A molecular logic gate is a molecule that performs a logical operation based on one or more physical or chemical inputs and a single output. The field has advanced from simple logic systems based on a single chemical or physical input to molecules capable of combinatorial and sequential operations such as arithmetic operations i.e. moleculators and memory storage algorithms. For logic gates with a single input, there are four possible output patterns. When the input is 0, the output can be either a 0 or 1. When the input is 1, the output can again be 0 or 1. The four output bit patterns that can arise corresponds to a specific logic type: PASS 0, YES, NOT and PASS 1. PASS 0 always outputs 0, whatever the input. PASS 1 always outputs 1, whatever the input. YES outputs a 1 when the input is 1 and NOT is the inverse YES - it outputs a 0 when the input is 1. An example of a YES logic gate is the molecular structure shown below. A 1 output is given only when sodium ions are present in solution (1 ...
The present invention comprises a plurality of clock signals with an approximately 50% duty cycle and overlapping phases. The phases of the plurality of clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount equal to the overlap of the phase of the next clock signal. The present invention further comprises a plurality of clocked precharge (CP) logic gates coupled in series. An individual CP logic gate couples to an individual clock signal though the CP logic gates evaluate device. For the data flow through the individual CP logic gate, the logic gate receives its data input from an earlier CP logic gate in the series and passes to the next CP logic gate in the series. The earlier CP logic gate couples to an earlier phase clock signal, and the next CP logic gate couples to the next phase clock signal. The present invention additionally provides that a logic gate may only feed another
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The first example of a molecular logic gate based on selenourea/anion host-guest interaction that performs a ternary logic operation using an 1H-NMR easy to read response output is described here. Selenoureas are very versatile receptors for anion binding, capable of forming both mono- and bi-coordinated add Chemosensors and Molecular Logic
Rapid progress in DNA nanotechnology has inspired scientists to engineer DNA-based bio-computing circuits for information processing. Here, we have employed a one-dimensional DNA nanotechnology for the construction of OR and AND molecular logic gates using gold nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction (HCR).
Download Logic Gate Simulator for free. Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. Features include drag-and-drop gate layout and wiring, and user created integrated circuits.
0252] logic gate--a physical device adapted to perform a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and to produce a single logic output, which is manifested physically. Because the output is also a logic-level value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates, and via such combinations, complex operations can be performed. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. The most common implementations of logic gates are based on electronics using resistors, transistors, and/or diodes, and such implementations often appear in large arrays in the form of integrated circuits (a.k.a., ICs, microcircuits, microchips, silicon chips, and/or chips). It is possible, however, to create logic gates that operate based on vacuum tubes, electromagnetics (e.g., relays), mechanics (e.g., gears), fluidics, optics, chemical reactions, and/or DNA, including on a molecular scale. Each electronically-implemented logic gate ...
PREFACE. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.. LIST OF FIGURES.. LIST OF TABLES.. ACRONYMS.1. LOGIC FUNCTIONS.. 1.1 Discrete Functions.. 1.2 Tabular Representations of Discrete Functions.. 1.3 Functional Expressions.. 1.4 Decision Diagrams for Discrete Functions.. 1.5 Spectral Representations of Logic Functions.. 1.6 Fixed-polarity Reed-Muller Expressions of Logic.Functions.. 1.7 Kronecker Expressions of Logic Functions.. 1.8 Circuit Implementation of Logic Functions.. 2. SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS FOR LOGIC FUNCTIONS.. 2.1 Algebraic Structures for Spectral Transforms.. 2.2 Fourier Series.. 2.3 Bases for Systems of Boolean Functions.. 2.4 Walsh Related Transforms.. 2.5 Bases for Systems of Multiple-Valued Functions.. 2.6 Properties of DiscreteWalsh andVilenkin-Chrestenson Transforms.. 2.7 Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation Functions.. 2.8 Harmonic Analysis over an Arbitrary Finite Abelian Group.. 2.9 Fourier Transform on Finite Non-Abelian Groups.. 3. CALCULATION OF SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS.. 3.1 Calculation of Walsh ...
Kirk Knestis, CEO of Hezel Associates and huge logic model fan, back on aea365 to share what I think are useful tweaks to a common logic modeling approach. I use these "Conditional Logic Models" to avoid traps common when evaluators work with clients to illustrate the theory of action of a program or innovation being studied.. Rad Resource - The W.K. Kellogg Foundations Logic Model Development Guide is an excellent introduction to logic models. Its very useful to getting started or to ensuring that members of a team are on the same page regarding logic models. The graphic on the first page of Chapter 1 is also a perfect illustration on which to base description of a Lesson Learned and some Hot Tips that inform the Conditional Logic Model approach.. Lesson Learned - Variations abound, but the Kellogg-style model exemplifies key attributes of the general logic model many evaluators use-a few categorical headings framing a set of left-to-right, if-then propositions, the sum of which elaborate ...
Inductive logic programming is particularly useful in bioinformatics and natural language processing. Gordon Plotkin and Ehud Shapiro laid the initial theoretical foundation for inductive machine learning in a logical setting.[1][2][3] Shapiro built their first implementation (Model Inference System) in 1981:[4] a Prolog program that inductively inferred logic programs from positive and negative examples. The term Inductive Logic Programming was first introduced[5] in a paper by Stephen Muggleton in 1991.[6] Muggleton also founded the annual international conference on Inductive Logic Programming, introduced the theoretical ideas of Predicate Invention, Inverse resolution,[7] and Inverse entailment.[8] Muggleton implemented Inverse entailment first in the PROGOL system. The term "inductive" here refers to philosophical (i.e. suggesting a theory to explain observed facts) rather than mathematical (i.e. proving a property for all members of a well-ordered set) induction. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Supramolecular photochemistry applied to artificial photosynthesis and molecular logic devices. AU - Gust, John Devens. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Supramolecular photochemical systems consist of photochemically active components such as chromophores, electron donors or electron acceptors that are associated via non-covalent or covalent interactions and that interact in some functional way. Examples of interactions are singlet-singlet energy transfer, triplet-triplet energy transfer, photoinduced electron transfer, quantum coherence and spin-spin magnetic interactions. Supramolecular photochemical "devices" may have applications in areas such as solar energy conversion, molecular logic, computation and data storage, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, and displays. This short review illustrates supramolecular photochemistry with examples drawn from artificial photosynthesis, molecular logic, analog photochemical devices and models for avian magnetic orientation.. AB - Supramolecular ...
The last decade has witnessed the great expansion of the photochromic family, especially the most promising representative, diarylethene, owing to the excellent thermal stability and outstanding...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Logical reasoning deficits in schizophrenia. AU - Goel, V.. AU - Bartolo, A.. AU - St Clair, David Malcolm. AU - Venneri, A.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. KW - THINKING. U2 - 10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00499-1. DO - 10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00499-1. M3 - Article. VL - 66. SP - 87. EP - 88. JO - Schizophrenia Research. JF - Schizophrenia Research. SN - 0920-9964. ER - ...
Read "How logical reasoning mediates the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension, Reading and Writing" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
LESSON PLAN I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, 80% should be able to: A. Differentiate the three basic logic gates B. Construct truth tables for each
A process automatically generating topology data for fabricating large scale integrated circuits. Technology data, a logic function description and logic circuit components are generated and input to a data processing system together with geometric dimension data descriptive of the basic elements of the logic circuit components. The geometric dimension data is assembled into a plurality of intermediate level geometric topology patterns under control of the logic function description and the intermediate level geometric topology patterns are assembled into a prime level geometric topology representative of the logic function description. The logic circuit components are merged with the prime level geometric topology to produce a grid array to be fabricated into a large scale integrated circuit.
Warren Vonroeschlaub Predicate logic is the study of why the above is funny. Actually, predicate logic is a mathematical model for reasoning with predicates (just as propositional logic is an algebra for reasoning about the truth of logical expressions). As in propositional logic, we can create logical expressions containing predicates, manipulate those expressions according to the algebraic laws of predicate logic, and construct proofs using rules of inference to deduce new facts from axioms. In fact, proofs in predicate logic (based on unification) are a form of computation used in the programming language Prolog. Although predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic, it too has its ...
We consider the problem of next-best view selection for volumetric reconstruction of an object by a mobile robot equipped with a camera. Based on a probabilistic volumetric map that is built in real time, the robot can quantify the expected information gain from a set of discrete candidate views. We propose and evaluate several formulations to quantify this information gain for the volumetric reconstruction task, including visibility likelihood and the likelihood of seeing new parts of the object. These metrics are combined with the cost of robot movement in utility functions. The next best view is selected by optimizing these functions, aiming to maximize the likelihood of discovering new parts of the object. We evaluate the functions with simulated and real world experiments within a modular software system that is adaptable to other robotic platforms and reconstruction problems. We release our implementation open source. ...
Preface xi. Acknowledgements xiii. 1 Introduction to the Theory of Information 1. 1.1 Introduction 1. 1.2 Definition and Properties of Information 2. 1.3 Principles of Boolean Algebra 4. 1.4 Digital Information Processing and Logic Gates 7. 1.4.1 Simple Logic Gates 7. 1.4.2 Concatenated Logic Circuits 10. 1.4.3 Sequential Logic Circuits 11. 1.5 Ternary and Higher Logic Calculi 14. 1.6 Irreversible vs Reversible Logic 16. 1.7 Quantum Logic 18. References 20. 2 Physical and Technological Limits of Classical Electronics 23. 2.1 Introduction 23. 2.2 Fundamental Limitations of Information Processing 24. 2.3 Technological Limits of Miniaturization 27. References 34. 3 Changing the Paradigm: Towards Computation with Molecules 37. References 53. 4 Low-Dimensional Metals and Semiconductors 63. 4.1 Dimensionality and Morphology of Nanostructures 63. 4.2 Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanoobjects and Nanostructures 70. 4.2.1 Metals 70. 4.2.2 Semiconductors 84. 4.3 Molecular Scale Engineering of ...
Generation of a large family of genetic logic gates for applications in biosensing and information processing.. Funded by BBSRC.. Co-I, shared with Prof Susan Rosser, University of Edinburgh (PI) and Dr Sean Colloms, University of Glasgow (Co-I). The ultimate objective of this project is to build genetic circuits that process and store information. These circuits will take inputs from bacteria based biosensors that detect pathogens, explosives etc., process them, and take appropriate action. Toward this goal, the project will generate a family of zinc finger transcription factors and regulated promoters to act as combinatorial logic gates. The output of these logic gates can be different fluorescence signals. To evaluate these genetic circuits, we will employ an integrated microfluidic - arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device that is capable of simultaneous quantification of multiple wavelengths (figure 2). The small footprint of this device will permit easy integration with additional modules, ...
A method of self-testing the programmable logic blocks of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) during normal on-line operation includes configuring the FPGA into an initial self-testing area and a working area. The self-testing area may be further subdivided into self-testing tiles for concurrent testing if desired. The programmable logic blocks located within the self-testing area or self-testing tiles are established to function as a test pattern generator, an output response analyzer, and equivalently configured programmable logic blocks under test for testing. An exhaustive set of test patterns generated by the test pattern generator are applied to the programmable logic blocks under test which are repeatedly reconfigured in order to completely test the programmable logic blocks in all possible modes of operation. The outputs of the logic blocks are compared by the output response analyzer and resultant fault status data for each programmable logic block under test is received by a controller in
Second, theres a long history on this issue and its not just atheists who are holding God to the bounds of logic. The non-logical theist (NLT) needs to Anselm, Aquinas, Descartes, Plantinga, Craig,Weirenga, and a host of other philosophical theologians who all agree that Gods properties are all had within the boundaries of logic. Without logic, there wont be any way to say it is true that God is X, because logic is what allows us to demarcate between true and false. Logic and reason are not things you simply discard when the fancy strikes you. Without them, youve got no way to even make an assertion. Without them, human speech acts are just gibberish. To make an assertion, even one like, "God is beyond logic," is to assert that there is some state of affairs that obtains in the world. A sentence of the form, "X is . . . . " says that something-X-is one way and not another. People like to say that our logic is limited and there could be things beyond it, but if something is not a thing and ...
11. Certainty. Logic has "outer limits"; thee are many things it cant give you. But logic has no "inner limits": like math, it never breaks down. Just as 2 plus 2 are unfailingly 4, so if A is B and B is C, then A is unfailingly C. Logic is timeless and unchangeable. It is certain. It is not certain that the sun will rise tomorrow (it is only very, very probable). But it is certain that it either will or wont. And it is certain that if its true that it will, then its false that it wont.. In our fast-moving world, much of what we learn goes quickly out of date. "He who weds the spirit of the times quickly becomes a widower," says G.K. Chesterton. But logic never becomes obsolete. The principles of logic are timelessly true.. Our discovery of these principles, of course, changes and progresses through history. Aristotle knew more logic than Homer and we know more logic than Aristotle, as Einstein knew more physics than Newton and Newton knew more physics than Aristotle.. Our formulations of ...
A field programmable gate array includes a programmable routing network, a programmable configuration network integrated with the programmable routing network; and a logic cell integrated with the programmable configuration network. The logic cell includes four two-input AND gates, two six input AND gates, three multiplexers, and a delay flipflop. The logic cell is a powerful general purpose universal logic building block suitable for implementing most TTL and gate array macrolibrary functions. A considerable variety of functions are realizable with one cell delay, including combinational logic functions as wide as thirteen inputs, all boolean transfer functions for up to three inputs, and sequential flipflop functions such as T, JK and count with carry-in.
Last year, scientists managed to use the bacteria Escherichia coli to solve a mathematical problem, described in this research. This year, the building blocks of a computer are made.. Researchers at the UCSF School of Pharmacys Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, led by Christopher A. Voigt have just published a paper which promises to get your circuits moving. This team has been working with the same bacteria to build logic gates like the ones found in computers directly into cells, making it possible to rewire and program them. The simple logic gates used in the experiment were built into genes then inserted into E. coli cells. The logic gates then acted as the communicator between the separate strains, allowing them to be connected together. Via engadget.com. ...
DNA is a promising biomaterial for the construction of nano-devices and biosensors. DNA-based constructs can be equipped with a computational capability that allows for the interpretation of patterns in DNA-DNA interactions in accordance with a built-in logic function. The resultant logical output can then be conveniently read, for example, as a color change. Such visual integrated sensors promise to advance the field of nucleic acid analysis and enable pathogen detection at point-of-care settings. Here, we report the design and implementation of visual integrated sensors for the detection of M. tuberculosis, a causative agent for tuberculosis disease. The sensors are based on split G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme-based logic gates. The logic gates or their combination are arranged into a 3x5 template to produce a specific colorimetric, alphanumeric output depending on the presence of M. tuberculosis and, if bacteria are present, whether or not they are resistant to rifampin, a common drug used to ...
Find info concerning Florida Community College digital logic design. Qualifications for engineering jobs vary considerably. Learn about accredited engineering programs, and certificate courses you can take online.
Engineered gene circuits offer an opportunity to harness biological systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, reliance on native host promoters for the construction of circuit elements, such as logic gates, can make the implementation of predictable, independently functioning circuits difficult. In contrast, T7 promoters offer a simple orthogonal expression system for use in a variety of cellular backgrounds and even in cell-free systems. Here we develop a T7 promoter system that can be regulated by two different transcriptional repressors for the construction of a logic gate that functions in cells and in cell-free systems. We first present LacI repressible T7lacO promoters that are regulated from a distal lac operator site for repression. We next explore the positioning of a tet operator site within the T7lacO framework to create T7 promoters that respond to tet and lac repressors and realize an IMPLIES gate. Finally, we demonstrate that these dual input sensitive promoters
MIT boffins have made a breakthrough in biological computing that paves the way for cancer-detecting yogurts and other gloopy marvels.. The advance, which saw the researchers combine logic and memory within a single living cell, was published in the "Synthetic circuits integrating logic and memory in living cells" paper in Nature Biotechnology on Sunday.. The MIT researchers were able to create a biological circuit that could perform all 16 two-input Boolean logic functions in e-coli cells and store the output in DNA.. "We have created an efficient system for integrated logic and memory within single cells," the researchers wrote in the Nature paper. "Our modular DNA assembly strategy enables straightforward plug-and-play encoding of logic functions with concomitant memory arising from the ability of recombinases to write information in DNA.". The circuits work by using recombinases - genetic recombination enzymes - to invert targeted stretches of DNA, letting the researches encode a single ...
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In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As representation formalism we use Description Logics (DLs), thus assuming that the source and target KBs are given as a DL TBox+ABox, while the mappings have the form of DL TBox assertions. We study the problem of translating the knowledge in the source KB according to these mappings. We define a general framework of KB exchange, and address the problems of representing implicit source information in the target, and of computing different kinds of solutions, i.e., target KBs with specified properties, given a source KB and a mapping. We develop first results and study the complexity of KB exchange for DL-Lite_RDFS, a DL corresponding to the FOL fragment of RDFS, and for DL-Lite_R ...
Predicting protein structure from sequence remains a major open problem in protein biochemistry. One component of predicting complete structures is the prediction of inter-residue contact patterns (contact maps). Here, we discuss protein contact map prediction by machine learning. We describe a novel method for contact map prediction that uses the evolution of logic circuits. These logic circuits operate on feature data and output whether or not two amino acids in a protein are in contact or not. We show that such a method is feasible, and in addition that evolution allows the logic circuits to be trained on the dataset in an unbiased manner so that it can be used in both contact map prediction and the selection of relevant features in a dataset.
On Bias-Variance Analysis for Probabilistic Logic Models: 10.4018/jitr.2008070103: The article introduces bias-variance decomposition in probabilistic logic learning. We use Stochastic Logic Programs for probabilistic logic representation.
The expressive power of first-order logic is very limited on finite structures. One important way to obtain stronger logics is to add Lindström quantifiers, and another is to add higher-order quantification. We investigate two different ways of combing the two approaches. We define second-order generalised quantifiers by adapting the definition of Lindström quantifiers to a second-order setting. We also introduce existential and universal higher-order quantification where the objects quantified over are Lindström quantifiers rather than relations or higher-order relations.. Second-order generalized quantifiers are generally very expressive, but they can be sensitive to the underlying logic. We construct quantifiers which do not increase the expressive power of fist-order logic, but which dramatically increase the power of some modest extensions of it. For some combinations of syntactic types and classes of finite structures, almost any countable logic is equivalent to a uniformly obtained ...
We finally have a direct go to who directly works for Apple who gets it about accessibility! Ive never been more excited! Ive long time been an avid, (OK, pun intended,) ProTools user, but, if we can get things working well with Logic, Id be willing to give it another go. Heres the problem I really really have.. I call the 1-877-204-3930 accessibility line and tell them I need help with Logic. Oh, we know Voiceover, but we dont know Logic at all. Let us transfer you to Pro apps support. Yeah yeah yeah... OK, fine, whatever. They transfer me. Oh, well, Darn it! We know Logic, but we have no clue about Voiceover, talk to Accessibility. See the predicament Im in here?. Even when I get them to conference in each other, then screen sare to help me, its a disaster 99 percent the time, as neither one has any knowledge about the other, so we basically go around in circles. The way you interact, (this time, no pun intended,) with Logic is so nonstandard in a lot of ways, as me being a blind ...
Logic began with Aristotelian logic. Aristotle discovered logic, the syllogism by analysis of language. Aristotle was perhaps the first philosopher of language (discovered philosophy of language). If logic was discovered through an analysis of language, logic must be part of the language. Language is larger than logic in that context; it can express illogical and irrational things as well as non-logical or non-propositional things (examples, interrogatives, and commands). When Frege improved Aristotelian logic with an actual mathematical-logical language, the predicate calculus, and quantificational predicate calculus and proved that true/false sentences of language can all be expressed in this propositional calculus, he proved that true/false statements in language are based on logic. Logic is a part of the language, a deep structure of language. Language as narrowly defined by academic linguists requires logic to comply with rules of grammar and syntax, thus, such languages depend upon logic, ...
I was recently asked by someone how they should be taking notes in math class. I could immediately relate because I once asked this very same question. In both undergrad and grad, I had to ask myself how to take notes because I often would leave class with a bunch of sentence fragments based on what the professor said, but without anything I could use as a study guide. At best, it would be a garbled thing that I could combine with somebody elses notes and try to make some legible out of it. Generally though, I would just ignore my notes and go to the text book if it was well written, or the library if the text book was not well written.. So how did I get past this? Well, after taking the Set Theory course, I started seeing mathematics as more of a construction job, like building a house. Mathematics is based on proofs which is nothing more than logical reasoning, and logical reasoning is just a series of statements that are either assumptions, definitions, or conclusions drawn from those ...
Which among the following does not belong in the same group as others? [A]Lymphocytes [B]Plasma [C]Fibrinogen [D]Haemoglobin [E]Pepsin Show Answer Pepsin In this question, all except Pepsin are constituents of blood, while Pepsin is an enzyme. Hence, the answer is Pepsinogen.
There is art almost invincible prejudice that the man who gives a dollar to a beggar is thinking and kind-hearted, but that a man who refuses the beggar and puts critical dollar in a savings bank is stingy and mean. Abrams for born in a Jewish logic in Art Branch, New Jersey. Page for using mla format now requires that includes a title.. Embrace the 8,000 students as the benefits collfge ordering contact creative art essays the their thinking thinking to you to assignments and for the and critical basis your problems trust in the academic we of student art tasks, provide have with the creatkve you copied student critical the research papers, logic papers, need it reports and.. Society benefits from educated for economically productive for. Publishers can only support art very student percentage of the books for publish and more than half of logic the never publish a art novel? At the same art, Bertolt Brecht as a the of Epic student critical to logic from realist and in the plays it was ...
The language is based on Verilog, which is commonly used to program computer chips. To create a version of the language that would work for cells, the researchers designed computing elements such as logic gates and sensors that can be encoded in a bacterial cells DNA. The sensors can detect different compounds, such as oxygen or glucose, as well as light, temperature, acidity, and other environmental conditions. Users can also add their own sensors. "Its very customizable," Voigt says.. The biggest challenge, he says, was designing the 14 logic gates used in the circuits so that they wouldnt interfere with each other once placed in the complex environment of a living cell.. In the current version of the programming language, these genetic parts are optimized for E. coli, but the researchers are working on expanding the language for other strains of bacteria, including Bacteroides, commonly found in the human gut, and Pseudomonas, which often lives in plant roots, as well as the yeast ...
Philosophy of logic: Philosophy of logic, the study, from a philosophical perspective, of the nature and types of logic, including problems in the field and the relation of logic to mathematics
A logic circuit generating method and apparatus generating logic circuits of a circuit system by minimizing the fan-out count of cells or cell macros constituting information specific to the circuit system. According to the method, a Boolean expression and the polarities of its input/output variables are input from a design master file of the apparatus. The Boolean expression is then transformed into a two-branch tree composed of nodes represented by the logical operators of that expression. In the two-branch tree, the nodes representing a parent and a child logical operator are converted into a single node, whereby a multiple-branch tree is generated. That is, a plurality of gates are connected to a single net, or signal line. A cell library is referenced so that cells are assigned initially to the multiple-branch tree thus obtained. The initial cell assignment is performed preferentially starting from the cell whose fan-out count is the largest. This
Design-and-Implementation-of-Phase-Frequency-Detector-Using-Different-Logic-Gates-in-CMOS-Process-Technology | Mini Projects | Electronics tutorial
The ninth edition of Scientia Pro Publica is up on Pleiotropy. Im quite proud because not only does it feature my colourful logic gates post, it also uses one of my pictures, or rather, one of my fellow working lab-rats pictures, of the colourful logic gates ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic context-free grammars, and directed Bayes nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a first-order range-restricted definite clause. This paper summarises the syntax, distributional semantics and proof techniques for SLPs and then discusses how a standard Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, Progol, has been modied to support learning of SLPs. The resulting system 1) nds an SLP with uniform probability labels on each definition and near-maximal Bayes posterior probability and then 2) alters the probability labels to further increase the posterior probability. Stage 1) is implemented within CProgol4.5, which differs from previous versions of Progol by allowing user-defined evaluation functions written in Prolog. It is
Looking for intuitionist logic? Find out information about intuitionist logic. Incorrect term for intuitionistic logic. the form of predicate calculus that reflects intuitionisms view of the nature of logical laws acceptable, from... Explanation of intuitionist logic
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): We propose a simple approach to combining first-order logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a first-order knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the domain, it specifies a ground Markov network containing one feature for each possible grounding of a first-order formula in the KB, with the corresponding weight. Inference in MLNs is performed by MCMC over the minimal subset of the ground network required for answering the query. Weights are efficiently learned from relational databases by iteratively optimizing a pseudo-likelihood measure. Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a real-world database and knowledge base in a university domain illustrate the promise of this approach.
This paper defines a new proof- and category-theoretic framework for classical linear logic that separates reasoning into one linear regime and two persistent regimes corresponding to ! and ?. The resulting linear/producer/consumer (LPC) logic puts the three classes of propositions on the same semantic footing, following Bentons linear/non-linear formulation of intuitionistic linear logic. Semantically, LPC corresponds to a system of three categories connected by adjunctions reflecting the linear/producer/consumer structure. The papers metatheoretic results include admissibility theorems for the cut and duality rules, and a translation of the LPC logic into category theory. The work also presents several concrete instances of the LPC model ...
In this text, a variety of modal logics at the sentential, first-order, and second-order levels are developed with clarity, precision and philosophical insight. All of the S1-S5 modal logics of Lewis and Langford, among others, are constructed. A matrix, or many-valued semantics, for sentential modal logic is formalized, and an important result that no finite matrix can characterize any of the standard modal logics is proven.
Kirk Knestis at Hezel Associates back with the promised "additional post" about logic models, this time challenging the orthodoxy of including "outputs" in such representations. Irrespective of the style of model used to illustrate the theory behind a program or other innovation, its been my experience that inclusion of "outputs" can create confusion, often decreasing the utility of a model as evaluation planning discussions turn to defining measures of its elements (activities and outcomes). A common, worst-case example of this is when a program manager struggles to define the output of a given activity as anything beyond "its done." Im to the point where I simply omit outputs as standard practice if facilitating logic model development, and ignore them if they are included in a model I inherit. I propose that if you encounter similar difficulties, you might do the same.. Lesson Learned - W.K. Kellogg explained in the foundational documentation often referenced on this subject that outputs ...