IP, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。
T helper and suppressor cell control of autologous immunoglobulin production was measured in 14 patients with Crohns disease (CD) using autologous B cells or monocytes to stimulate regulatory T-cell activity. A pronounced defect in suppressor cell function was observed in the patient group but not in matched controls irrespective of whether B cells or monocytes were used as the stimulus. This defect was observed for IgG, A and M. This defect was seen both in patients with active disease and with inactive CD suggesting the possibility that a primary regulatory defect might exist in this disease. The patient group displayed normal helper cell function ...