Sample logical reasoning aptitude test questions and answers pdf - What does this test contain? Non-verbal - Twelve Inductive/Logical Reasoning questions. GOOD LUCK! Page 2. An assortment of aptitude test questions with the answers explained free logical reasoning answer options Sample Aptitude Test PDF.
Description Logic is a formalism that is widely used in the framework of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. It is based on Classical Logic in order to guarantee the correctness of the inferences on the required reasoning tasks. It is indeed a fragment of First Order Predicate Logic whose language is strictly related to the one of Modal Logic. Fuzzy Description Logic is the generalization of the classical Description Logic framework thought for reasoning with vague concepts that often arise in practical applications. Fuzzy Description Logic has been investigated since the last decade of the 20th century. During the first fifteen years of investigation its semantics has been based on Fuzzy Set Theory. A semantics based on Fuzzy Set Theory, however, has been shown to have some counter-intuitive behavior, due to the fact that the truth function for the implication used is not the residuum of the truth function for the conjunction. In the meanwhile, Fuzzy Logic has ...
However, many different areas of artificial intelligence exist beyond machine learning. Resolution 6. , it consists of two parts, the first part x is the subject of the statement and second part is an integer, is known as a predicate. Logic and Artificial Intelligence research encompasses foundational studies in Logic and a variety of Artificial Intelligence disciplines. If the condition is true, then the action is taken, else not. The simple form of logic is Propositional Logic, also called Boolean Logic. Artificial intelligence (AI) is as much a branch of computer science as are its other branches, which include numerical methods, language theory, programming systems, and hardware systems. Module - 2 Artificial Intelligence Notes pdf (AI notes pdf) Logic Concepts and Logic Programming, Propositional Logic, Natural Deduction Systems, Axiomatic System,Semantic Tableau, System in Propositional logic and Knowledge Representation and more topics. In Existential quantifier, ∃x∃y is similar to ...
Logic is the art or science reasoning. Therefore, think logically to conclude the matter as it makes sense. People who find fault with the Bible tend to use faulty logic for their claims. This is why it is necessary for trúvarnarmaðurinn to learn and understand the logic so that it can provide a logical, objective and accurate answers to his criticisms. Logic is a normative science of inductions and deductions. It is a bridge that takes an idea from concept to model. Logic is referred to as the science of science. deductive / inductive Logic Logic addresses inductions and deductions. Inductive reasoning is forming conclusions from a given set of facts. In deduction, the results of just general statements. These statements are called housing. In Apologetics, deductive reasoning is the one that would be used the most. in deductive reasoning, it is not always easy to establish a true or false result. It all depends on the ground. If one or more of the premises are false then obviously the ...
Learn how to create and use a logic model, a visual representation of your initiatives activities, outputs, and expected outcomes whats my personality type? Fuzzy logic: from the very beginning of fuzzy sets. it is employed to handle the concept of. fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. type-2 fuzzy sets and systems generalize standard type-1 fuzzy sets and systems so that more uncertainty can be handled. fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications truth values of variables may be any type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications real number between 0 and 1. membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a.. ...
This weeks developer discussion is all about fuzzy logic. Click here to join the conversation by posting a comment. Have you used fuzzy logic before? If so, how did you apply it to your game AI? If not, why didnt you use fuzzy logic? Nice and Crisp Theres no argument here: discrete logic is the default in the game AI industry. Heres my take on why thats the case: Crisp logic is easier to implement, whether using finite state machines, behavior trees, or planners. Its more efficient to consider the best choice rather than having to calculate probabilities for alternatives. Design is more intuitive when the choices are crisp. Its easier to predict the outcome of an emergent system. Crisp decisions for the behaviors are easier to understand for the player, and less confusing. In a way, these are points against fuzzy logic. Do you agree with them? When to Go Fuzzy? Like any tool, fuzzy logic certainly has its advantages. To name a few: Its easier to write logic for reasoning with
print(Information Gain: %.3f bits % gain). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. # calculate the information gain. from math import log2. # calculate the entropy for the split in the dataset. def entropy(class0, class1):. return -(class0 * log2(class0) + class1 * log2(class1)). # split of the main dataset. class0 = 13 / 20. class1 = 7 / 20. # calculate entropy before the change. s_entropy = entropy(class0, class1). print(Dataset Entropy: %.3f bits % s_entropy). # split 1 (split via value1). s1_class0 = 7 / 8. s1_class1 = 1 / 8. # calculate the entropy of the first group. s1_entropy = entropy(s1_class0, s1_class1). print(Group1 Entropy: %.3f bits % s1_entropy). # split 2 (split via value2). s2_class0 = 6 / 12. s2_class1 = 6 / 12. # calculate the entropy of the second group. s2_entropy = entropy(s2_class0, s2_class1). print(Group2 Entropy: %.3f bits % s2_entropy). # calculate the information gain. gain = s_entropy ...
Professor Merrie Bergmann presents an accessible introduction to the subject of many-valued and fuzzy logic designed for use on undergraduate and graduate courses in non-classical logic. Bergmann discusses the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic - problems arising from vague language - and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, three-valued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic. The major fuzzy logical systems - Lukasiewicz, Gödel, and product logics - are then presented as generalisations of three-valued systems that successfully address the problems of vagueness. A clear presentation of technical concepts, this book includes exercises throughout the text that pose straightforward problems, that ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, and that engage students in the comparison of logical systems. ...
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Catalytic DNA (deoxyribozyme or DNAzyme) catalyze a reaction when interacting with the appropriate input, such as a matching oligonucleotide. These DNAzymes are used to build logic gates analogous to digital logic in silicon; however, DNAzymes are limited to 1-, 2-, and 3-input gates with no current implementation for evaluating statements in series. The DNAzyme logic gate changes its structure when it binds to a matching oligonucleotide and the fluorogenic substrate it is bonded to is cleaved free. While other materials can be used, most models use a fluorescence-based substrate because it is very easy to detect, even at the single molecule limit.[26] The amount of fluorescence can then be measured to tell whether or not a reaction took place. The DNAzyme that changes is then used, and cannot initiate any more reactions. Because of this, these reactions take place in a device such as a continuous stirred-tank reactor, where old product is removed and new molecules added. Two commonly used ...
Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the twilight zone we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our
Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence deals with the history of temporal logic as well as the crucial systematic questions within the field. The book studies the rich contributions from ancient and medieval philosophy up to the downfall of temporal logic in the Renaissance. The modern rediscovery of the subject, which is especially due to the work of A. N. Prior, is described, leading into a thorough discussion of the use of temporal logic in computer science and the understanding of natural language. Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence thus interweaves linguistic, philosophical and computational aspects into an informative and inspiring whole.
Graduation of teacher certification participants plays an important role in improving the quality of education in Indonesia. This paper presents a decision support system using a Scoring and Fuzzy Logic method to determine the participants graduation of teacher certification based on requirements fulfilled. Five criteria were used as the input of the system. In Fuzzy Logic method, each criteria is divided into three parts: low, medium and high; while scoring method is determined by using a 1 - 5 scale for each requirement fulfilled. Graduation and participants ranking using Scoring and Fuzzy Logic is the output of the system. In this paper, the assessment using Scoring and Fuzzy Logic showed different ranks and results in some scores, particularly in practice assessment by using scoring method for score 64,5 would not graduated the participants since the score of practice assessment is 65. While Fuzzy Logic would observe the scores of the four different methods, if those four criteria in the ...
In this thesis, an intelligent fuzzy logic system using genetic algorithms for the prediction and modelling of interest rates is developed. The proposed system uses a Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic system in which a genetic algorithm is used as a training method for learning the fuzzy rules knowledge bases. A fuzzy logic system is developed to model and predict three month quarterly interest rate fluctuations. The system is further trained to model and predict interest rates for six month and one year periods. The proposed system is developed with first two, three, then four and finally five hierarchical knowledge bases to model and predict interest rates. A Feed Forward Fuzzy Logic system using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms is developed to predict interest rates for three months periods. A back-propagation Hierarchical Neural Network system is further developed to predict interest rates for three months, six months and one year periods. These two systems are then compared with the Hierarchical Fuzzy
Häjek, P. (2010), On witnessed models in fuzzy logic III - witnessed Gödel logics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly, 56: 171-174. doi: 10.1002/malq.200810047 ...
Race Logic Synthesis for Large-Scale Integrated Circuit Designs - Techniques for performing race logic synthesis on an integrated circuit (IC) are described herein. According to one aspect of the invention, HDL (hardware description language) and/or ESL (electronic system level) design source files of an IC design are compiled into a common design database. Race logic analysis is performed on the IC design, either by a third-party tool or by the same EDA (electronic design automation) tool that also performing race logic synthesis, if the latter has built-in race logic audit functions. Based on the race logic audit results, race logic synthesis is performed on the common design database, and getting rid of all identified race logic in the IC design. This renders the EDA tool can perform concurrent analysis of the IC design, via the race-free common design database, using multi-CPU/core computers and the results will be the same as if the EDA tool had performed serial analysis of the IC design ...
While recent efforts to combine optimization and constraint satisfaction have received considerable attention, little has been said about using logic in optimization as the key to unifying the two fields. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization develops for the first time a comprehensive conceptual framework for integrating optimization and constraint satisfaction, then goes a step further and shows how extending logical inference to optimization allows for more powerful as well as flexible modeling and solution techniques. Designed to be easily accessible to industry professionals and academics in both operations research and artificial intelligence, the book provides a wealth of examples as well as elegant techniques and modeling frameworks ready for implementation. Timely, original, and thought-provoking, Logic-Based Methods for Optimization ...
And this West Virginia history instructional activity, students research the individuals whose leadership thinking the logic. It is no doubt that at many websites that what do an assignment the far from the area around Amherst and I meaning to write a personal, professional repertoire of multimedia resources to source information for understanding the insurance rates.. Students of psychology can learn from his ideas which spand from and field of medicine to our what living. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your logic. It is a logic, airy room, the whole floor nearly, with and that look all ways, the air and sunshine galore. Logic the far right and patterns so the is thinking darkly to balance the and of the piece.. com reviews online and all customers were really satisfied for the papers they ordered from this company because all of them had received their papers in good meaning. Go thinking ...
Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3PW91-TD\6-311G** model calculations of azo-dye disperse Orange 3 (DO3) molecule charge transfer indicate that in radiationless transitions charge move out from -N=N- bridge that support per linear isomerisation way [1, 2]. The results of light induced internal molecular motions in azo-dyes molecules have been used for the design and B3PW91-Time Dependent (TD)/6-311G** calculations of light driven OR logically controlled molecular machines composed from photoactive organic molecules such as electron donor: dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]thiophene and ferocene (C10H10Fe) and electron accepting and moving part of DO3 molecule. Applied DFT-TD method and our visualization program showed from which fragments electron is hopping in various excited states [2]. Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots possessing efficient fluorescence (Fluorescein-DO3) and anti-oxidant biological activity ...
Rio de Janeiro, Aug 11 (IANS) Weightlifter Xiang Yanmei of China shrugged off an unexpected neck injury to win the gold medal for China in the womens 69kg category at the ongoing Rio Olympics here. Xiang, winner at the world championships in 2013 and 2015, failed in her third attempt in the snatch competition on Wednesday when she put the 118kg barbell above her head but suddenly the barbell fell awkwardly on her head and down her neck and dropped to the floor, reports Xinhua.. I saw little stars all of a sudden. I got hurt a little bit; I felt hurt when I knocked my head, Xiang said.. Despite the thrill, the 24-year-old Xiang still took the lead and kept the momentum to jerk 145kg with a winning total of 261kg.. But I didnt think about it at all during the jerk, so it didnt affect my performance in the jerk, she said.. Zhazira Zhapparkul of Kazakhstan, who has stood below Xiang on the podium at the 2015 worlds, claimed the silver with a total of 259kg and the bronze went to Sara Ahmed of ...
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein which can maintain the length of a chromosome by adding repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG for vertebrates) to the 3′ end of the chromosome, leading to the endless division of cancer cells.1-5 Telomerase plays a vital role in human cancer, and it has been reported that telomerase is overexpressed in more than 85% of cancer cells. It has been widely recognized as an important biomarker for cancer and a potential therapeutic target.6-8 Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and its modified assays are the most popular methods to evaluate telomerase activity in cell extracts and tissues.6,9,10 Although they have excellent sensitivity, the relatively complex detection process and the intrinsic drawbacks of PCR-based assay, including the risk of carry-over contamination and susceptibility to polymerase inhibition by cell extracts, have led to the development of many alternative PCR-free methods, ...
C. Mercado-Zúñiga,1 J. R. Vargas-García,1,* F. Cervantes-Sodi,2 M. Trejo-Valdez,3 R. Torres-Martínez,4 and C. Torres-Torres5 1Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07300 D.F., Mexico 2Depto. Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01219 D.F., Mexico 3ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada Unidad Querétaro, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76090, Mexico 5Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, ESIME ZAC, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico *Corresponding author: [email protected] ...
Fuzzy logic provides a unique method of approximate reasoning in an imperfect world. This text is a bridge to the principles of fuzzy logic through an application-focused approach to selected topics in Engineering and Management. The many examples point to the richer solutions obtained through fuzzy logic and to the possibilities of much wider applications. There are relatively few texts available at present in fuzzy logic applications. The style and content of this text is complementary to those already available. New areas of application are presented in a graded approach in which the underlying concepts are first described. The text is broadly divided into two parts which treat Processes and Materials and also System Applications. The level enables a selection of the text to be made for the substance of a senior undergraduate level course. There is also sufficient volume and quality for the basis of a postgraduate course. A more restricted and judicious selection can provide the material for ...
Biocomputing uses molecular biology parts as the hardware to implement computational devices. By following pre-defined rules, often hard-coded into biological systems, these devices are able to process inputs and return outputs-thus computing information. Key to the success of any biocomputing endeavor is the availability of a wealth of molecular tools and biological motifs from which functional devices can be assembled. Synthetic biology is a fabulous playground for such purpose, offering numerous genetic parts that allow for the rational engineering of genetic circuits that mimic the behavior of electronic functions, such as logic gates. A grand challenge, as far as biocomputing is concerned, is to expand the molecular hardware available beyond the realm of genetic parts by tapping into the host metabolism. This objective requires the formalization of the interplay of genetic constructs with the rest of the cellular machinery. Furthermore, the field of metabolic engineering has had little intersection
An n-valued switch with n≧2, with an input enabled to receive a signal in one of n states, an output enabled to provide a signal in one of at least 2 states, under control of a control signal having one of at least 2 states is disclosed. Signals are instances of a physical phenomenon, an instance representing a state. N-valued inverters are also disclosed. Different types of signals are disclosed, including optical signals with different wavelengths, electrical signals with different frequencies and signals represented by a presence of a material. A kit including an n-valued switch is also disclosed.
Recently, multivalued logic (MVL) circuits have attracted tremendous interest due to their ability to process more data by increasing the number of logic states rather than the integration density. Here, we fabricate logic circuits based on molybdenum telluride (MoTe)/black phosphorus (BP) van der Waals heterojunctions with different structural phases of MoTe. Owing to the
Greetings all and Happy New Year! Ive been working on a logic circuit to control the main entrance gate at our ranch for some time now. Ive been testing using Falstads Circuit Simulator. However, Ive run into a problem: In the control head, I need to implement some simple logic to turn on the STOPPED indicator when the main entrance gate is not at the open limit (open limit = NOT grounded) AND not at the closed limit (closed limit = NOT grounded), OR when the STOP button is pressed (sending 12V to the latch interrupt relay). Im going to admit right up front that I have very little electronics knowledge compared to most people out here, but that hasnt stopped me from trying - smiles.. Let me post what I have first, and then I will explain the dilemma:. ...
It was written end 1998 or early 1999, as preparatory notes for a series of lectures on philosophy delivered to a group of some twenty students at the Université populaire de Genève.. The first of these essays is significant, in that it constitutes a comparative study, of interest not only to Moslems, but equally to Jews.. The second is primarily intended serve Jews or Christians to view their own beliefs in perspective (it is often easier to admit reasoning when one is not personally attached to a doctrine). My intent is certainly not to express disrespect for Moslem beliefs, though I of course wish them too to be more open-minded.. The third is not an original essay based on deep personal study, but was gleaned from other writers. It tells of the apparent stunting of Islamic philosophy after its promising beginnings.. See also my comments on the modal logic of Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 11th Cent. Persian philosopher), in Future Logic, Chapter 65.2.. As well, see comments on the Occasionalism of ...
Fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a continuum of values ranging from 0 to 1. In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate reasoning, but its widest meaning
Substructural logics are non-classical logics lacking some of the structural rules of classical logic, and are motivated by philosophical, linguistic and computational considerations. Traditionally...
Recently there has been renewed interest in the long-standing goal of somehow unifying the capabilities of both statistical AI (learning and prediction) and symbolic AI (knowledge representation and reasoning). We introduce Logical Neural Networks, a new neuro-symbolic framework which identifies and leverages a 1-to-1 correspondence between an artificial neuron and a logic gate in a weighted form of real-valued logic. With a few key modifications of the standard modern neural network, we construct a model which performs the equivalent of logical inference rules such as modus ponens within the message-passing paradigm of neural networks, and utilizes a new form of loss, contradiction loss, which maximizes logical consistency in the face of imperfect and inconsistent knowledge. The result differs significantly from other neuro-symbolic ideas in that 1) the model is fully disentangled and understandable since every neuron has a meaning, 2) the model can perform both classical logical deduction and ...
From the 1980s onwards, discourses of risk have continued to grow, almost in ubiquity. Ideas and practices of risk and risk aversion have extended to UK mental health care where services are expected to assess and manage risks, and high-quality clinical assessment has been revised to incorporate risk assessment. This article problematises practices of risk assessment in mental health provision, focussing on the base-rate problem. It presents an analysis of audio recordings of risk assessments completed within a primary care mental health service. The analysis is informed by a critical logics approach which, using ideas from discourse theory as well as Lacanian psychoanalysis, involves developing a set of logics to describe, analyse and explain social phenomena. We characterise the assessments as functioning according to social logics of well-oiled administration and preservation, whereby bureaucratic processes are prioritised, contingency ironed out or ignored, and a need to manage potential ...
The DJ Sessions - Featuring the best local, national, and world-renowned DJs playing live sets.. Machine Logic on The DJ Sessions presents the Silent Disco Sessions in Seattle 3/1/20. About Machine Logic -. machine_logic, a curator of deep, hypnotic, progressive dance grooves with a delicate, ethereal chemistry.. Always digging deep, his emotive selections tell his story. He cut his teeth in 1999 at KGRG-Auburn as both music director and host of their industrial radio program, Propaganda Department. From there came a spattering of one-off gigs and club nights, wandering through a variety of styles, before amassing a collection of the emotive and uplifting side of techno, house and breaks. While the music he plays is happy and soulful, hes never afraid to reference his dark roots and heat up the dance floor.. Hes played throughout the Pacific Northwest, with jumps down the West Coast. He loves playing nightclubs, rooftops, outdoors, and festivals. About The DJ Sessions -. We go LIVE every ...
This book introduces new concepts and theories of Fuzzy Logic Control for the application and development of robotics and intelligent machines. The book consists of nineteen chapters categorized into 1) Robotics and Electrical Machines 2) Intelligent Control Systems with various applications, and 3) New Fuzzy Logic Concepts and Theories. The intended readers of this book are engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in fuzzy logic control systems….. To read more, please open the following link :. http://www.intechopen.com/books/fuzzy-logic-controls-concepts-theories-and-applications ...
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Send your answer to the above puzzle to glmathgrant[at]gmail[dot]com before 11:59 PM Central time on July 20, 2018 to enter the contest. A randomly-selected entrant with the correct answer will win signed copies of the Spring 2015 issue of Will Shortzs Wordplay, the April 2018 and June 2018 issues of Games World of Puzzles, and my book Logic Puzzles 101! Said winner and up to 15 other randomly-selected entrants with the correct answer will win the LiveJournal Logic Pack, a digital packet of 300 logic puzzles that I wrote before starting this blog. Yes, thats up to 16 winners! I will also donate \$3 to Childs Play Charity, which outfits childrens hospitals and shelters with toys and games, making coping with the circumstances which put them there just a little bit easier, for every winner I have. That means if I have at least 16 entrants, Ill donate \$48 to Childs Play Charity! You might want to spread the word to your puzzle-loving friends if you want to help me reach this goal ...
MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. CS364 Artificial Intelligence. MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Introduction Graphical User Interface (GUI) Tools Example: Dinner for two. Introduction. MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox facilitates the development of fuzzy-logic systems using:. Slideshow 3566635 by onslow
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In this paper, a method to avoid obstacle and path-planning based on fuzzy logic system is proposed. In order to let a mobile robot be able to generate the safety path to the goal point. The following steps to complete these operations. Firstly, the theory of collision avoidance and obstacle detection were introduced. Secondly, a fuzzy logic control system was designed. Finally, the suitable path to avoid the moving obstacle is found by using the fuzzy logic control system. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB, and result verified the good performance of the proposed algorithm ...
The Alchemy software synthesizer first arrived with Logic Pro X 10.2. In this Logic Pro X 10.2.1 update tutorial audio engineer Scott Hirsch explores the new drag and drop from apple loop libarry to perforn spectral synthesis. While in spectral mode, Scott explores the eleven new spectral effects available in the updated Logic.
FUZZY LOGICT.C.Kanish Assistant Professor (Sr.) VIT University OVERVIEW What is Fuzzy Logic? Where did it begin? What is MatLab Fu...
Based on EDVAC, SEAC used only 747 vacuum tubes (a small number for the time) eventually expanded to 1,500 tubes. It had 10,500 germanium diodes which performed all of the logic functions (see the article diode-transistor logic for the working principles of diode logic), later expanded to 16,000 diodes. It was the first computer to do most of its logic with solid-state devices. The tubes were used for amplification, inversion and storing information in dynamic flip-flops.[8] The machine used 64 acoustic delay lines to store 512 words of memory, with each word being 45 bits in size. The clock rate was kept low (1 MHz). The computers instruction set consisted of only 11 types of instructions: fixed-point addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division; comparison, and input & output. It eventually expanded to 16 instructions. The addition time was 864 microseconds and the multiplication time was 2,980 microseconds (i.e. close to 3 milliseconds). Weight: 3,000 pounds (1.5 short tons; 1.4 t) ...
Relationships and Semantics. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is widely used to represent semantics (roughly, meaning) on the Internet, and is based on something called description logics. The paper, A Description Logic Primer (Markus Krötzsch, František Simančik, Ian Horrocks, 2013), states that roles represent binary relation[ship]s between individuals. In fact, roles are aspects of relationships and do not represent relationships. OWL calls an expression such as employs(LexisNexis, Ted Hills) a role assertion, but in fact it is a relationship assertion that asserts that two entities play two distinct roles in a relationship. The expression names neither role, and identifies the relationship type only indirectly: we know that employs is one way to read an employment relationship. These terminology choices are one thing that makes the field of semantics so hard to comprehend.. It is straightforward to see how a graph database can represent relationships between any two things (binary ...
One of Novenas most distinctive features is its FPGA co-processor. An FPGA, or Field Programmable Gate Array, is a sea of logic gates and memory elements that can be wired up according to hardware descriptions programmed in languages such as Verilog or VHDL. Verilog can be thought of as a very strictly typed C where every line of the code executes simultaneously. Thus, every bit of logic in Novenas Spartan 6 LX45 FPGA could theoretically perform a computation every clock cycle - all 43,000 logic cells, 54,000 flip flops, and 58 fixed-point multiply accumulate DSP blocks. This potential for massive parallelism underlies one half of the exciting prospects enabled by an FPGA. The other exciting half of an FPGA relates to its expansive I/O capabilities. Every signal pin of an FPGA can be configured to comply with a huge range of physical layer specifications, from vanilla CMOS to high-speed differential standards such as TMDS (used in HDMI) and SSTL (used to talk to DDR memories). Each signal pin ...
Why do students seem to have such a difficult time with the mathematical problem-solving process? The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have shifted the focus from teaching problem solving to teaching via problem solving. This online course is designed for teachers in grades 3-6 who want to help their students become critical and logical mathematical thinkers. Specific strategies are introduced that improve the way students approach math problems. Information on the problem-solving process is shared together with distinct suggestions for incorporating specific problem-solving strategies such as finding a pattern, working backwards, and logical reasoning. By the end of this course, teachers will more fully understand how to best help students apply their logic and reasoning to real-world mathematical examples and will have gained valuable classroom ideas including using manipulatives, grouping strategies, student-centered teaching, the use of literature in mathematics, as well as how to ...