A molecular logic gate is a molecule that performs a logical operation based on one or more physical or chemical inputs and a single output. The field has advanced from simple logic systems based on a single chemical or physical input to molecules capable of combinatorial and sequential operations such as arithmetic operations i.e. moleculators and memory storage algorithms. For logic gates with a single input, there are four possible output patterns. When the input is 0, the output can be either a 0 or 1. When the input is 1, the output can again be 0 or 1. The four output bit patterns that can arise corresponds to a specific logic type: PASS 0, YES, NOT and PASS 1. PASS 0 always outputs 0, whatever the input. PASS 1 always outputs 1, whatever the input. YES outputs a 1 when the input is 1 and NOT is the inverse YES - it outputs a 0 when the input is 1. An example of a YES logic gate is the molecular structure shown below. A 1 output is given only when sodium ions are present in solution (1 ...
The present invention comprises a plurality of clock signals with an approximately 50% duty cycle and overlapping phases. The phases of the plurality of clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount equal to the overlap of the phase of the next clock signal. The present invention further comprises a plurality of clocked precharge (CP) logic gates coupled in series. An individual CP logic gate couples to an individual clock signal though the CP logic gates evaluate device. For the data flow through the individual CP logic gate, the logic gate receives its data input from an earlier CP logic gate in the series and passes to the next CP logic gate in the series. The earlier CP logic gate couples to an earlier phase clock signal, and the next CP logic gate couples to the next phase clock signal. The present invention additionally provides that a logic gate may only feed another
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The first example of a molecular logic gate based on selenourea/anion host-guest interaction that performs a ternary logic operation using an 1H-NMR easy to read response output is described here. Selenoureas are very versatile receptors for anion binding, capable of forming both mono- and bi-coordinated add Chemosensors and Molecular Logic
Possibilistic logic provides a convenient tool for dealing with uncertainty and handling inconsistency. In this paper, we propose possibilistic description logics as an extension of description logics, which are a family of well-known ontology languages. We first give the syntax and semantics of possibilistic description logics and define several inference services in possibilistic description logics. We show that these inference serviced can be reduced to the task of computing the inconsistency degree of a knowledge base in possibilistic description logics. Since possibilistic inference services suffer from the drowning problem, that is, axioms whose confidence degrees are less than or equal to the inconsistency are not used, we consider a drowning-free variant of possibilistic inference, called linear order inference. We propose an algorithm for computing the inconsistency degree of a possibilistic description logic knowledge base and an algorithm for the linear order inference. We consider ...
Rapid progress in DNA nanotechnology has inspired scientists to engineer DNA-based bio-computing circuits for information processing. Here, we have employed a one-dimensional DNA nanotechnology for the construction of OR and AND molecular logic gates using gold nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction (HCR).
Download Logic Gate Simulator for free. Logic Gate Simulator is an open-source tool for experimenting with and learning about logic gates. Features include drag-and-drop gate layout and wiring, and user created integrated circuits.
0252] logic gate--a physical device adapted to perform a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and to produce a single logic output, which is manifested physically. Because the output is also a logic-level value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates, and via such combinations, complex operations can be performed. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. The most common implementations of logic gates are based on electronics using resistors, transistors, and/or diodes, and such implementations often appear in large arrays in the form of integrated circuits (a.k.a., ICs, microcircuits, microchips, silicon chips, and/or chips). It is possible, however, to create logic gates that operate based on vacuum tubes, electromagnetics (e.g., relays), mechanics (e.g., gears), fluidics, optics, chemical reactions, and/or DNA, including on a molecular scale. Each electronically-implemented logic gate ...
PREFACE. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.. LIST OF FIGURES.. LIST OF TABLES.. ACRONYMS.1. LOGIC FUNCTIONS.. 1.1 Discrete Functions.. 1.2 Tabular Representations of Discrete Functions.. 1.3 Functional Expressions.. 1.4 Decision Diagrams for Discrete Functions.. 1.5 Spectral Representations of Logic Functions.. 1.6 Fixed-polarity Reed-Muller Expressions of Logic.Functions.. 1.7 Kronecker Expressions of Logic Functions.. 1.8 Circuit Implementation of Logic Functions.. 2. SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS FOR LOGIC FUNCTIONS.. 2.1 Algebraic Structures for Spectral Transforms.. 2.2 Fourier Series.. 2.3 Bases for Systems of Boolean Functions.. 2.4 Walsh Related Transforms.. 2.5 Bases for Systems of Multiple-Valued Functions.. 2.6 Properties of DiscreteWalsh andVilenkin-Chrestenson Transforms.. 2.7 Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation Functions.. 2.8 Harmonic Analysis over an Arbitrary Finite Abelian Group.. 2.9 Fourier Transform on Finite Non-Abelian Groups.. 3. CALCULATION OF SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS.. 3.1 Calculation of Walsh ...
A resonant soliton scheme to implement ultrafast optical logic gates using semiconductor, nonlinear directional couplers NLDC has been investigated numerically. It has been demonstrated that the resonant soliton logic gates meet fundamental requirements for digital optical logic devices logic level restoration, cascadability, and logical completeness. The operation of AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NOR, and NAND logic gates have been demonstrated in numerical simulations using 2 X 2 device configuration for a directional coupler. 3 X 3 NLDC design has been suggested to implement logically complete gates without necessity to cascade two or more couplers. Using 3 X 3 device configuration, an inventor NOT gate and a NOR gate have been implemented. The opening characteristics of the resonant soliton logic gates have been investigated numerically using 100 fs input pulses with 2 pie pulse area. It has been shown that the operating speed of all constructed gates is 2 Tbits, the operation is bit-rate flexible, the signal
Kirk Knestis, CEO of Hezel Associates and huge logic model fan, back on aea365 to share what I think are useful tweaks to a common logic modeling approach. I use these Conditional Logic Models to avoid traps common when evaluators work with clients to illustrate the theory of action of a program or innovation being studied.. Rad Resource - The W.K. Kellogg Foundations Logic Model Development Guide is an excellent introduction to logic models. Its very useful to getting started or to ensuring that members of a team are on the same page regarding logic models. The graphic on the first page of Chapter 1 is also a perfect illustration on which to base description of a Lesson Learned and some Hot Tips that inform the Conditional Logic Model approach.. Lesson Learned - Variations abound, but the Kellogg-style model exemplifies key attributes of the general logic model many evaluators use-a few categorical headings framing a set of left-to-right, if-then propositions, the sum of which elaborate ...
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Inductive logic programming is particularly useful in bioinformatics and natural language processing. Gordon Plotkin and Ehud Shapiro laid the initial theoretical foundation for inductive machine learning in a logical setting.[1][2][3] Shapiro built their first implementation (Model Inference System) in 1981:[4] a Prolog program that inductively inferred logic programs from positive and negative examples. The term Inductive Logic Programming was first introduced[5] in a paper by Stephen Muggleton in 1991.[6] Muggleton also founded the annual international conference on Inductive Logic Programming, introduced the theoretical ideas of Predicate Invention, Inverse resolution,[7] and Inverse entailment.[8] Muggleton implemented Inverse entailment first in the PROGOL system. The term inductive here refers to philosophical (i.e. suggesting a theory to explain observed facts) rather than mathematical (i.e. proving a property for all members of a well-ordered set) induction. ...
In logic, a set of symbols is commonly used to express logical representation. Invest in yourself. Coming soon: Logic in debates. Sentential logic (also known as Propositional logic) and Predicate Logic are both examples of formal systems of logic. Medhatithi Gautama (c. 6th century BC) founded the anviksiki school of logic. Enroll now! is that philosophy is (uncountable,originally) the love of wisdom while logic is (uncountable) a method of human thought that involves thinking in a linear, step-by-step manner about how a problem can be solved logic is the basis of many principles including the scientific method. Already St. Anselm studied the concept of action in a way that must be classified as logical; had he known symbolic logic, he would certainly have made use of it (Henry 1967; Walton 1976). 1. Dr. Paul Herrick, author of three logic texts, gives an overview of logic, its history, and its importance. Even if you dont have a background in philosophy, you … Major theories of truth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Supramolecular photochemistry applied to artificial photosynthesis and molecular logic devices. AU - Gust, John Devens. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Supramolecular photochemical systems consist of photochemically active components such as chromophores, electron donors or electron acceptors that are associated via non-covalent or covalent interactions and that interact in some functional way. Examples of interactions are singlet-singlet energy transfer, triplet-triplet energy transfer, photoinduced electron transfer, quantum coherence and spin-spin magnetic interactions. Supramolecular photochemical devices may have applications in areas such as solar energy conversion, molecular logic, computation and data storage, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, and displays. This short review illustrates supramolecular photochemistry with examples drawn from artificial photosynthesis, molecular logic, analog photochemical devices and models for avian magnetic orientation.. AB - Supramolecular ...
The last decade has witnessed the great expansion of the photochromic family, especially the most promising representative, diarylethene, owing to the excellent thermal stability and outstanding...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Logical reasoning deficits in schizophrenia. AU - Goel, V.. AU - Bartolo, A.. AU - St Clair, David Malcolm. AU - Venneri, A.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. KW - THINKING. U2 - 10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00499-1. DO - 10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00499-1. M3 - Article. VL - 66. SP - 87. EP - 88. JO - Schizophrenia Research. JF - Schizophrenia Research. SN - 0920-9964. ER - ...
Read How logical reasoning mediates the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension, Reading and Writing on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Understand the concept of Logical Reasoning - Previous Year Questions 14 Years with NTA-UGC NET course curated by Ashima Negi on Unacademy. The General Paper on Teaching course is delivered in English.
Dive into the research topics of Simultaneous multichannel wavelength multicasting and XOR logic gate multicasting for three DPSK signals based on four-wave mixing in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
LESSON PLAN I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, 80% should be able to: A. Differentiate the three basic logic gates B. Construct truth tables for each
A process automatically generating topology data for fabricating large scale integrated circuits. Technology data, a logic function description and logic circuit components are generated and input to a data processing system together with geometric dimension data descriptive of the basic elements of the logic circuit components. The geometric dimension data is assembled into a plurality of intermediate level geometric topology patterns under control of the logic function description and the intermediate level geometric topology patterns are assembled into a prime level geometric topology representative of the logic function description. The logic circuit components are merged with the prime level geometric topology to produce a grid array to be fabricated into a large scale integrated circuit.
Warren Vonroeschlaub Predicate logic is the study of why the above is funny. Actually, predicate logic is a mathematical model for reasoning with predicates (just as propositional logic is an algebra for reasoning about the truth of logical expressions). As in propositional logic, we can create logical expressions containing predicates, manipulate those expressions according to the algebraic laws of predicate logic, and construct proofs using rules of inference to deduce new facts from axioms. In fact, proofs in predicate logic (based on unification) are a form of computation used in the programming language Prolog. Although predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic, it too has its ...
Liposome logic - VLSI research, in its continuous push toward further miniaturisation, is seeking to break through the limitations of current circuit manufacture techniques by moving towards biomimetic methodologies that rely on self-assembly, selforganisation and evodevo-like processes. On the other hand, Systems and Synthetic biologys quest to achieve ever more detailed (multi)cell models are relying more and more on concepts derived from computer science and engineering such as the use of logic gates, clocks and pulse generator analogs to describe a cells decision making behavior. This paper is situated at the crossroad of these two enterprises. That is, a novel method of non-conventional computation based on the encapsulation of simple gene regulatory-like networks within liposomes is described. Three transcription Boolean logic gates were encapsulated and simulated within liposomes self-assembled from DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) amphiphiles using an implementation of Dissipative P...
We consider the problem of next-best view selection for volumetric reconstruction of an object by a mobile robot equipped with a camera. Based on a probabilistic volumetric map that is built in real time, the robot can quantify the expected information gain from a set of discrete candidate views. We propose and evaluate several formulations to quantify this information gain for the volumetric reconstruction task, including visibility likelihood and the likelihood of seeing new parts of the object. These metrics are combined with the cost of robot movement in utility functions. The next best view is selected by optimizing these functions, aiming to maximize the likelihood of discovering new parts of the object. We evaluate the functions with simulated and real world experiments within a modular software system that is adaptable to other robotic platforms and reconstruction problems. We release our implementation open source. ...
Preface xi. Acknowledgements xiii. 1 Introduction to the Theory of Information 1. 1.1 Introduction 1. 1.2 Definition and Properties of Information 2. 1.3 Principles of Boolean Algebra 4. 1.4 Digital Information Processing and Logic Gates 7. 1.4.1 Simple Logic Gates 7. 1.4.2 Concatenated Logic Circuits 10. 1.4.3 Sequential Logic Circuits 11. 1.5 Ternary and Higher Logic Calculi 14. 1.6 Irreversible vs Reversible Logic 16. 1.7 Quantum Logic 18. References 20. 2 Physical and Technological Limits of Classical Electronics 23. 2.1 Introduction 23. 2.2 Fundamental Limitations of Information Processing 24. 2.3 Technological Limits of Miniaturization 27. References 34. 3 Changing the Paradigm: Towards Computation with Molecules 37. References 53. 4 Low-Dimensional Metals and Semiconductors 63. 4.1 Dimensionality and Morphology of Nanostructures 63. 4.2 Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanoobjects and Nanostructures 70. 4.2.1 Metals 70. 4.2.2 Semiconductors 84. 4.3 Molecular Scale Engineering of ...
Generation of a large family of genetic logic gates for applications in biosensing and information processing.. Funded by BBSRC.. Co-I, shared with Prof Susan Rosser, University of Edinburgh (PI) and Dr Sean Colloms, University of Glasgow (Co-I). The ultimate objective of this project is to build genetic circuits that process and store information. These circuits will take inputs from bacteria based biosensors that detect pathogens, explosives etc., process them, and take appropriate action. Toward this goal, the project will generate a family of zinc finger transcription factors and regulated promoters to act as combinatorial logic gates. The output of these logic gates can be different fluorescence signals. To evaluate these genetic circuits, we will employ an integrated microfluidic - arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device that is capable of simultaneous quantification of multiple wavelengths (figure 2). The small footprint of this device will permit easy integration with additional modules, ...
A method of self-testing the programmable logic blocks of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) during normal on-line operation includes configuring the FPGA into an initial self-testing area and a working area. The self-testing area may be further subdivided into self-testing tiles for concurrent testing if desired. The programmable logic blocks located within the self-testing area or self-testing tiles are established to function as a test pattern generator, an output response analyzer, and equivalently configured programmable logic blocks under test for testing. An exhaustive set of test patterns generated by the test pattern generator are applied to the programmable logic blocks under test which are repeatedly reconfigured in order to completely test the programmable logic blocks in all possible modes of operation. The outputs of the logic blocks are compared by the output response analyzer and resultant fault status data for each programmable logic block under test is received by a controller in
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RESTRICTIONS. The Software Tools and any Evaluation Board(s) are provided solely for Companys internal use for the purpose of enabling the use of a CIRRUS LOGIC semiconductor device in Companys end product(s) by configuring hardware or firmware settings or developing firmware to run on an embedded core or providing stimulus to the CIRRUS LOGIC device (collectively, the Purpose), and Company agrees not to use the Software Tools and/or any Evaluation Boards for any other purpose. Where the Software Tools are used to create a binary image of CIRRUS LOGIC firmware which is then used with, or embedded within, a CIRRUS LOGIC semiconductor device, the use of such firmware, is governed by the terms of the CIRRUS LOGIC Software License Agreement. Other code created by Company using the Software Tools is not licensed by CIRRUS LOGIC, and no responsibility is accepted by CIRRUS LOGIC for such code. Company is responsible for determining the suitability of any updates to firmware provided with the ...
Second, theres a long history on this issue and its not just atheists who are holding God to the bounds of logic. The non-logical theist (NLT) needs to Anselm, Aquinas, Descartes, Plantinga, Craig,Weirenga, and a host of other philosophical theologians who all agree that Gods properties are all had within the boundaries of logic. Without logic, there wont be any way to say it is true that God is X, because logic is what allows us to demarcate between true and false. Logic and reason are not things you simply discard when the fancy strikes you. Without them, youve got no way to even make an assertion. Without them, human speech acts are just gibberish. To make an assertion, even one like, God is beyond logic, is to assert that there is some state of affairs that obtains in the world. A sentence of the form, X is . . . . says that something-X-is one way and not another. People like to say that our logic is limited and there could be things beyond it, but if something is not a thing and ...
11. Certainty. Logic has outer limits; thee are many things it cant give you. But logic has no inner limits: like math, it never breaks down. Just as 2 plus 2 are unfailingly 4, so if A is B and B is C, then A is unfailingly C. Logic is timeless and unchangeable. It is certain. It is not certain that the sun will rise tomorrow (it is only very, very probable). But it is certain that it either will or wont. And it is certain that if its true that it will, then its false that it wont.. In our fast-moving world, much of what we learn goes quickly out of date. He who weds the spirit of the times quickly becomes a widower, says G.K. Chesterton. But logic never becomes obsolete. The principles of logic are timelessly true.. Our discovery of these principles, of course, changes and progresses through history. Aristotle knew more logic than Homer and we know more logic than Aristotle, as Einstein knew more physics than Newton and Newton knew more physics than Aristotle.. Our formulations of ...
A field programmable gate array includes a programmable routing network, a programmable configuration network integrated with the programmable routing network; and a logic cell integrated with the programmable configuration network. The logic cell includes four two-input AND gates, two six input AND gates, three multiplexers, and a delay flipflop. The logic cell is a powerful general purpose universal logic building block suitable for implementing most TTL and gate array macrolibrary functions. A considerable variety of functions are realizable with one cell delay, including combinational logic functions as wide as thirteen inputs, all boolean transfer functions for up to three inputs, and sequential flipflop functions such as T, JK and count with carry-in.
Franz Baader, Barbara Morawska. Unification in the Description Logic EL. In Ralf Treinen, eds.,Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Rewriting Techniques and Applications (RTA 2009), volume 5595of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 350-364, 2009.Springer
Last year, scientists managed to use the bacteria Escherichia coli to solve a mathematical problem, described in this research. This year, the building blocks of a computer are made.. Researchers at the UCSF School of Pharmacys Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, led by Christopher A. Voigt have just published a paper which promises to get your circuits moving. This team has been working with the same bacteria to build logic gates like the ones found in computers directly into cells, making it possible to rewire and program them. The simple logic gates used in the experiment were built into genes then inserted into E. coli cells. The logic gates then acted as the communicator between the separate strains, allowing them to be connected together. Via engadget.com. ...
DNA is a promising biomaterial for the construction of nano-devices and biosensors. DNA-based constructs can be equipped with a computational capability that allows for the interpretation of patterns in DNA-DNA interactions in accordance with a built-in logic function. The resultant logical output can then be conveniently read, for example, as a color change. Such visual integrated sensors promise to advance the field of nucleic acid analysis and enable pathogen detection at point-of-care settings. Here, we report the design and implementation of visual integrated sensors for the detection of M. tuberculosis, a causative agent for tuberculosis disease. The sensors are based on split G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme-based logic gates. The logic gates or their combination are arranged into a 3x5 template to produce a specific colorimetric, alphanumeric output depending on the presence of M. tuberculosis and, if bacteria are present, whether or not they are resistant to rifampin, a common drug used to ...
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See more ideas about Logic, Fun math, Logic puzzles. Please be aware that this might heavily reduce the functionality and appearance of our site. Help your child develop logic and problem-solving skills with our free printables, suitable for preschoolers on up. Other children are more comfortable watching an activity and asking questions. As little ones practice telling time, counting coins, working with fractions, and more, they will make great progress in listening and following directions. There are 9 puzzles varying from easy to intermediate to difficult. Note that blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience on our websites and the services we are able to offer. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Here are some good sites, for free Printable Logic and Critical Thinking: Your email address will not be published. Logic Worksheets - PDF printable logic math worksheets for children in: Pre-K, Kindergarten, 1 st grade, 2 nd grade, 3 rd grade, 4 th grade, 5 th grade, 6 th ...
Engineered gene circuits offer an opportunity to harness biological systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, reliance on native host promoters for the construction of circuit elements, such as logic gates, can make the implementation of predictable, independently functioning circuits difficult. In contrast, T7 promoters offer a simple orthogonal expression system for use in a variety of cellular backgrounds and even in cell-free systems. Here we develop a T7 promoter system that can be regulated by two different transcriptional repressors for the construction of a logic gate that functions in cells and in cell-free systems. We first present LacI repressible T7lacO promoters that are regulated from a distal lac operator site for repression. We next explore the positioning of a tet operator site within the T7lacO framework to create T7 promoters that respond to tet and lac repressors and realize an IMPLIES gate. Finally, we demonstrate that these dual input sensitive promoters
MIT boffins have made a breakthrough in biological computing that paves the way for cancer-detecting yogurts and other gloopy marvels.. The advance, which saw the researchers combine logic and memory within a single living cell, was published in the Synthetic circuits integrating logic and memory in living cells paper in Nature Biotechnology on Sunday.. The MIT researchers were able to create a biological circuit that could perform all 16 two-input Boolean logic functions in e-coli cells and store the output in DNA.. We have created an efficient system for integrated logic and memory within single cells, the researchers wrote in the Nature paper. Our modular DNA assembly strategy enables straightforward plug-and-play encoding of logic functions with concomitant memory arising from the ability of recombinases to write information in DNA.. The circuits work by using recombinases - genetic recombination enzymes - to invert targeted stretches of DNA, letting the researches encode a single ...
The high moisture content in our 100% all-natural Pumpkin Purée can also help keep your pet hydrated. This company was founded by Bob Milligan and the first Natureâ s Variety product hit pet store shelves in 2002. Highly recommended. Natureâ s Logic Canine Dry Kibble â Beef Formula Dog Food Review. Reviewed in the United States on December 26, 2017. Natures Logic Duck & Salmon Meal Feast is a highly palatable and nutrient dense meat-based dry dog food with concentrates of select fruits and vegetables. 1.0 out of 5 stars This flavor caused two different dogs to have diarrhea. ... Iâ m thinking of switching up again frtom Stella & Chewyâ s baked raw coated to slowly introducing Natures Logic Distinction. Loaded with fiber, Pumpkin Purée can help your furry friend overcome diarrhea and constipation. Scott Freeman founded Natureâ s Logic in 2005, focusing on the logic of whole nutrition, not synthetic chemicals and supplements. Natureâ s Logic Dog Food Reviews (Ratings, Recalls!) The 8 ...
Gödels speed-up theorem implies that some proofs can get significantly shortened when allowing extra axioms. There are concrete examples of this phenomenon for instance when moving from Peano arithmetic (PA) to PA + consistency(PA), or when moving from PA to second-order arithmetic, see for instance this question.. However, I am not aware of concrete examples of such a dramatic shortening when moving from constructive logic to classical logic. So, is there a known example of a statement that is both true in constructive and classical logic, that has a reasonably short proof in classical logic, but such that any proof in constructive logic would be gigantic (and thus not human-readable)? Ideally, an example would be a statement that would feel concrete enough for the average mathematician, i.e. a statement involving numbers, graphs, algebraic structures, etc. (Friedmans examples on Kruskals tree theorem fit the bill). (I would also be interested in an example that has a simple proof in ...
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In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As representation formalism we use Description Logics (DLs), thus assuming that the source and target KBs are given as a DL TBox+ABox, while the mappings have the form of DL TBox assertions. We study the problem of translating the knowledge in the source KB according to these mappings. We define a general framework of KB exchange, and address the problems of representing implicit source information in the target, and of computing different kinds of solutions, i.e., target KBs with specified properties, given a source KB and a mapping. We develop first results and study the complexity of KB exchange for DL-Lite_RDFS, a DL corresponding to the FOL fragment of RDFS, and for DL-Lite_R ...
TY - GEN. T1 - MethyLogic. T2 - 12th International Meeting on DNA Computing, DNA12. AU - Dimitrova, Nevenka. AU - Gal, Susannah. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - The MethyLogic method performs flexible and reversible modification of DNA in order to establish the logical value of true or false for a set of clauses. It combines both the biological meaning and experimental procedure with the logical implementation of the basic Boolean operators: OR, AND, and NOT. The original feature of methylation logic, MethyLogic, is the use of the reversibility of DNA methylation of cytosine and adenine. Logic variables can be negated by reversing the DNA methylation status. We introduce four implementation scenarios: three of them use methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes and the fourth uses methyl-binding proteins. Encoding can use either single or double-stranded DNA. In addition, we show how to solve a three variable SAT problem and how to implement a logic circuit.. AB - The MethyLogic method performs ...
Sample logical reasoning aptitude test questions and answers pdf - What does this test contain? Non-verbal - Twelve Inductive/Logical Reasoning questions. GOOD LUCK! Page 2. An assortment of aptitude test questions with the answers explained free logical reasoning answer options Sample Aptitude Test PDF.
Description Logic is a formalism that is widely used in the framework of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. It is based on Classical Logic in order to guarantee the correctness of the inferences on the required reasoning tasks. It is indeed a fragment of First Order Predicate Logic whose language is strictly related to the one of Modal Logic. Fuzzy Description Logic is the generalization of the classical Description Logic framework thought for reasoning with vague concepts that often arise in practical applications. Fuzzy Description Logic has been investigated since the last decade of the 20th century. During the first fifteen years of investigation its semantics has been based on Fuzzy Set Theory. A semantics based on Fuzzy Set Theory, however, has been shown to have some counter-intuitive behavior, due to the fact that the truth function for the implication used is not the residuum of the truth function for the conjunction. In the meanwhile, Fuzzy Logic has ...
However, many different areas of artificial intelligence exist beyond machine learning. Resolution 6. , it consists of two parts, the first part x is the subject of the statement and second part is an integer, is known as a predicate. Logic and Artificial Intelligence research encompasses foundational studies in Logic and a variety of Artificial Intelligence disciplines. If the condition is true, then the action is taken, else not. The simple form of logic is Propositional Logic, also called Boolean Logic. Artificial intelligence (AI) is as much a branch of computer science as are its other branches, which include numerical methods, language theory, programming systems, and hardware systems. Module - 2 Artificial Intelligence Notes pdf (AI notes pdf) Logic Concepts and Logic Programming, Propositional Logic, Natural Deduction Systems, Axiomatic System,Semantic Tableau, System in Propositional logic and Knowledge Representation and more topics. In Existential quantifier, ∃x∃y is similar to ...
Logic is the art or science reasoning. Therefore, think logically to conclude the matter as it makes sense. People who find fault with the Bible tend to use faulty logic for their claims. This is why it is necessary for trúvarnarmaðurinn to learn and understand the logic so that it can provide a logical, objective and accurate answers to his criticisms. Logic is a normative science of inductions and deductions. It is a bridge that takes an idea from concept to model. Logic is referred to as the science of science. deductive / inductive Logic Logic addresses inductions and deductions. Inductive reasoning is forming conclusions from a given set of facts. In deduction, the results of just general statements. These statements are called housing. In Apologetics, deductive reasoning is the one that would be used the most. in deductive reasoning, it is not always easy to establish a true or false result. It all depends on the ground. If one or more of the premises are false then obviously the ...
Learn how to create and use a logic model, a visual representation of your initiatives activities, outputs, and expected outcomes whats my personality type? Fuzzy logic: from the very beginning of fuzzy sets. it is employed to handle the concept of. fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. type-2 fuzzy sets and systems generalize standard type-1 fuzzy sets and systems so that more uncertainty can be handled. fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications truth values of variables may be any type 2 fuzzy logic theory and applications real number between 0 and 1. membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a.. ...
This weeks developer discussion is all about fuzzy logic. Click here to join the conversation by posting a comment. Have you used fuzzy logic before? If so, how did you apply it to your game AI? If not, why didnt you use fuzzy logic? Nice and Crisp Theres no argument here: discrete logic is the default in the game AI industry. Heres my take on why thats the case: Crisp logic is easier to implement, whether using finite state machines, behavior trees, or planners. Its more efficient to consider the best choice rather than having to calculate probabilities for alternatives. Design is more intuitive when the choices are crisp. Its easier to predict the outcome of an emergent system. Crisp decisions for the behaviors are easier to understand for the player, and less confusing. In a way, these are points against fuzzy logic. Do you agree with them? When to Go Fuzzy? Like any tool, fuzzy logic certainly has its advantages. To name a few: Its easier to write logic for reasoning with
print(Information Gain: %.3f bits % gain). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. # calculate the information gain. from math import log2. # calculate the entropy for the split in the dataset. def entropy(class0, class1):. return -(class0 * log2(class0) + class1 * log2(class1)). # split of the main dataset. class0 = 13 / 20. class1 = 7 / 20. # calculate entropy before the change. s_entropy = entropy(class0, class1). print(Dataset Entropy: %.3f bits % s_entropy). # split 1 (split via value1). s1_class0 = 7 / 8. s1_class1 = 1 / 8. # calculate the entropy of the first group. s1_entropy = entropy(s1_class0, s1_class1). print(Group1 Entropy: %.3f bits % s1_entropy). # split 2 (split via value2). s2_class0 = 6 / 12. s2_class1 = 6 / 12. # calculate the entropy of the second group. s2_entropy = entropy(s2_class0, s2_class1). print(Group2 Entropy: %.3f bits % s2_entropy). # calculate the information gain. gain = s_entropy ...
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Professor Merrie Bergmann presents an accessible introduction to the subject of many-valued and fuzzy logic designed for use on undergraduate and graduate courses in non-classical logic. Bergmann discusses the philosophical issues that give rise to fuzzy logic - problems arising from vague language - and returns to those issues as logical systems are presented. For historical and pedagogical reasons, three-valued logical systems are presented as useful intermediate systems for studying the principles and theory behind fuzzy logic. The major fuzzy logical systems - Lukasiewicz, Gödel, and product logics - are then presented as generalisations of three-valued systems that successfully address the problems of vagueness. A clear presentation of technical concepts, this book includes exercises throughout the text that pose straightforward problems, that ask students to continue proofs begun in the text, and that engage students in the comparison of logical systems. ...
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Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the twilight zone we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our
Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence deals with the history of temporal logic as well as the crucial systematic questions within the field. The book studies the rich contributions from ancient and medieval philosophy up to the downfall of temporal logic in the Renaissance. The modern rediscovery of the subject, which is especially due to the work of A. N. Prior, is described, leading into a thorough discussion of the use of temporal logic in computer science and the understanding of natural language. Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence thus interweaves linguistic, philosophical and computational aspects into an informative and inspiring whole.
Graduation of teacher certification participants plays an important role in improving the quality of education in Indonesia. This paper presents a decision support system using a Scoring and Fuzzy Logic method to determine the participants graduation of teacher certification based on requirements fulfilled. Five criteria were used as the input of the system. In Fuzzy Logic method, each criteria is divided into three parts: low, medium and high; while scoring method is determined by using a 1 - 5 scale for each requirement fulfilled. Graduation and participants ranking using Scoring and Fuzzy Logic is the output of the system. In this paper, the assessment using Scoring and Fuzzy Logic showed different ranks and results in some scores, particularly in practice assessment by using scoring method for score 64,5 would not graduated the participants since the score of practice assessment is 65. While Fuzzy Logic would observe the scores of the four different methods, if those four criteria in the ...
In this thesis, an intelligent fuzzy logic system using genetic algorithms for the prediction and modelling of interest rates is developed. The proposed system uses a Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic system in which a genetic algorithm is used as a training method for learning the fuzzy rules knowledge bases. A fuzzy logic system is developed to model and predict three month quarterly interest rate fluctuations. The system is further trained to model and predict interest rates for six month and one year periods. The proposed system is developed with first two, three, then four and finally five hierarchical knowledge bases to model and predict interest rates. A Feed Forward Fuzzy Logic system using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms is developed to predict interest rates for three months periods. A back-propagation Hierarchical Neural Network system is further developed to predict interest rates for three months, six months and one year periods. These two systems are then compared with the Hierarchical Fuzzy
Häjek, P. (2010), On witnessed models in fuzzy logic III - witnessed Gödel logics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly, 56: 171-174. doi: 10.1002/malq.200810047 ...
Race Logic Synthesis for Large-Scale Integrated Circuit Designs - Techniques for performing race logic synthesis on an integrated circuit (IC) are described herein. According to one aspect of the invention, HDL (hardware description language) and/or ESL (electronic system level) design source files of an IC design are compiled into a common design database. Race logic analysis is performed on the IC design, either by a third-party tool or by the same EDA (electronic design automation) tool that also performing race logic synthesis, if the latter has built-in race logic audit functions. Based on the race logic audit results, race logic synthesis is performed on the common design database, and getting rid of all identified race logic in the IC design. This renders the EDA tool can perform concurrent analysis of the IC design, via the race-free common design database, using multi-CPU/core computers and the results will be the same as if the EDA tool had performed serial analysis of the IC design ...
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Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3PW91-TD\6-311G** model calculations of azo-dye disperse Orange 3 (DO3) molecule charge transfer indicate that in radiationless transitions charge move out from -N=N- bridge that support per linear isomerisation way [1, 2]. The results of light induced internal molecular motions in azo-dyes molecules have been used for the design and B3PW91-Time Dependent (TD)/6-311G** calculations of light driven OR logically controlled molecular machines composed from photoactive organic molecules such as electron donor: dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]thiophene and ferocene (C10H10Fe) and electron accepting and moving part of DO3 molecule. Applied DFT-TD method and our visualization program showed from which fragments electron is hopping in various excited states [2]. Further development of molecular machines are performing using B3PW91\6-311G** geometry optimization of larger molecular robots possessing efficient fluorescence (Fluorescein-DO3) and anti-oxidant biological activity ...
Rio de Janeiro, Aug 11 (IANS) Weightlifter Xiang Yanmei of China shrugged off an unexpected neck injury to win the gold medal for China in the womens 69kg category at the ongoing Rio Olympics here. Xiang, winner at the world championships in 2013 and 2015, failed in her third attempt in the snatch competition on Wednesday when she put the 118kg barbell above her head but suddenly the barbell fell awkwardly on her head and down her neck and dropped to the floor, reports Xinhua.. I saw little stars all of a sudden. I got hurt a little bit; I felt hurt when I knocked my head, Xiang said.. Despite the thrill, the 24-year-old Xiang still took the lead and kept the momentum to jerk 145kg with a winning total of 261kg.. But I didnt think about it at all during the jerk, so it didnt affect my performance in the jerk, she said.. Zhazira Zhapparkul of Kazakhstan, who has stood below Xiang on the podium at the 2015 worlds, claimed the silver with a total of 259kg and the bronze went to Sara Ahmed of ...
C. Mercado-Zúñiga,1 J. R. Vargas-García,1,* F. Cervantes-Sodi,2 M. Trejo-Valdez,3 R. Torres-Martínez,4 and C. Torres-Torres5 1Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07300 D.F., Mexico 2Depto. Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01219 D.F., Mexico 3ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada Unidad Querétaro, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76090, Mexico 5Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, ESIME ZAC, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 D.F., Mexico *Corresponding author: [email protected] ...
Fuzzy logic provides a unique method of approximate reasoning in an imperfect world. This text is a bridge to the principles of fuzzy logic through an application-focused approach to selected topics in Engineering and Management. The many examples point to the richer solutions obtained through fuzzy logic and to the possibilities of much wider applications. There are relatively few texts available at present in fuzzy logic applications. The style and content of this text is complementary to those already available. New areas of application are presented in a graded approach in which the underlying concepts are first described. The text is broadly divided into two parts which treat Processes and Materials and also System Applications. The level enables a selection of the text to be made for the substance of a senior undergraduate level course. There is also sufficient volume and quality for the basis of a postgraduate course. A more restricted and judicious selection can provide the material for ...
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Biocomputing uses molecular biology parts as the hardware to implement computational devices. By following pre-defined rules, often hard-coded into biological systems, these devices are able to process inputs and return outputs-thus computing information. Key to the success of any biocomputing endeavor is the availability of a wealth of molecular tools and biological motifs from which functional devices can be assembled. Synthetic biology is a fabulous playground for such purpose, offering numerous genetic parts that allow for the rational engineering of genetic circuits that mimic the behavior of electronic functions, such as logic gates. A grand challenge, as far as biocomputing is concerned, is to expand the molecular hardware available beyond the realm of genetic parts by tapping into the host metabolism. This objective requires the formalization of the interplay of genetic constructs with the rest of the cellular machinery. Furthermore, the field of metabolic engineering has had little intersection
An n-valued switch with n≧2, with an input enabled to receive a signal in one of n states, an output enabled to provide a signal in one of at least 2 states, under control of a control signal having one of at least 2 states is disclosed. Signals are instances of a physical phenomenon, an instance representing a state. N-valued inverters are also disclosed. Different types of signals are disclosed, including optical signals with different wavelengths, electrical signals with different frequencies and signals represented by a presence of a material. A kit including an n-valued switch is also disclosed.
Recently, multivalued logic (MVL) circuits have attracted tremendous interest due to their ability to process more data by increasing the number of logic states rather than the integration density. Here, we fabricate logic circuits based on molybdenum telluride (MoTe)/black phosphorus (BP) van der Waals heterojunctions with different structural phases of MoTe. Owing to the
Greetings all and Happy New Year! Ive been working on a logic circuit to control the main entrance gate at our ranch for some time now. Ive been testing using Falstads Circuit Simulator. However, Ive run into a problem: In the control head, I need to implement some simple logic to turn on the STOPPED indicator when the main entrance gate is not at the open limit (open limit = NOT grounded) AND not at the closed limit (closed limit = NOT grounded), OR when the STOP button is pressed (sending 12V to the latch interrupt relay). Im going to admit right up front that I have very little electronics knowledge compared to most people out here, but that hasnt stopped me from trying - smiles.. Let me post what I have first, and then I will explain the dilemma:. ...
It was written end 1998 or early 1999, as preparatory notes for a series of lectures on philosophy delivered to a group of some twenty students at the Université populaire de Genève.. The first of these essays is significant, in that it constitutes a comparative study, of interest not only to Moslems, but equally to Jews.. The second is primarily intended serve Jews or Christians to view their own beliefs in perspective (it is often easier to admit reasoning when one is not personally attached to a doctrine). My intent is certainly not to express disrespect for Moslem beliefs, though I of course wish them too to be more open-minded.. The third is not an original essay based on deep personal study, but was gleaned from other writers. It tells of the apparent stunting of Islamic philosophy after its promising beginnings.. See also my comments on the modal logic of Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 11th Cent. Persian philosopher), in Future Logic, Chapter 65.2.. As well, see comments on the Occasionalism of ...
Fuzzy logic, in mathematics, a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set. Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth-i.e., as a continuum of values ranging from 0 to 1. In a narrow sense, the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate reasoning, but its widest meaning
Substructural logics are non-classical logics lacking some of the structural rules of classical logic, and are motivated by philosophical, linguistic and computational considerations. Traditionally...
Recently there has been renewed interest in the long-standing goal of somehow unifying the capabilities of both statistical AI (learning and prediction) and symbolic AI (knowledge representation and reasoning). We introduce Logical Neural Networks, a new neuro-symbolic framework which identifies and leverages a 1-to-1 correspondence between an artificial neuron and a logic gate in a weighted form of real-valued logic. With a few key modifications of the standard modern neural network, we construct a model which performs the equivalent of logical inference rules such as modus ponens within the message-passing paradigm of neural networks, and utilizes a new form of loss, contradiction loss, which maximizes logical consistency in the face of imperfect and inconsistent knowledge. The result differs significantly from other neuro-symbolic ideas in that 1) the model is fully disentangled and understandable since every neuron has a meaning, 2) the model can perform both classical logical deduction and ...
From the 1980s onwards, discourses of risk have continued to grow, almost in ubiquity. Ideas and practices of risk and risk aversion have extended to UK mental health care where services are expected to assess and manage risks, and high-quality clinical assessment has been revised to incorporate risk assessment. This article problematises practices of risk assessment in mental health provision, focussing on the base-rate problem. It presents an analysis of audio recordings of risk assessments completed within a primary care mental health service. The analysis is informed by a critical logics approach which, using ideas from discourse theory as well as Lacanian psychoanalysis, involves developing a set of logics to describe, analyse and explain social phenomena. We characterise the assessments as functioning according to social logics of well-oiled administration and preservation, whereby bureaucratic processes are prioritised, contingency ironed out or ignored, and a need to manage potential ...
The DJ Sessions - Featuring the best local, national, and world-renowned DJs playing live sets.. Machine Logic on The DJ Sessions presents the Silent Disco Sessions in Seattle 3/1/20. About Machine Logic -. machine_logic, a curator of deep, hypnotic, progressive dance grooves with a delicate, ethereal chemistry.. Always digging deep, his emotive selections tell his story. He cut his teeth in 1999 at KGRG-Auburn as both music director and host of their industrial radio program, Propaganda Department. From there came a spattering of one-off gigs and club nights, wandering through a variety of styles, before amassing a collection of the emotive and uplifting side of techno, house and breaks. While the music he plays is happy and soulful, hes never afraid to reference his dark roots and heat up the dance floor.. Hes played throughout the Pacific Northwest, with jumps down the West Coast. He loves playing nightclubs, rooftops, outdoors, and festivals. About The DJ Sessions -. We go LIVE every ...
This book introduces new concepts and theories of Fuzzy Logic Control for the application and development of robotics and intelligent machines. The book consists of nineteen chapters categorized into 1) Robotics and Electrical Machines 2) Intelligent Control Systems with various applications, and 3) New Fuzzy Logic Concepts and Theories. The intended readers of this book are engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in fuzzy logic control systems….. To read more, please open the following link :. http://www.intechopen.com/books/fuzzy-logic-controls-concepts-theories-and-applications ...
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Send your answer to the above puzzle to glmathgrant[at]gmail[dot]com before 11:59 PM Central time on July 20, 2018 to enter the contest. A randomly-selected entrant with the correct answer will win signed copies of the Spring 2015 issue of Will Shortzs Wordplay, the April 2018 and June 2018 issues of Games World of Puzzles, and my book Logic Puzzles 101! Said winner and up to 15 other randomly-selected entrants with the correct answer will win the LiveJournal Logic Pack, a digital packet of 300 logic puzzles that I wrote before starting this blog. Yes, thats up to 16 winners! I will also donate $3 to Childs Play Charity, which outfits childrens hospitals and shelters with toys and games, making coping with the circumstances which put them there just a little bit easier, for every winner I have. That means if I have at least 16 entrants, Ill donate $48 to Childs Play Charity! You might want to spread the word to your puzzle-loving friends if you want to help me reach this goal ...
MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. CS364 Artificial Intelligence. MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Introduction Graphical User Interface (GUI) Tools Example: Dinner for two. Introduction. MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox facilitates the development of fuzzy-logic systems using:. Slideshow 3566635 by onslow
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In this paper, a method to avoid obstacle and path-planning based on fuzzy logic system is proposed. In order to let a mobile robot be able to generate the safety path to the goal point. The following steps to complete these operations. Firstly, the theory of collision avoidance and obstacle detection were introduced. Secondly, a fuzzy logic control system was designed. Finally, the suitable path to avoid the moving obstacle is found by using the fuzzy logic control system. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB, and result verified the good performance of the proposed algorithm ...
The Alchemy software synthesizer first arrived with Logic Pro X 10.2. In this Logic Pro X 10.2.1 update tutorial audio engineer Scott Hirsch explores the new drag and drop from apple loop libarry to perforn spectral synthesis. While in spectral mode, Scott explores the eleven new spectral effects available in the updated Logic.
FUZZY LOGICT.C.Kanish Assistant Professor (Sr.) VIT University OVERVIEW What is Fuzzy Logic? Where did it begin? What is MatLab Fu...
Relationships and Semantics. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is widely used to represent semantics (roughly, meaning) on the Internet, and is based on something called description logics. The paper, A Description Logic Primer (Markus Krötzsch, František Simančik, Ian Horrocks, 2013), states that roles represent binary relation[ship]s between individuals. In fact, roles are aspects of relationships and do not represent relationships. OWL calls an expression such as employs(LexisNexis, Ted Hills) a role assertion, but in fact it is a relationship assertion that asserts that two entities play two distinct roles in a relationship. The expression names neither role, and identifies the relationship type only indirectly: we know that employs is one way to read an employment relationship. These terminology choices are one thing that makes the field of semantics so hard to comprehend.. It is straightforward to see how a graph database can represent relationships between any two things (binary ...
One of Novenas most distinctive features is its FPGA co-processor. An FPGA, or Field Programmable Gate Array, is a sea of logic gates and memory elements that can be wired up according to hardware descriptions programmed in languages such as Verilog or VHDL. Verilog can be thought of as a very strictly typed C where every line of the code executes simultaneously. Thus, every bit of logic in Novenas Spartan 6 LX45 FPGA could theoretically perform a computation every clock cycle - all 43,000 logic cells, 54,000 flip flops, and 58 fixed-point multiply accumulate DSP blocks. This potential for massive parallelism underlies one half of the exciting prospects enabled by an FPGA. The other exciting half of an FPGA relates to its expansive I/O capabilities. Every signal pin of an FPGA can be configured to comply with a huge range of physical layer specifications, from vanilla CMOS to high-speed differential standards such as TMDS (used in HDMI) and SSTL (used to talk to DDR memories). Each signal pin ...
Why do students seem to have such a difficult time with the mathematical problem-solving process? The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have shifted the focus from teaching problem solving to teaching via problem solving. This online course is designed for teachers in grades 3-6 who want to help their students become critical and logical mathematical thinkers. Specific strategies are introduced that improve the way students approach math problems. Information on the problem-solving process is shared together with distinct suggestions for incorporating specific problem-solving strategies such as finding a pattern, working backwards, and logical reasoning. By the end of this course, teachers will more fully understand how to best help students apply their logic and reasoning to real-world mathematical examples and will have gained valuable classroom ideas including using manipulatives, grouping strategies, student-centered teaching, the use of literature in mathematics, as well as how to ...