Galloping Elk (all images from Eadweard Muybridges Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion made Popular, animations via Wikimedia). The 19th century photographs by Eadweard Muybridge captured something that had previously been too fleeting for the human eye: the mechanics of animal locomotion. In his 1893 book Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion made Popular, Muybridge described his most famous animal locomotion capture of a horse. The series of photographs aimed to settle a dispute over the possibility of a horse having all of his feet free of contact with the ground at the same instant, while trotting, even at a high rate of speed. The photographs revealed conclusively for the first time that a horses feet do indeed leave the ground all at once while in full gallop, the horse pulling its legs briefly underneath itself before sprinting forward. Muybridges animal locomotion studies were a great success and he traveled around showing the ...
This paper presents a simple yet biologicallygrounded model for the neural control of Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion. We identify a minimal circuit within the C. elegans ventral cord that is likely to be sufficient to generate and sustain forward locomotion in vivo. This limited subcircuit appears to contain no obvious central pattern generated control. For that subcircuit, we present a model that relies on a chain of oscillators along the body which are driven by local and proximate mechano-sensory input. Computer simulations were used to study the model under a variety of conditions and to test whether it is behaviourally plausible. Within our model, we find that a minimal circuit of AVB interneurons and B-class motoneurons is sufficient to generate and sustain fictive forward locomotion patterns that are robust to significant environmental perturbations. The model predicts speed and amplitude modulation by the AVB command interneurons. An extended model including D-class ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between resting medial gastrocnemius stiffness and drop jump performance. AU - Ando, Ryosuke. AU - Sato, Shinya. AU - Hirata, Naoya. AU - Tanimoto, Hiroki. AU - Imaizumi, Naoto. AU - Suzuki, Yasuhiro. AU - Hirata, Kosuke. AU - Akagi, Ryota. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported in part by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI grant 18K17813 to R. Ando and 16H05918 to R. Akagi. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2021/6. Y1 - 2021/6. N2 - Although the influence of the series elastic element of the muscle-tendon unit on jump performance has been investigated, the corresponding effect of the parallel elastic element remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between the resting calf muscle stiffness and drop jump performance. Twenty-four healthy men participated in this study. The shear moduli of the medial gastrocnemius and the soleus were measured at rest as an index of muscle stiffness using ultrasound shear wave ...
Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.
Fin and flipper locomotion occurs mostly in aquatic locomotion, and rarely in terrestrial locomotion. From the three common states of matter - gas, liquid and solid, these appendages are adapted for liquids, mostly fresh or saltwater and used in locomotion, steering and balancing of the body. Locomotion is important in order to escape predators, acquire food, find mates and bury for shelter, nest or food. Aquatic locomotion consists of swimming, whereas terrestrial locomotion encompasses walking, crutching, jumping, digging as well as covering. Some animals such as sea turtles and mudskippers use these two environments for different purposes, for example using the land for nesting, and the sea to hunt for food. Fish live in Fresh or Saltwater habitats and some exceptions are capable of coming on land (Mudskippers). Most fish have a line of muscle blocks, called myomeres, along each side of the body. To swim, they alternately contract one side and relax the other side in a progression which ...
The use of motor imagery (MI) with locomotion is a skill that may assist in performance improvement. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of MI with and without locomotion on throwing accuracy in recreationally active college students at Whitworth University. METHODS: Sixteen college-aged, recreationally active males (n = 8) and females (n = 8; age: 20.75 ± 0.93 years) completed three throwing sessions: a MI only session, a MI with locomotion session (e.g. concurrent rehearsal of the throwing motion), and a control session in which neither MI nor locomotion was used. The order of the throwing sessions was randomly determined for each participant. A repeated measures ANOVA (significance level p ≤ 0.05) was utilized to determine the existence of significant differences in radial error between experimental conditions. RESULTS: No statistical differences were observed between conditions for throwing accuracy (MI: 27.6 ± 5.8 cm, MI with locomotion: 26.2 ± 6.9 cm, control: 25.4
Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cats lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites) increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD) for NE and 5-HT,
Artificial locomotion is when movement in the virtual world does not directly correspond to physical movement. For example, when you walk, turn, or move through the virtual world in response to controller inputs, such as pushing a thumbstick.. The most common use of artificial locomotion is to make it possible for people to move through virtual environments that are larger than their physical playspace; however, there are many other scenarios where it is necessary or useful to use artificial locomotion. For example, movement can sometimes be controlled by, or in response to, the environment, like an elevator or a roller coaster. Games that are designed primarily for physical locomotion can usually benefit from supporting artificial locomotion because it will make it possible for people with limited space or mobility issues to experience the content. Unless physical locomotion is core to the design, it is recommended to support artificial locomotion to make the application as accessible as ...
Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted, and galloped over 0°, +15°, and -15° sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers, and work were estimated at the goats hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined, and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints ...
This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478. vg 1.53 + 0.685. vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to ...
The paper deals with modeling and design of energy-optimal motion of mechatronic system having less number of actuators than degrees of freedom. Such mechatronic system is termed underactuated. We consider an underactuated mechatronic system modeled a bipedal locomotion robot with 11 degrees of freedom. The system comprises nine links and is used to represent the biped s planar dynamics in sagittal plane. The bodies are connected by friction-free hinge joints. It s assumed that the control inputs are torque actuators acting only at hip and knee joints. The ankle and the metatarsal joints of the feet are spanned with springs al-lowing discrete switching of their stiffness parameters in accordance to varying constraints imposed on the system s motion. The algorithm has been developed for synthesizing the energy-optimal anthropomorphic motion of the bipedal locomotion system with passively controlled feet and discrete switching of their joint stiffness parameters. Algorithm uses the smoothing cubic splines
Existing models for C. elegans locomotion (Niebur and Erdös, 1993; Bryden and Cohen, 2008; Karbowski et al., 2008) address only forward locomotion during crawling. In all of these models, VB and DB are the sources of alternating activity to ventral and dorsal muscle. We were not able to discern any such alternating activity between pairs of VB and DB motoneurons that innervate contralateral muscle cells. If alternating motoneuron activity does occur, then one of several reasons may account for our failure to detect it. First, the activity of motoneurons at the recording site might be affected by the tethering. In addition, the decay time constant of YC2.60 we used to detect calcium changes accompanying forward and backward locomotion was too slow (5.2 s) (Hendel et al., 2008) to allow us to resolve the faster oscillatory signals. Although YC3.60 has a faster decay time constant, the signals it generated were consistently smaller than YC2.60 and fast rhythmic signals accompanying sinusoidal ...
This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion ... More. This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion requires the integration of these principles. Toward this end, we provide the necessary introductory foundation that will allow a more in-depth understanding of the physical biology and physiology of animal movement. In so doing, we hope that this book will illuminate the fundamentals and breadth of these systems, while inspiring our readers to look more deeply into the scientific literature and investigate new features of animal movement. Several themes run through this book. The first is that by comparing the modes and mechanisms by which animals have evolved the capacity for movement, we can ...
This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion ... More. This book provides a synthesis of the physical, physiological, evolutionary, and biomechanical principles that underlie animal locomotion. An understanding and full appreciation of animal locomotion requires the integration of these principles. Toward this end, we provide the necessary introductory foundation that will allow a more in-depth understanding of the physical biology and physiology of animal movement. In so doing, we hope that this book will illuminate the fundamentals and breadth of these systems, while inspiring our readers to look more deeply into the scientific literature and investigate new features of animal movement. Several themes run through this book. The first is that by comparing the modes and mechanisms by which animals have evolved the capacity for movement, we can ...
Locomotion - Locomotion - Flagellar locomotion: Most flagellate protozoans possess either one or two flagella extending from the anterior (front) end of the body. Some protozoans, however, have several flagella that may be scattered over the entire body; in such cases, the flagella usually are fused into distinctly separate clusters. Flagellar movement, or locomotion, occurs as either planar waves, oarlike beating, or three-dimensional waves. All three of these forms of flagellar locomotion consist of contraction waves that pass either from the base to the tip of the flagellum or in the reverse direction to produce forward or backward movement. The planar waves, which occur along a
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Eadweard J. Muybridge. _Man Throwing an Iron Disk:_Plate 307 from Animal Locomotion (1887). 1884-86. Collotype. 10 1/4 × 10 11/16 (26 × 27.1 cm). Gift of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum. SC1999.28. Photography
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE. THE HUMAN AND ANIMAL LOCOMOTION PHOTOGRAPHS, ADAM, HANS CHRISTIAN, S/.85,00. English photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) is a pioneer in ...
Locomotor movements are any movements that take place over some distance. These include walking, running, leaping, jumping, hopping, galloping, crawling, sliding and skipping....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is a Bimodal Force-Time Curve Related to Countermovement Jump Performance?. AU - Kennedy, Rodney. AU - Drake, David. N1 - Reference text: 1. Mandic, R.; Jakovljevic, S.; Jaric, S. Effects of countermovement depth on kinematic and kinetic patterns of maximum vertical jumps. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2015, 25, 265-272, doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.11.001. 2. Silva, J.R.; Rumpf, M.C.; Hertzog, M.; Castagna, C.; Farooq, A.; Girard, O.; Hader, K. Acute and residual soccer match-related fatigue: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017, 1-45, doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0798-8. 3. Claudino, J.G.; Cronin, J.; Mezêncio, B.; McMaster, D.T.; McGuigan, M.; Tricoli, V.; Amadio, A.C.; Serrão, J.C. The countermovement jump to monitor neuromuscular status: A meta-analysis. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2017, 20, 397-402, doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.08.011. 4. Rowell, A.E.; Aughey, R.J.; Hopkins, W.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Cormack, S.J. Identification of sensitive measures of recovery following external ...
Human locomotion has been well described but is still not well understood. This is largely true because the observable aspects of locomotion-neuromuscular activity that generates forces and motions-relate to both the task solution and the problem being solved. Identifying the fundamental task achieved in locomotion makes it possible to critically evaluate the motor control strategy used to accomplish the task goal. We contend that the readily observed movements and activities of locomotion should be considered mechanism(s). Our proposal is that the fundamental task of walking and running is analogous to flight, and should be defined in terms of the interaction of the individuals mass with the medium in which it moves: a low-density fluid for flight, or the supporting substrate for legged locomotion. A rigorous definition of the fundamental task can help identify the constraints and opportunities that influence its solution and guide the selection of appropriate mechanisms to accomplish the task
With increasing sensing, motion, and processing capabilities, robots start to master more and more complex tasks in difficult applications. Especially working in hazardous environments, such as exploring extraterrestrial planets or nuclear disaster sites, demand robotic solutions with advanced locomotion capabilities in unstructured terrain. Four-legged systems can provide the desired mobility. The hominid robot Charlie has, in contrast to most quadrupeds, an active ankle joint with Multi-Contact-Point-Feet to support four-legged as well as two-legged locomotion. In this paper, the advantages of this foot design for four-legged locomotion is analyzed. The paper summarizes briefly Charlies hardware and software components. In detail, the foot design and the behavior modules which utilize the possibilities of actively controlled Multi-Contact-Point-Feet are described. The experimental results show that a positive effect on traction and range of motion are achieved which improve the mobility of ...
Gait kinetics of above- and below-branch quadrupedal locomotion in lemurid primatess profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Animal locomotion, which is the act of self-propulsion by an animal, has many manifestations, including running, swimming, jumping and flying. Animals move for a variety of reasons, such as to find food, a mate, or a suitable microhabitat, and to escape predators. For many animals the ability to move is essential to survival and, as a result, selective pressures have shaped the locomotion methods and mechanisms employed by moving organisms. For example, migratory animals that travel vast distances (such as the Arctic tern) typically have a locomotion mechanism that costs very little energy per unit distance, whereas non-migratory animals that must frequently move quickly to escape predators (such as frogs) are likely to have costly but very fast locomotion. The study of animal locomotion is typically considered to be a sub-field of biomechanics. Locomotion requires energy to overcome friction, drag, inertia, and gravity, though in many circumstances some of these factors are negligible. In ...
Authors: Hattori, Satoshi , Li, Qianming , Matsui, Nobuo , Nishino, Hitoo Article Type: Research Article Abstract: To evaluate the physiological role of striatal dopamine (DA) during exercise and the mechanism of functional recovery mediated by grafted DAergic neurons, the locomotor ability (treadmill running) and DA turnover were investigated using treadmill running combined with in vivo microdialysis in the intact control rats, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats (hemi-parkinsonian model rats) and DAergic cell grafted rats. The 3 groups of rats were trained to run on a straight treadmill at a speed of 1,800 cm/min for 20 min every day for 7 consecutive days. If the rats could not follow the speed they got electrostimulation (ES) from the grid …behind the treadmill belt. The numbers of ES rats received during treadmill running were counted to quantify the locomotor ability. Control rats could keep up with the treadmill easily (0-1 ES/10 min), whereas lesioned rats could not follow the ...
Modulatory inputs acting via G-protein coupled receptors provide neuronal circuits with the flexibility required to adapt their activity to internal and external changes. In the spinal cord, the network producing locomotor activity is subject both to intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation. In many vertebrates, 5-HT is considered to play an important role in organizing the locomotor pattern and can profoundly modulate the motor output. In some preparations the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying the 5-HT modulation of the network activity have begun to be elucidated. In Xenopus tadpoles, fictive locomotion can be induced by skin stimulation, and application of 5-HT increases the locomotor burst duration, depresses mid-cycle inhibition, and modulates NMDA receptors (Sillar et al., 1992; Scrymgeour-Wedderburn et al., 1997; Sillar et al., 1998). In the newborn mammalian spinal cord, 5-HT is important for generating a stable locomotor pattern induced pharmacologically (Cazalets et al., 1992; ...
The main topic of this lab is the study of human locomotion and its neurorehabilitation. The target groups are the major diseases of the central nervous system (Stroke, SCI, Parkinson) and other syndromes that affect human locomotion. The area seeks to advance the sciences of biomechanics, neurophysiology and applications of ICT to design of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to improve gait recovery processes. It is our primal goal to experimentally demonstrate the key aspects to optimal functional recovery of gait.. The long-term research activities and projects are separated in the following target outcomes:. - Optimization of therapies for recovery of gait function. Humans (healthy and impaired) can be conditioned to modulate neural control for recovery of a function by means of one or a combination of therapies (biofeedback, robotic, neuroprosthetic and/or pharmacologic). Our long-term researches will apply a rigorous approach to find interventions that enhance adaptation, skill ...
Legs behave like compression springs during bouncing gaits such as running and hopping. During the first half of the ground contact phase, leg length (i.e. the distance between hip and toe) decreases while the ground reaction force increases, and during the second half of the ground contact phase, leg length increases while the ground reaction force decreases. In the search for general principles underlying bouncing gaits, biomechanists have modelled the body as a linear massless spring supporting a point mass equivalent to body mass [1,2]. The stiffness of the spring, typically referred to as leg spring, is determined from the relationship between the magnitude of the ground reaction force and the distance between the centre of mass (CM) and the centre of pressure on the ground [2]. It has been shown abundantly that the stiffness of the leg spring changes when humans change hopping height (e.g. [3]) or frequency (e.g. [3-5]), or when the viscous or elastic properties of the surface underfoot ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in both the coordination patterns of segmental actions and the dynamics of vertical jumping that accompany changes in vertical jump performance (VJP) occurring from trial to trial in single subjects. Ground reaction forces and video data were analyzed for 50 maximal vertical jumps for 8 subjects. It was possible to predict VJP from whole-body or even segmental kinematics and kinetics in spite of the small jump performance variability. Best whole-body models included peak and average mechanical power, propulsion time, and peak negative impulse. Best segmental models included coordination variables and a few joint torques and powers. Contrary to expectations, VJP was lower for trials with a proximal-to-distal sequence of joint reversals. ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Moving On 2014, Author: University of Sussex Students Union, Name: Moving On 2014, Length: 24 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-12-04
Biology Assignment Help, Locomotion in star fish, LOCOMOTION IN STAR FISH - With the help of tube feet aided by fluid pressure in them. In a tube feet upper ampulla, middle podium and lower sucker present.
Author: Craig Liebenson and Brett Winchester. Title: A Key Link in the Locomotor System - The Upper-Thoracic Spine. Summary: With chiropractic backgrounds rooted in motion palpation and functional...
The difference between walking and being paralyzed could be as simple as turning a light switch on and off, a culmination of years of research shows.. Recently, University of Missouri Assistant Professor of biology Samuel T. Waters isolated a coding gene that he found has profound effects on locomotion and central nervous system development.. Waters work with gene expression in embryonic mouse tissue could shed light on paralysis and stroke and other disorders of the central nervous system, like Alzheimers disease.. Waters works extensively with two coding genes called Gbx1 and Gbx2. These genes - exist in the body with approximately 20,000 other protein-coding genes - are essential for development in the central nervous system.. To understand whats going wrong, its critical that we know thats right, Waters said.. Coding genes essentially assign functions for the body. They tell your fingernail to grow a certain way, help develop motor control responsible for chewing and, as shown in ...
A clearly defined subpopulation of neurons in the brainstem is essential to execute locomotion at high speeds. Interestingly, these high-speed neurons are intermingled with others that can elicit immediate stopping. How defined groups of brainstem neurons can regulate important aspects of full motor programs, reports a study by researchers of the Biozentrum at the University of Basel and the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI). The journal Nature has published the results.
Post-Activation Potentiation or PAP - what is it? It means if you squat heavy, you can jump higher. Science looks at how much weight it takes to activate this potential and how you can apply it, too.
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Here we describe a simple method to measure larval muscle contraction and locomotion behavior. The method enables the user to acquire data, without the necessity of using expensive equipment (Rotstein et al., 2018). To measure contraction and locomotion behaviour, single larvae are positioned at the center of a humidified Petri dish. Larval movement is recorded over time using the movie function of a consumer digital camera. Subsequently, videos are analyzed using ImageJ (Rueden et al., 2017) for distance measurements and counting of contractions. Data are represented as box or scatter plots using GraphPad Prism (©GraphPad Software).
Locomotion (2004) ist ein Spiel von Chris Sawyer Productions, das von Atari vertrieben wird. Es gehört zum Strategie-Genre, Unterkategorie Wirtschaftssimulation und ist am 30.09.2004 erschienen. Die unterstützte Spiele-Plattform ist PC, die USK (Unterhaltungssoftware-Selbstkontrolle) hat dem Game die Altersfreigabe „ab 0 freigegeben gegeben. In diesem Steckbrief fassen wir alle unsere News, Screenshots und ggf. auch Videos sowie Preview und Test zu Locomotion (2004) zusammen. Unsere User geben dem Spiel im Schnitt die Note 7.2. Du kannst übrigens als Archivar-User von GamersGlobal an dieser Übersicht mitarbeiten!. ...
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And God said, Let the earth give birth to all sorts of living things, cattle and all things moving on the earth, and beasts of the earth after their sort: and it was so. BBE Genesis 1:24
International Journal of Exercise Science 14(6): 815-828, 2021. There is evidence to suggest that aquatic plyometric training (APT) may be an effective and safer alternative to traditional land-based plyometric training (LPT) when training to increase jump performance. The aim of this review was to critically examine the current literature regarding the effects of APT vs. LPT on jump performance in athletic populations. Key terms were employed in five separate databases to complete the current review. Available articles were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine which studies were deemed eligible for review. Outcome measure in these studies included those assessing lower extremity power and jump performance (i.e., drop jumps, broad jumps, sergeant jumps, repeated countermovement jumps, and vertical jumps). All but one of the studies included in this critical review showed significant improvements in jump performance after LPT and APT interventions. Both LPT and APT groups
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The detailed knowledge of C. elegans connectome for 3 decades has not contributed dramatically to our understanding of worms behavior. One of main reasons for this situation has been the lack of data on the type of synaptic signaling between particular neurons in the worms connectome. The aim of this study was to determine synaptic polarities for each connection in a small pre-motor circuit controlling locomotion. Even in this compact network of just 7 neurons the space of all possible patterns of connection types (excitation vs. inhibition) is huge. To deal effectively with this combinatorial problem we devised a novel and relatively fast technique based on genetic algorithms and large-scale parallel computations, which we combined with detailed neurophysiological modeling of interneuron dynamics and compared the theory to the available behavioral data. As a result of these massive computations, we found that the optimal connectivity pattern that matches the best locomotory data is the one in ...
Called Locomotion Vault, the project was developed by researchers at the Universities of Birmingham, Copenhagen, and Microsoft Research. It aims to provide a central, freely available resource to analyze the numerous locomotion techniques currently available.. The aim is to make it easier for developers to make informed decisions about the appropriate technique for their application and researchers to study which methods are best. By cataloguing available techniques in the Locomotion Vault, the project will also give creators and designers a head-start on identifying gaps where future investigation might be necessary. The database is an interactive resource, so it can be expanded through contributions from researchers and practitioners.. Researcher Massimiliano Di Luca, of the University of Birminghams School of Psychology, said: Locomotion is an essential part of virtual reality environments, but there are many challenges. A fundamental question, for example, is whether there should be a ...
After complete spinal transection in adult rats, careful combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies create a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that may bypass the lesion through biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion.
Locomotives on the Great Central Railway There are many steam and diesel locomotives based at the Great Central Railway. Some are being restored, some being repaired and maintained and some are in service. Because of the nature of these veteran forms of railway motive power the running situation changes frequently. And, of course, we have visiting locomotives to add to the variety. Please see these pages for the latest situation on any particular locomotive. Detailed reports on the condition of locomotives are given in Main Line, the quarterly magazine for members of Friends of the Great Central Main Line.. STEAM LOCOMOTIVES. ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Effects of impaired visual acuity on locomotion inside the built environment.. AU - Vivekanandaraja, P.. AU - Shields, J.. AU - Reinhardt-Rutland, Anthony. AU - Anderson, Roger. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. M3 - Other contribution. ER - ...
Album: Unknown Testo della canzone Locomotion di Alexia Come on Come on do the locomotion with me Locomotion (Come on) You got the notion, Locomotion Do
This article reviews the status of research on locomotion in segmented worms. It focuses on three major groups (leeches, earthworms, and nereid polychaetes) that have attracted the most research attention. All three groups show two types of locomotion: crawling (moving over a solid substrate) and swimming (moving through a liquid). The adults of all three groups form a hydroskeleton by controlling the pressure within the segments, and they locomote by controlling the shapes of the individual segments in coordinated spatial and temporal patterns. Many annelid larvae use cilia to move through water. Four aspects of the locomotory patterns are considered: the kinematics (the movement patterns), biomechanics (how muscle contractions produce movement), the neuronal basis of the movement patterns, and efforts to produce robots that move like annelid worms.
Despite the importance of the deep intrinsic spinal muscles for trunk control, few studies have investigated their activity during human locomotion or how this may change with speed and mode of locomotion. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether the postural and respiratory functions, of which these muscles take part, can be coordinated when locomotor demands are increased. EMG recordings of abdominal and paraspinal muscles were made in seven healthy subjects using fine-wire and surface electrodes. Measurements were also made of respiration and gait parameters. Recordings were made for 10s as subjects walked on a treadmill at 1 and 2 ms(-1) and ran at 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms(-1). Unlike the superficial muscles, transversus abdominis was active tonically throughout the gait cycle with all tasks, except running at speeds of 3 ms(-1) and greater. All other muscles were recruited in a phasic manner. The relative duration of these bursts of activity was influenced by speed and/or mode of locomotion. ...
Górska T., Chojnicka-Gittins B., Majczyński H., Zmysłowski W. (2007)Overground locomotion after incomplete spinal lesions in the rat: quantitative gait analysis. J Neurotrauma 24: 1198-1218. Sanusi J., Sławińska U., Vrbova G., Navarrete R. (2007) Effect of precocious locomotor activity on the development of motoneurones and motor units of slow and fast muscles in rat. Behav Brain Res 178:1-9 Celichowski J. , Mrówczyński W., Krutki P., Górska T., Majczński H., Sławińska U. (2006) Changes of contractile properties of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after total transection of the spinal cord. Exp Physiol 91: 887-95. Majczyński H ., Cabaj A., Sławińska U., Górska T. (2006) Intrathecal administration of yohimbine impairs locomotion in intact rats. Behav Brain Res 175: 315-322. Majczyński H ., Maleszak K., Cabaj A. Sławińska U. (2005) Serotonin-related enhancement of recovery of hind limb motor functions in spinal rats after grafting of embryonic raphe nuclei. J ...
Locomotion is generally defined as any type of motor activity that animals use, including humans, to produce activity such as walking, running, swimming, jumping, flying, and gliding. In vertebrates, these activities are controlled by a complex neural network located in the spinal cord referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion. Spinal CPG adjustments, rely mostly on sensory motor stretch reflexes, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motoneurons (MNs) innervating the muscle which has been stretched, and thus sending that information to the spinal interneurons for readjustments on movements or posture. After the loss of supraspinal brain/brainstem) inputs to the spinal cord via injury or disease, locomotion is entirely directed by the CPG and the sensory information coming from periphery. Within motor control systems, neuromodulators are necessary for proper and efficient CPG function because they induce or regulate essential components of spinal network ...
Advances in our understanding of the control of locomotion enable us to optimize the rehabilitation of patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Based on various animal models, it is generally accepted that central pattern generators (CPG) exists for the rhythmic generation of stepping movements, and that this is also the case in humans. However, in humans supraspinal control is also essential for the performance of locomotion. For regaining locomotor function, incomplete SCI subjects strongly depend on visual input to compensate for proprioceptive deficits and impaired balance. In addition, they require additional attentional capacity to stand, walk and handle their walking aids. These factors might contribute to their higher risk of falling. During the last decade, task-specific functional training performed by physiotherapists, combined with manual or robotic assisted bodyweight supported treadmill training have improved the regaining of ambulatory function in patients with incomplete SCI. At ...
Computer simulation has been used to investigate several aspectsof locomotion in salamanders. Here we introduce a three-dimensionalforward dynamics mechanical model of a salamander, with physicallyrealistic weight and size parameters. Movements of the four limbs and ofthe trunk and tail are generated by sets of linearly modeled skeletalmuscles. In this study, activation of these muscles were driven byprescribed neural output patterns. The model was successfully used tomimic locomotion on level ground and in water. We compare thewalking gait where a wave of activity in the axial muscles travelsbetween the girdles, with the trotting gait in simulations usingthe musculo-mechanical model. In a separate experiment, the model is usedto compare different strategies for turning while stepping; either bybending the trunk or by using side-stepping in the front legs. We foundthat for turning, the use of side-stepping alone or in combination withtrunk bending, was more effective than the use of trunk bending alone.
Our results imply that speeds on sand and hard ground are similar, because for both treatments limbs do not slip during locomotion, stride length is constant and 〈vx〉 = sf. On hard ground, no-slip is maintained by a claw engaging irregularities. On sand, entirely different mechanics account for no-slip: in successful runs, material behind the flipper did not move during the thrust phase, supporting the hypothesis that the turtle advances via solidification of the material behind it.. Forward movement of the body on sand without slipping of the flipper requires that net thrust forces F thrust remain below the yield force of the granular medium, Fthrust , Fyield. We assume that the mechanics of the large front flipper (maintaining surface normal vector parallel to vx) produces the dominant contribution to Fthrust. Observation of the smaller hind limbs indicate that at initiation of stance, the foot remains plantar and above the surface during the entire step, presumably contributing to lifting ...
The Drosophila tachykinin gene (dtk) produces five different neuropeptides (DTK1-5). These are expressed in about 100 interneurons branching in several neuropils in the Drosophila brain, e. g. the fan-shaped body (FB) of the central complex, a neuropil believed to be a higher center for locomotor control. Previously, DTKs have been shown to modulate locomotor behavior: flies virtually devoid of DTKs (accomplished by RNAi) displayed altered activity in Buridans arena, monitoring a 15 min period of walking activity between two opposing landmarks (Winther et al, 2006, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 31: 399). In the present study we wanted to further explore the impact of DTKs on locomotor behavior. We studied the spontaneous walking activity of the fly, over a period of 7 hours, extracting several parameters from video-tracks using Ethovision software. We found that flies with DTK depletion in all DTK-neurons of the central nervous system (driving expression of the RNAi construct with the pan-neural ...
NSWGR 73 CLASS LOCOMOTIVE PROTOTYPE OVERVIEW. With a need for new shunting motive power, the NSWGR decided in the late 1960 s to place an order with Walkers Limited (Maryborough, QLD) for fifty diesel hydraulic 73 Class locomotives. The class leader, 7301, entered service in October 1970. The last of the class, 7350, was delivered in March 1973. These locomotives were very similar in design to the DH Class that Walkers Limited had then recently built for Queensland Railways. In many instances, the 73 Class replaced the last surviving steam locomotives in NSW.. During their life in government ownership, members of the 73 Class were at various times based at Eveleigh (Sydney), Delec (Sydney), Yeerongpilly (Queensland), Goulburn, Port Kembla, Queanbeyan, South Grafton, Taree, Cootamundra, Albury, West Tamworth, Orange, Dubbo, Parkes, Lithgow and Broadmeadow (Newcastle). Metropolitan yards such as Sydney Yard and Darling Harbour would often have a number of the class at work simultaneously. Class ...
FUNDED PHD POSITION IN MODELLING BIOLOGICAL NEURO-MUSCULAR CONTROL IN DYNAMIC LOCOMOTION WITH A LINK TO BIOROBOTICS (BIOMECHANICS / BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING / (BIO-)PHYSICS) We are currently seeking a highly motivated PHD STUDENT (F/M/D) WE OFFER a FUNDED RESEARCHER POSITION FOR 36 MONTHS in our project „Neuro-muscular contraction in dynamic locomotion. The project has a strong focus on basic research investigating the function of biological muscles in locomotion and how to transfer important characteristics to novel bio-inspired robotic systems. You will be part of an interdisciplinary multi-center research group with muscle physiology and biorobotics researchers in a team of at least three PhD students. Your contribution will be focused on modelling and simulation of neuro-muscular control. Your contract should start in the first half of 2021. Salary will be based on previous experience. ABOUT US You will become a member of the group /Multi-Level Modeling in Motor Control and Rehabilitation ...
This study investigated whether the modular control of changes in direction while running is influenced by perturbations to balance. Twenty-two healthy men performed 90° side-step unperturbed cutting manoeuvres while running (UPT) as well as manoeuvres perturbed at initial contact (PTB, 10 cm translation of a moveable force platform). Surface EMG activity from 16 muscles of the supporting limb and trunk, kinematics, and ground reaction forces were recorded. Motor modules composed by muscle weightings and their respective activation signals were extracted from the EMG signals by non-negative matrix factorization. Knee joint moments, co-contraction ratios and co-contraction indexes (hamstrings/quadriceps) and motor modules were compared between UPT and PTB. Five motor modules were enough to reconstruct UPT and PTB EMG activity (variance accounted for UPT = 92±5%, PTB = 90±6%). Moreover, higher similarities between muscle weightings from UPT and PTB (similarity = 0.83±0.08) were observed in comparison
This paper presents a formal framework for achieving multi-contact bipedal robotic walking, and realizes this methodology experimentally on two robotic platforms: AMBER2 and ATRIAS. Inspired by the key feature encoded in human walking- multi-contact behavior-this approach begins with the analysis of human locomotion and uses it to motivate the construction of a hybrid system model representing a multi-contact robotic walking gait. Human-inspired outputs are extracted from reference locomotion data to characterize the human model or the SLIP model, and then employed to develop the human-inspired control and an optimization problem that yields stable multi-domain walking. Through a trajectory reconstruction strategy motivated by the process that generates the walking gait, the mathematical constructions are successfully translated to the two physical robots experimentally ...
Sports injuries are injuries resulting from sports activities. More broadly,these are all injuries sustained during a sporting activity,of which there are many. They include a potential TBI,or traumatic brain injury.. In the narrow sense,they represent injuries to the locomotor system,movement systems (muscles,tendons,ligaments,joints,bones). As in professional as well as in recreational sports,dominant injuries of the locomotor system are dominant,with sports injuries we mean locomotor system injuries.. Sports injuries are divided into acute and chronic.. 1) Acute sports injuries Acute injuries occur as a result of the immediate action of a strong force (movement or contact),which exceeds the compensatory capacity of our body and leads to mechanical damage to the tissue. The soft tissues (muscles,ligaments,tendons) of the locomotor system support your joints and prevent injury. They resist the force exerting on your body to a certain extent,after which soft tissue structure is disturbed ...
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Before submitting a question, please visit Frequently Asked Questions. If you have something to share that would enrich our knowledge about this object, use the form below. After review, selected comments will appear on this page along with the name you provide.. Please note that we generally cannot answer questions about the history, rarity, or value of your personal artifacts.. If you require a personal response, please use our contact page. Personal information will not be shared or result in unsolicited email. We may use the provided email to contact you if we have additional questions. See our privacy statement. ...
The iconic Arctic animals cant reduce their energy output enough to compensate when summer ice melt diminishes their food supply, new data suggest ...
Abstract: Planning whole-body motions while taking into account the terrain conditions is a challenging problem for legged robots since the terrain model might produce many local minima. Our coupled planning method uses stochastic and derivatives-free search to plan both foothold locations and horizontal motions due to the local minima produced by the terrain model. It jointly optimizes body motion, step duration and foothold selection, and it models the terrain as a cost-map. Due to the novel attitude planning method, the horizontal motion plans can be applied to various terrain conditions. The attitude planner ensures the robot stability by imposing limits to the angular acceleration. Our whole-body controller tracks compliantly trunk motions while avoiding slippage, as well as kinematic and torque limits. Despite the use of a simplified model, which is restricted to flat terrain, our approach shows remarkable capability to deal with a wide range of non-coplanar terrains. The results are ...
The preferred habitats and locomotory methods of goniopholidids are also worth pondering. There is some evidence that larger Wealden goniopholidids were mostly confined to a semi-aquatic existence, as their interlocking osteoderms likely strengthened their backs and improved terrestrial competency (as it does for atoposaurids and several other type of ancient crocodyliform), but their sheer weight likely impeded terrestrial locomotion over sustained periods (Salisbury and Frey 2000). The same is true of large modern crocodiles: here, reinforced vertebral joints perform a similar job to osteoderm bracing but still fail to facilitate effective, fast terrestrial locomotion for long periods. Larger crocodilians therefore spend much of their time in water, and certainly find most of their food there. If so, this makes the atypically long forelimbs of goniopholidids all the more interesting. Often, development of relatively equate limb lengths in quadrupeds is considered a sign of good terrestrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A bioinspired autonomous swimming robot as a tool for studying goal-directed locomotion. AU - Manfredi, L.. AU - Assaf, T.. AU - Mintchev, S.. AU - Marrazza, S.. AU - Capantini, L.. AU - Orofino, S.. AU - Ascari, L.. AU - Grillner, S.. AU - Wallén, P.. AU - Ekeberg, O.. AU - Stefanini, C.. AU - Dario, P.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The bioinspired approach has been key in combining the disciplines of robotics with neuroscience in an effective and promising fashion. Indeed, certain aspects in the field of neuroscience, such as goal-directed locomotion and behaviour selection, can be validated through robotic artefacts. In particular, swimming is a functionally important behaviour where neuromuscular structures, neural control architecture and operation can be replicated artificially following models from biology and neuroscience. In this article, we present a biomimetic system inspired by the lamprey, an early vertebrate that locomotes using anguilliform swimming. The artefact ...
Bipedalism is a form of movement on the ground. Some tetrapods have evolved the ability to move on two limbs. Those that do, use their rear limbs. Some animals move on two limbs all the time, they are called habitual bipeds. Optional bipeds can move on two or four legs. Early quadruped animals used all four limbs for locomotion but many later ones are bipedal. The earliest dinosaurs were bipedal but millions of years later some reverted and became quadrupeds. Birds are descendants of bipedal dinosaurs, and are bipeds themselves. Their forelimbs have become wings. Some optional bipeds stand on two legs to drive away competitors and predators, to see farther, or as body language. Their locomotion is on four limbs. ...
Temperature dependence, energetics, and speed of locomotion have important implications for the ecology and evolution of ants. Here, we report the results of a full-factorial study investigating the responses of active metabolic rate (AMR), voluntary locomotion speed, and cost of transport (COT) to …
The paper reports the electronics used in a new developed wireless endoscopic capsule provided with novel focus and locomotion features. The locomotion is
Buy Locomotion Laminates - Greenlam Laminates from Greenlam to decorate your space. Install Locomotion Laminates sheets at your home for the modern look.
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We conduct research to understand neurocontrol and mechanical principles of dynamic legged locomotion in animals, by designing and applying running legged robots and their computational models.
Motor modules linear units with spindle drive CAD файлове в 2D и 3D от утвърдени от доставчика каталози
Reviewers on Locomotion of Expressions are sent a complimentary item in exchange for their honest opinions and receiving a free product does not influence their review posts. All opinions and thoughts are their own, and different people may have different outcomes. We are not responsible for those who purchase these items and experience different results. Occasionally, the company provides a product to give away as well as monetary compensation. Even on the rare occasion on which a post is sponsored, it still has the reviewers honest opinion contained herein. ...
Reviewers on Locomotion of Expressions are sent a complimentary item in exchange for their honest opinions and receiving a free product does not influence their review posts. All opinions and thoughts are their own, and different people may have different outcomes. We are not responsible for those who purchase these items and experience different results. Occasionally, the company provides a product to give away as well as monetary compensation. Even on the rare occasion on which a post is sponsored, it still has the reviewers honest opinion contained herein. ...
We are using single molecule fluorescence techniques to monitor movements of molecular motors moving on RNA. First, I will present our recent finding that a cytosolic viral RNA sensor RIG-I (Retinoic acid-Inducible Gene 1) is a translocase on double stran
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A large number of aminergic and peptidergic modulatory systems and metabotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B and glutamate receptors are present in the lamprey central nervous system. These systems tune the activity of the locomotor network to meet varying external and internal demands. Immunohistochemical studies have shown cells below the central canal that are immunoreactive to 5-HT, dopamine, and tachykinins. They give rise to a dense ventromedial plexus in which the dendrites of locomotor network neurons are distributed. In this plexus, modulators are released in a paracrinic fashion because these cells do not form conventional synaptic contacts with dendrites of spinal neurons. The frequency of the locomotor bursts is reduced by blocking the reuptake of either 5-HT or dopamine during fictive locomotion (Fig. 2D⇑) (5, 11). Similarly, exogenous application of these modulators also reduces the locomotor frequency. Through activation of 5-HT1A-like receptors, 5-HT blocks KCa channels ...
Horses evolved in the Northern Hemispheres northern latitudes and are well adapted to cold provided they live in a herd, have 24/7 appropriate forage and fresh water (although it is reported horses can live on certain snows, dont try this at home), and move a lot through the day. Place your feeders so the horses have to move about to eat, and never let the forage disappear completely, please. Movement is the nature of the horse. Heavy horses require more movement rather than less hay. Keep your ponies moving to keep them warm and healthy. Digestion is dependent on locomotion. Mobile horses require miles of walking each and every day to maintain optimal health. Humans often fail their horses by depriving them of the abundant locomotion they require each day to stay healthy. Every system of the horse is dependent on abundant daily locomotion ...