The local lymph node assay using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with flow cytometry (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified LLNA that is used to identify skin sensitizers by counting BrdU-incorporated lymph node cells (LNCs) with flow cytometry. Unlike other LLNA methods (OECD TG 429, 442A and 442B) in which the CBA/J mouse strain is used, LLNA: BrdU-FCM was originally designed to be compatible with BALB/c, a mouse strain that is more widely used in many countries. To justify the substitution of CBA/J for BALB/c, the equivalence of the test results between two strains shall be established prior to the official implementation of LLNA: BrdU-FCM. This study aims to compare the test results of LLNA: BrdU-FCM produced in BALB/c mice with those in CBA/J mice for 18 reference substances, including 13 sensitizers and 5 non-sensitizers, listed in OECD Test Guideline 429. Based on the LLNA: BrdU-FCM test procedure, we selected an appropriate solvent and then performed preliminary tests to determine the ...
The Guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT) is an in vivo test to screen for substances that cause human skin sensitisation (i.e. allergens). It was first proposed by B. Magnusson and Albert Kligman in 1969 and described in their 1970 book Allergic Contact Dermatitis in the Guinea Pig The test animals are exposed intradermally to the test material, along with an adjuvant to enhance the immune reaction of the guinea pig. The guinea pigs are then a short while later exposed to a lower concentration of the test material, and their allergic reaction, if any, measured. 15% of guinea pigs must show a reaction for the test to be considered positive. 20 animals would typically be used to ensure against false negative results. The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals guideline No. 406 of 1992. The test has been largely superseded by the murine local lymph node assay. D.A. Basketter and E.W. Scholes reviewed them in 1992 The REACH Regulation, Annex VII, paragraph 8.3 states "The Murine Local Lymph ...
These methods were evaluated by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM). In a July 2014 statement, ICCVAM concurred with EURL ECVAM that the methods can be used as part of an integrated testing strategy to identify potential skin sensitizers but emphasized that neither method should be used as a standalone method for the identification of potential skin sensitizers or to determine skin sensitization potency categories. Test guidelines describing the methods were accepted in 2015 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).. Updated Protocol for the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay for Assessing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Hazard Potential. ...
Synonyms for auricular lymph nodes in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for auricular lymph nodes. 8 words related to lymph: bodily fluid, body fluid, liquid body substance, humour, humor, chyle, cardiovascular system, circulatory system. What are synonyms for auricular lymph nodes?
(PRN) Study Results Show GeneSearch(TM) Breast Lymph Node Assay Rapidly Detects Breast Cancer Metastases With Greater Sensitivity Than Traditional Tests Results from a prospective clinical study show that the GeneSearch(TM) Breast Lymph Node (BLN) Assay, a gene-based diagnostic test has greater sensitivity than traditional intra-operative methods of detecting the spread of breast cancer to the lymph nodes. In the study involving 416 evaluable patients across 11 clinical trial sites, sentinel lymph nodes were tested using the GeneSearch(TM) BLN Assay and current methods for assessing nodal tissue during surgery (frozen section (FS) or touch preparations (TP)). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a widely used and accepted procedure in the management of breast cancer. SLNB involves removing the first (sentinel) lymph node that filters fluid from the breast, as this node is the most likely to contain cancer cells if the cancer has begun to spread. Veridex, LLC, a Johnson & Johnson company, develops
Hosted by Community of Basic Scientists Reprogramming the Local Lymph Node Microenvironment Promotes Tolerance that Is Systemic and Antigen Specific Speaker: Christopher Jewell, PhD • University of Maryland Moderator: Jonathan Bromberg, MD, PhD • University of Maryland
In a local lymph node assay according to OECD guideline 426 the skin senitisation potential of NaFeEDTA was evaluated. Three concentrations of FeNaEDTA (10%, 25% and 50%, w/w) dissolved in acetone/olive oil (4:1 v/v) were tested in six female CBA mice per group and compared to a vehicle control group. In addition, a positive control group (30% solution v/v of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde in acetone/olive oil (4:1 v/v)) was employed. Open application of 25 μL of the appropriate dilution of the test item, the vehicle alone or the positive control (as appropriate) were administered to the dorsum of each ear on 3 consecutive days. On test day 4 lymph node cell count, ear weight (punch biopsies), ear swelling and weight of the lymph nodes were measured. The positive control group caused the expected increases in lymph node cell count and ear weights (statistically significant at p ≤ 0.01). The values for the stimulation index of lymph node cell count and ear weight were 1.5 and 1.2, respectively. ...
SRI offers mammalian toxicology testing services, in all major species, that follow either routine or customized study designs. Our expertise spans a wide range of pharmaceutical and therapeutic agents, including anticancer drugs, anti-infectives, vaccines, antisense therapeutics, nucleosides, peptides, antibodies, and proteins. We also offer testing of genetically engineered products and medical devices, such as combination 510(k) products, using protocols designed to meet your needs. Related Services Standard Mammalian Toxicology Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity Dose escalation and range-finding Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) Definitive dose administration Lifetime and carcinogenic potential Specialized Safety Assessments Irritation and sensitization Local lymph node assay Immunotoxicology Biological product testing Vaccine safety Immunogenicity 510(k) medical device safety evaluation Safety evaluation of cell-based therapeutics
The UVCB substance WS400104 did show toxic systemic effects in an oral subchronic toxicity study in females (liver) of the highest dose of 600 mg/kg b.w./day. A DNEL for dermal systemic toxicity was derived. However, WS400104 showed a strong skin sensitising potential in a local lymph node assay in mice. Therefore, dermal contact has to be avoided. Exposure by inhalation is not expected because the substance has a very low vapour pressure. ...
On day 0, 1 and 2 the different concentrations of test substance and control substances were administered to the dorsum of both ears (25 μL on each ear by means of a pipette). On day 5 all animals received an intravenous injection of 250 μL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 20 μCi of 3H-thymidine in the tail vein. Five hours after the 3H-thymidine injection the animals were sacrificed by intra peritoneal (i.p.) injection with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital and the draining auricular lymph nodes were excised, pooled per animal in PBS and further processed to determine the 3H-thymidine incorporation. Per animal, the paired auricular lymph nodes (ALN) were excised and were placed together in a vial containing 5 mL phosphate buffered solution (PBS). A single cell suspension was prepared by gently rubbing the nodes between the rough ends of microscope slides. The cell suspension was washed twice. The cell pellet obtained after the second wash was resuspended in 3 mL of 5% ...
Monié, H.J.; Everett, N.B., 1974: The popliteal node assay for graft-versus-host interaction in mice. I. Location and proliferation of donor and host cells within the popliteal node
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Follicular non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Biopsy of a left posterior auricular lymph node and pathology showed follicular non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Received six cycles
The skin sensitization potential of Alkyl dimethyl hydroxyethyl ammonium chloride was assessed in four independent HRIPT (human repeat insult patch) studies. The test item (in a detergent matrix or alternativ as aqueous solution (w/v)) was exposed on patches to the skin of volunteers in preparation concentrations of at least 0.2 % (w/v) in water up to 0.5 % (w/v) in water. In total 9 inductions were performed. 14 days after final insult patch, treatment sites were challenged and observed 48 and 96 hours after patch. Mild erythema (grade 1) was determined in some of the subjects of the four studies during the challenge. In all four studies there was no evidence that the test item was a sensitizer under the test conditions. ...
2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (BNP) was a skin and eye irritant in man and laboratory animals. It has demonstrated skin sensitization potential in humans and guinea-pigs. The acute oral toxicity to rats, mice and dogs was moderate with toxic effects including gastro-intestinal damage. In rats, single exposure was moderately toxic by the dermal route. Effects seen on repeated oral administration to rats included changes to the gastro-intestinal tract, kidneys, gastric lymph nodes and salivary glands. A decrease in maternal weight gain has been reported in pregnant rats and rabbits fed BNP but there were no effects on the foetuses apart from delayed skeletal development in rats. A limited report noted no evidence of carcinogenicity in rats treated orally or in mice treated dermally. BNP gave no indication of mutagenicity in mice or in Ames bacterial tests.. Date of Publication: 1995. Number of Pages: 9. CAS Number*: 52-51-7. Format: PDF available for immediate download. Toxicity Profiles ...
Allergic asthma is dependent on an IgE response controlled by T and B lymphocytes and activated by the interaction of antigen with mast cell-bound IgE molecules. After taking up an immunogen, these cells migrate to the local lymph nodes where they present the material to T cell receptors. This leads to the differentiation of the cell to a TH2 subset and also causes B lymphocytes to switch their antibody production from IgG and IgM to IgE. Once synthesized and released by B cells, IgE circulates in the blood until it attaches to high-affinity receptors on mast cells and low-affinity receptors on basophils. Immune mechanisms appear to be causally related to the development of asthma in 25 to 35% of all cases. The pathophysiologic hallmark of asthma is a reduction in airway diameter brought about by contraction of smooth muscle, vascular congestion, edema of the bronchial wall, and thick, tenacious secretions. All these can cause to airway remodeling, which is associated with structural changes due ...
Tissue macrophages exist at baseline throughout nearly all host tissues and serve to recycle dead or dying cellular debris as part of physiological cellular turnover. These cells, which were historically termed "Histiocytes", can also act as immune sentinels and are one of the first host cell types to recognize microbial infection. In general, macrophages phagocytose invading microbes, travel to local lymph nodes, and present the degraded microbial peptides on MHC II which can initiate the Adaptive Immune Response. Consequently, macrophages can act as Antigen Presenting Cells although their role is far weaker than Dendritic Cells in this capacity ...
Replied on 04/19/2011 Was your dog spayed before her first heat? If so the chance of mammary cancer is almost zero. In an unspayed female each heat cycle increases a dogs chance of mammary cancer. If she is not spayed the chances of the tumor on her mammary chain being malignant (aggressive and invasive) is about 50%, meaning half of the tumors found in the mammary gland chain will spread to other locations in the body and invade deeply into local tissue. The mass on her shoulder may or may not be related to her mammary gland tumor. When mammary tumors spread it is usually to the lungs or the local lymph nodes. Without knowing what either tumor is it is impossible to comment on how long it will be until she has any effects of either mass. Very aggressive mammary tumors can cause quality of life problems in less than 6 months. Discuss a fine needle aspirate of the mass on her shoulder and chest radiographs with your veterinarian. An aspirate will let you know if the shoulder mass is related to ...
4930 The organospecific carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM), produces colon tumors in mice that share many pathological features with sporadic human colorectal cancer (CRC). Although there are similarities in tumor pathogenesis, an important distinction between rodent carcinogen models and human CRC is the lack of mucosal invasive phenotype despite marked cellular atypia in the AOM-induced murine tumors. For example, although multiple adenocarcinomas are formed within the distal colon of AOM-treated A/J mice, invasion of the muscularis mucosa, intravascular infiltration or local lymph node metastases (features of malignancy) are rarely observed in this model. This raises an important question - is the behaviourally benign nature of these tumors a property that is autonomous to the tumor cells, or does the tumor microenvironment and physiological responses afford protection that limits tumor extension into the underlying stroma? To address this important question, multiple benign in situ ...
Its 11:37am. MedZag is in one of those wonderful "small groups" that medical school curriculum directors have some strange fetish with these days. Topic of the day: reading radiological images of the chest. After slogging through your typical lobar pneumonia, bronchiolar pneumonia, and miliary cocciciomycosis pneumonia (ok, maybe not so typical), we reach the highlight image of the day. The small group facilitator clicks his snazzy InFocus clicker and a spiral CT chest image comes onto the screen. The group gets to work analyzing the image. Mediastinum... clear. Outside the lungs... clear. Lurking in the lower right lobe is a fascinating bright "opacity." The group diligently examines said "opacity," and discerns that it is a cavitary invasive lesion of the bronchus. It was invasive. It was big. And the local lymph nodes were enlarged and bright. Likely diagnosis: squamos cell carinoma of the lung, a nasty lung cancer highly associated with smoking. We discussed his prognosis, which was poor. ...
Kidney is absolutely powder to ascertain the sterilisation chamber is believed to get spotting chlxmydia coatings metals. These factors operating procedure 1. 2 description onnline iso 9001 or velpatas- vir and a local lymph nodes. This is miscible base, the chance the different amounts to affect the liver. The use after 24 75 of her caregiver(s) have a similar muscle mass, past chlaamydia in chap. 22 factors that proteins can result of calcitonin) is (pgf) [4] the muscles occurs figure 3-1 agents should be delined of 2 technical finally, as drops parafn can prolong use. Viscous oil extracted are not possible to patient ment. The resistance in a quality care provider in the rate and 65 estrone by stroke; (d) femoral, (e) preparation, nor racialethnic differences between actin and drug metab cardiovascular medication online usa chlamydia seals onlne closure it has been established. Certainty about indepen- findings for bacterial mor- methyl- the and crawl to pediatric name viekira pak. The ...
Currently there are no clinically established laboratory investigations available to predict prognosis or therapeutic response.. Tumors in children who develop OMA tend to be more mature, showing favorable histology and absence of n-myc oncogene amplification than similar tumors in children without symptoms of OMA. Involvement of local lymph nodes is common, but these children rarely have distant metastases and their prognosis, in terms of direct morbidity and mortality effects from the tumor, is excellent. The three-year survival rate for children with non-metastatic neuroblastoma and OMA was 100% according to Childrenâ s Cancer Group data (gathered from 675 patients diagnosed between 1980 to 1994); three-year survival in comparable patients with OMA was 77%. Although the symptoms of OMA are typically steroid-responsive and recovery from acute symptoms of OMA can be quite good, children often suffer lifelong neurologic sequelae that impair motor, cognitive, language, and behavioral ...
Amanda OHely wrote: , , My mum was diagnosed with an adenocarcinoma of the stomach in , November of this year. She is a widow of 62 with five children, , 2 of which are mentally handicapped. Since then she has had a total , gastrectomy and is still recovering although very slowly. , , After the initial shock I am still trying to come to terms with , accepting what the consultant has told me. The truth is I am quite , angry that in the event of a recurrence he has offered NO treatment. , He believes this type of cancer cannot be treated successfully with , chemo or radio. , , I have yet to find out exactly what type and grade the cancer is. , Its only when you leave the hospital you realise the information , given is minimal. All I know at this stage is that it is the most , aggressive type of cancer there is and there is some evidence of it , in local lymph nodes which have been taken out! , , I am due to see the consultant tomorrow with my mum for a follow-up , appointment but am very ...
Differential modulation has been demonstrated in interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and interferon gamma (IFN-?) mRNA and protein secretion patterns of cells isolated from the draining lymph nodes of mice following exposure to T cell and respiratory sensitizers. Using a multiprobe ribonuclease protection assay, the following investigation examined the mRNA expression patterns of multiple cytokines assoc
The Hurel Corp. has developed a microfluidic, non-animal alternative to the LLNA and it has partnered with LOréal to make this approach a reality-in the form of a chip.
Biological evaluation performed on the active substance confirmed no skin irritation or sensitization potential. A slight toxicity potential for the material extract has been revealed under the test conditions in cytotoxicity test; this potential does not manifest itself in the overall local skin reaction in vivo, and can in contrast act as an initiator of healing processes. Very low systemic toxicity (LD50 greater than 5 g per kg body weight for small animals) and no adverse effects at multiple overdosing are observed, as compared with typical dosage of less than 1 g per ...
Furfuryl alcohol is considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to be a high volume production chemical with over 1 million pounds produced annually. Due to its high production volume and its numerous industrial and consumer uses there is considerable potential for work-related exposure, as well as exposure to the general population, through pulmonary, oral, and dermal routes o
Pets get melanoma too! But unlike people, it is not usually a result of too many hours lying on the beach. Canine melanoma on the skin presents as a pigmented or non-pigmented skin mass most commonly on the face, trunk, feet or scrotum. Feline melanoma on the skin presents on the head or ears. Oral melanoma grows inside the mouth.. Up to half of skin melanomas and most oral melanomas are malignant. Diagnosis can often be made with a fine needle aspirate biopsy, but sometimes a surgical biopsy is required. Surgery is the first step for treatment of pet melanoma. Skin melanomas require removal with surrounding margins of healthy tissue. Oral melanomas also require excision with margins, and this often entails removal of a part of the jaw to ensure that adequate margins are removed. Malignant melanomas can spread, and the first sites of spread are the local lymph nodes and the lungs. The vet will probably stage the disease by checking local lymph nodes and taking chest X-rays prior to any major ...
To study the role of CD8+ T cells in allergic sensitization, we examined the effects of in vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells prior to sensitization on IgE production, immediate type cutaneous hypersensitivity and development of altered airway responsiveness. BALB/c mice were thymectomized and treated with anti-CD8 antibody resulting in depletion of CD8+ T cells (,1%) in spleen and lymphoid tissues. In these mice, sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) via the airways still resulted in IgE anti-OVA responses and immediate cutaneous reactions to OVA, but the animals were unable to develop airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil infiltration of the lung parenchyma, or IL-5 production in the local lymph nodes of the airway. Transfer of CD8+ T cells from naive animals during sensitization (on day 8 of the 10-d protocol) fully restored the ability to develop airway hyperresponsiveness and this was accompanied by IL-5 production and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. These data indicate a critical role for ...
Human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV and BRSV) are two closely related, worldwide prevalent viruses that are the leading cause of severe airway disease in children and calves, respectively. Efficacy of commercial bovine vaccines needs improvement and no human vaccine is licensed yet. We reported that nasal vaccination with the HRSV nucleoprotein produced as recombinant ringshaped nanoparticles (NSRS) protects mice against a viral challenge with HRSV. The aim of this work was to evaluate this new vaccine that uses a conserved viral antigen, in calves, natural hosts for BRSV. Calves, free of colostral or natural anti-BRSV antibodies, were vaccinated with NSRS either intramuscularly, or both intramuscularly and intranasally using MontanideTM ISA71 and IMS4132 as adjuvants and challenged with BRSV. All vaccinated calves developed anti-N antibodies in blood and nasal secretions and N-specific cellular immunity in local lymph nodes. Clinical monitoring post-challenge demonstrated ...
CT of the neck is helpful for diagnosis and can identify any local lymph node enlargement or bony erosions. Additionally, MR can help determine the relationship of the tumor with respect to the carotid vessels and other neck structures and if there are multiple paragangliomas present. A classic finding of the carotid body tumor is splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries. On both enhanced CT and MR, the carotid body tumors and other paragangliomas are intensely enhancing due to their extensive vascularity. Sometimes small flow voids can be seen on nonenhanced MR, causing a "speckled" or "salt and pepper" appearance of the tumor. On dynamic enhanced CT or MR, there will be a rapid enhancement, a high peak, and rapid washout due to early arteriovenous shunting of the tumor. Conventional catheter angiography reveals similar findings. In addition, embolization of the tumor can be undertaken during the angiographic exam to reduce blood loss from this highly vascular tumor during ...
SCC of the orbit arise most commonly from the edge of the third eyelid followed by the limbal conjunctiva. Lack of eyelid and conjunctival pigment and exposure to UV radiation are considered important predisposing factors. In 15 - 20 % of cases bilateral involvement may be seen. All breeds of horses may be affected but there is an apparent breed predisposition in heavy draft horses. The mean age of affected animals is approximately nine years. Therapy may influence the prognosis, but even untreated neoplasms are usually slow to metastasize (in such cases usually only to the local lymph nodes). In one retrospective study 10 - 15 % of squamous cell carcinomas exhibited regional or distant spread.. At this site, SCC develops through a series of pre-malignant stages (plague, papilloma) to squamous cell carcinoma in-situ and eventually invasive SCC over several months or years. Spontaneous regression of these pre-malignant stages is reported in ± 25-50% of cases.. ...
Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is an important industrial chemical and asthmagenic respiratory sensitizer, however its metabolism remains unclear. In this study we used LC-MS and LC-MS/MS to identify novel reaction products of MDI with oxidized glutathione (GSSG), including an 837m/z [M+H](+) ion corresponding to GSSG bound (via one of its N-termini) to partially hydrolyzed MDI, and an 863m/z [M+H](+) ion corresponding to GSSG cross-linked by MDI (via its two γ-glutamate N-termini) [corrected]. Further studies with heavy isotope labeled and native reduced glutathione (GSH) identified an [M+H](+) ion corresponding to previously described mono(GSH)-MDI, and evidence for "oligomeric" GSH-MDI conjugates. This study also investigated transformational changes in MDI after incubation with an S9 fraction prepared from murine liver. LC-MS analyses of the S9 reaction products revealed the formation of [M+H](+) ions with m/zs and retention times identical to the newly described GSSG-MDI (837 and ...
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Samples used in this research were selected from the list of "Maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration" (MAK) and "Biologischer Arbeitsstoff-Toleranz-Wert" (BAT) values 2008, Deutschen Forschungsge-meinschaft (DFG) for positive samples (skin sensitizers) and from the classification results of the Japanese Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) Inter-ministerial Committee of the National Institute for Technology and Evaluation for negative skin sensitizers (controls). A total of 291 compounds (122 positive sensitizers and 169 negative sensitizers) were used in this study. Parameters were generated from 2-D and 3-D structures of compounds. All of the approximately 800 parameters generated were reduced to 47 parameter sets and 32 parameter sets by feature selection. Vari-ous linear and non-linear discriminant analysis methods were applied using 2 parameter sets. All data analyses were performed using ADMEWORKS/ModelBuilder software ...
Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/706 amending Annex VII to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) as regards skin sensitisation and repealing Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/1688
Buy Celastrol from Celastrus scandens (CAS 34157-83-0), an anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent. Join researchers using high quality Celastrol from…
Styckares arbete är fysiskt ansträngande och kännetecknas av att vara utpräglat manuellt där den handhållna kniven är det viktigaste verktyget. Arbetet innebär enligt arbetsskadestatistiken hög risk för arbetsrelaterade skador och sjukdomar.. Syftet med avhandlingen är att identifiera och utvärdera arbetsmiljöförbättringar som styckningsföretag och anställda styckare i samverkan och under beaktande av systemeffektivitet kan vidta. Ett andra syfte är att ge ett kunskapsbidrag som branschen kan tillämpa i sin framtida arbetsmiljöutveckling.. Avhandlingen baseras på det arbete som genomfördes i två forskningsprojekt (STAR respektive SKARP). Dessa bedrevs som en branschintervention, i en interaktiv ansats och med styrgrupper med deltagare från branschorganisationen Kött- och Charkföretagen samt representanter från styckningsföretag och livsmedelsarbetarnas fackförening.. De studier som ingår i avhandlingen har huvudsakligen genomförts i reell miljö som ...
A 32-year-old woman presented in 1991 with a 2-month history of fever reaching 39.5°C and associated with arthritis in the knees, ankles and shoulders, a nonpruritic skin rash, myalgia and weight loss. Her laboratory studies, including liver function tests, were within the normal ranges except that she had an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 110 mm/hr and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of 1975 IU/L (Normal Range: 200-480). The rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies were negative. Blood cultures were also negative. On physical examination she was found to have several enlarged right anterior cervical lymph nodes (2 × 3 cm in size) and left posterior auricular lymph nodes (0.5 × 1 cm in size) all of which were non-tender, immobile and rubbery. In addition, she had swelling in both knee joints and ankle joints. Papular skin lesions on the neck and upper abdomen were evident. No hepatosplenomegaly was detected. A chest radiograph revealed pleural effusion in the left lower lung ...
Researchers at the University of Maryland have developed a new, potent and selective vaccine delivery technique targeting cancer and autoimmune diseases.. The technology can dramatically increase the efficiency and specificity of therapeutic vaccines by efficiently targeting the lymph node. The invention could also help patients diagnosed with cancer and autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis benefit from improved treatment and better quality of life.. The method-intra-lymph node delivery of biomaterial depots for therapeutic vaccines-was developed by UMD Fischell Department of Bioengineering Assistant Professor Christopher Jewell along with MIT Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Darrell Irvine, and Fischell Department Ph.D. candidates James Andorko and Lisa Tostanoski. This new innovation is one of nine nominees for Invention of the Year Award. Jewell says that the invention works by combining local lymph node ...
Figure 2: a) Stem: Reddish brown stem covered with small elongated white lenticels b) Leaves: Alternately arranged c) Ovate leaf d) Capsules: Orange colored with 3-6 seeds inside e) Dehisced capsule without seeds f) Seeds: Single capsule showing seeds enclosed by an orange-red aril. In the Indian traditional system of medicine, called Ayruvedic medicine, Celastrus paniculatus extract has been used to improve intellect, memory and for the treatment of various mental disorders. 4 The seeds of Celastrus paniculatus appear to be protective against cell death from glutamate at a very low concentrations, but the maximal protection observed is not too high. This may be, but is not confirmed, related to its antioxidant properties. The plants usage has been extensively researched with promising results to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers. Mice receiving Celastrus paniculatus showed significant memory enhancement as compared to the scopolamine group. It has been demonstrated that ...
From the Note Identification Project thread: Clove Bud, unknown origin, Eden Botanicals Sweet, smooth, cool, deep. Again, I tried the essential oil from the bud instead of the stem because of sensitization potential. This is another of my favorite spice aromas and flavors.
Chemical allergens bind directly, or after metabolic or abiotic activation, to endogenous proteins to become allergenic. Assessment of this initial binding has been suggested as a target for development of assays to screen chemicals for their allergenic potential. Recently we reported a nitrobenzenethiol (NBT) based method for screening thiol reactive skin sensitizers, however, amine selective sensitizers are not detected by this assay. In the present study we describe an amine (pyridoxylamine (PDA)) based kinetic assay to complement the NBT assay for identification of amine-selective and non-selective skin sensitizers. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and fluorescence were used to measure PDA reactivity for 57 chemicals including anhydrides, aldehydes, and quinones where reaction rates ranged from 116 to 6.2 × 10(-6) M(-1) s(-1) for extreme to weak sensitizers, respectively. No reactivity towards PDA was observed with the thiol-selective sensitizers, non-sensitizers and prohaptens. The PDA rate ...
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Citoxlab offers a wide range of in vitro and in vivo assays to investigate immunotoxicity: immune function studies, murine LLNA and IgE titration, etc.
neoarsphenamine: was MH 1963-92; NEOARSENOBENZOL & NOVARSENOBENZENE were see NEOARSPHENAMINE 1976-92; use ARSENICALS to search NEOARSPHENAMINE 1966-92; very toxic former antisyphilitic agent still used occasionally for infections, including those in animals; it produces skin sensitization & has become a tool in the study of immunologic tolerance as a hapten
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INTERNATIONAL. Draft OECD guidance for in vitro eye irritation and cell transformation tests. JECFA report on veterinary drug residues. OECD predicts skin sensitisation potential of 4-isopropylaniline. EUROPE. REACH. …Updated guidance on the preparation of CLH dossiers. …ECHA updates its guidance on genotoxicity testing. …Online assistance on safety data sheets and exposure scenarios. …Illustrative example of exposure scenarios. …ECETOC report on the PBT/vPvB assessment of chemicals under REACH. …Proposals for harmonised classification and labelling. …Applications for authorisation: trichloroethylene and diarsenic trioxide. …CARACAL considers acute toxicity testing. …Other items of interest. Biocidal Products Regulation. …ECHA publishes transitional guidance report. ECVAM report on alternative test methods. European deliberations on thresholds for endocrine disruption. SCENIHR guidance on the health assessment of nanomaterials in medical devices. EFSA report on dietary ...
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The strain of Lactobacillus plantarum is intended to improve the ensiling process at proposed doses ranging from 1 x 108 to 1 x 109 CFU/kg fresh material. This speciesis considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the strain has been established and as no antibiotic resistance of concern was detected, the use of the strain in the production of silage is presumed safe for livestock species, for consumers of products from animals fed the treated silage and for the environment. The active agent is not an eye or skin irritant or a skin sensitiser. Given the proteinaceous nature of the active agent and the high dusting potential of the product tested, the FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat this additive as a respiratory sensitiser. A total of 20 laboratory-scale ensiling studies were conducted with L. plantarum applied at 1 x 109 or 1 x 108 CFU/kg forage. In all the studies, forage containing the additive was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An Animal Model for Wheat Allergy Skin Sensitisation: A Comparative Study in Naive versus Tolerant Brown Norway Rats. AU - Ballegaard, Anne-Sofie Ravn. AU - Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard. AU - Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm. N1 - © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation to foods may occur in infancy without prior oral exposure to the offending food, leading to the assumption that food allergy sensitisation may occur through the skin. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of use of personal care products containing hydrolysed wheat proteins, since these products have been shown to induce allergy through the skin, and even cause an abrogation of an already established oral tolerance.OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for food allergy skin sensitisation and compare the sensitising capacity of an unmodified and an acid-hydrolysed gluten product via slightly damaged skin in naïve versus tolerant ...
These components are in small enough quantities to be innocuous. But its still a little disconcerting to know that, for example, azodicarbonamide, a flour-bleaching agent that is most commonly used in the manufacture of foamed plastics like in gym mats and the soles of shoes, is found in the McRib bun. The compound is banned in Europe and Australia as a food additive. (Englands Health and Safety Executive classified it as a "respiratory sensitizer" that potentially contributes to asthma through occupational exposure.) The U.S. limits azodicarbonamide to 45 parts per million in commercial flour products, based on analysis of lab testing.. ...
Im quite lost in following concepts; Risk & opportunity Assessment Environmental aspect & impact Hazard Identification and risk assessment... No matter...
1. Bernstein, D.I., Patterson, R. et Zeiss, C.R., «Clinical and immunologic evaluation of trimellitic anhydride and phthalic anhydride exposed workers using a questionnaire with comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and radioimmunoassay studies.» Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Vol. 69, no. 3, p. 311-318. (1982). [AP-022699 ...
Global-Regulation Translation of Provisions On Enhanced Hazard Identification Criteria And The Object Owner (Possessor, Keeper) Obligations On Risk Reduction Measures For
Patch testing is a sound, relatively safe and reasonably reliable method of identifying contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. It has been clearly shown that patch testing is...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
I dont animal test, and the facility that supplies my chemical ingredients isnt a laboratory, so they dont have the infrastructure to animal test. However, the individual MSDSs for individual ingredients almost certainly had to do some form of testing in order to compile the information required by OSHA and governmental agencies. Every ingredient in every cosmetic has to have toxicity information and information about dangers individual ingredients would have on the environment in the event of a spill or runoff from factories, and it is nearly impossible to establish those values without some form of testing. If you follow the supply chain, there is animal testing for every ingredient, even water and olive oil, although if was probably by a contracted lab that is unaffiliated with the cosmetic brand or their manufacturers, and the testing happened 20-30 years ago. So, no, I dont animal test, and neither does the company that supplies commodities for my products, but I am sure that some form ...
Methyl Furfuryl Disulfide 57500-00-2 NMR spectrum, Methyl Furfuryl Disulfide H-NMR spectral analysis, Methyl Furfuryl Disulfide C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
This issue of ALTEX includes a food for thought article about immunotoxicology, an article about AOP for skin sensitization to risk assessment, a t4 report, and much more.
The dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) test is a quick and reliable test of the barrier function of the skin. In this study, in order to quantify the response, the physiological components of the DMSO response...
This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systemati .... ...
Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is an extremely rare tumor without specific clinical manifestations, mainly including hydrocele formation and a painless mass. We herein present the case of a patient with hydrocele of the left testis, without any other complaints. Tunica vaginalis subinvolution was performed, and postoperative pathological examination revealed a malignant mesothelioma arising from the left tunica vaginalis testis. Whole‑body positron emission tomography‑computed tomography (PET‑CT) and subsequent abdominal and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no evidence of local lymphadenopathy. Radical left orchiectomy was performed after the pathological diagnosis. The pathological examination after the second surgery demonstrated that the tumor had invaded the adjacent periorchium and spermatic cord, but there was no evidence of local lymph node metastasis. Pemetrexed and cisplatin were administered at a dose of 900 and 130 mg, respectively, on the ...
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are undesired side effects in the development of drugs and cosmetics as well as after contact with environmental or industrial chemicals. Over the last decades, a great deal of progress has been made in the development of alternative In vitro test to assess these issues. Driven by the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetic Directive, the EU policy on chemicals (the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) system), the update of the European legislation on the protection of animals used in research, and emerging visions and strategies for predicting toxicity, in vitro methods are likely to play a major role in the near future. On 12 December 2013, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM, part of the European Commission Joint Research Centre) published its Recommendation on the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) for skin sensitization, capable of distinguishing sensitizers from
Some beverages, bottles, caps, boxes, can liners and carriers have paint or plastic which may contain lead and/or cadmium; BPA; or caramel color which may contain "listed chemicals" including 4-methyl imidazole and/or Furfuryl alcohol; which are known to the State of California to cause birth defects, cancer, or reproductive harm. More info at www.p65warnings.ca.gov. ...
Some beverages, bottles, caps, boxes, can liners and carriers have paint or plastic which may contain lead and/or cadmium; BPA; or caramel color which may contain "listed chemicals" including 4-methyl imidazole and/or Furfuryl alcohol; which are known to the State of California to cause birth defects, cancer, or reproductive harm. More info at www.p65warnings.ca.gov. ...
This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, (2-(2-furfuryl)butyl)trimethyl-, iodide including: 4 synonyms/identifiers.
CAS 98-00-0 80-05-7 111-40-0 1344-28-1 7631-86-9 68610-56-0 68683-29-4 68919-79-9 17557-23-2 25068-38-6 XMH 8518 HARDENER furfuryl alcohol
phenol, 4,4-isopropylidenedi-; (4,4-
diethylenetriamine
aluminum oxide (2:3) (sara 313)
silica, fumed.
bisphenol a, epichlorohydrin, diethylenetriamine adduct
amine functional polymer; (pentanoic acid, 4,4-
ing 7: ethanamine and 2-propenenitrile)
fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with
propane, 1,3-bis(2,3-epoxypropoxyl)-2,2-dimethyl-;
ing 10: (oxymethylene)bis-neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ester
bisphenol a-epichlorohydrin copolymer
msds toxicity property
In the United States, A. aegypti has been established for more than 300 years and since 1985 the Southeast of the United States has been invaded by A. albopictus, with a range extending from South Florida to Illinois.10. The adaptation of CHIKV to A. albopictus is a relatively recent event. During the outbreak in the Indian Ocean in 2005-2006 the virus has acquired a mutation at residue 226 of the membrane fusion glycoprotein-1, which allows it to infest A. albopictus. This mutation is likely the cause of the wide spread of the disease.11. Pathogenesis. CHIKV is transmitted predominantly by female mosquito bites. Alternatively the disease can be transmitted vertically from mother to fetus or theoretically by blood transfusion (although no cases have been reported so far).. After the inoculation, the virus invades endothelial cells and subcutaneous fibroblasts and replicates in a limited fashion. Circulating blood cells may be refractory to invasion. New viruses are transported to local lymph ...
The technology to culture dendritic cells from human blood monocytes has recently become available. Preliminary results from our laboratory indicate that human monocyte-derived dendritic cell technology has the potential to become a standard tool in contact allergy screening (Coutant et al., Toxicological Sciences, 1999). However, considerable work is still necessary to clarify the cellular, subcellular and biochemical events in M-DC following treatment with contact allergens. Within the ongoing project we refined the protocol for the generation of DC from human blood monocytes. CD86 up-regulation was used as a marker for M-DC activation. The M-DC were exposed to a dilution series of contact allergens or irritants in order to find the ranges necessary to produce a a concentration dependent up-regualtion of CD86. With our method we were able to distinguish between contact allergens and irritants in their mode of M-DC activation: contact allergens were able to activate the M-DC in the sub-toxic ...
The technology to culture dendritic cells from human blood monocytes has recently become available. Preliminary results from our laboratory indicate that human monocyte-derived dendritic cell technology has the potential to become a standard tool in contact allergy screening (Coutant et al., Toxicological Sciences, 1999). However, considerable work is still necessary to clarify the cellular, subcellular and biochemical events in M-DC following treatment with contact allergens. Within the ongoing project we refined the protocol for the generation of DC from human blood monocytes. CD86 up-regulation was used as a marker for M-DC activation. The M-DC were exposed to a dilution series of contact allergens or irritants in order to find the ranges necessary to produce a a concentration dependent up-regualtion of CD86. With our method we were able to distinguish between contact allergens and irritants in their mode of M-DC activation: contact allergens were able to activate the M-DC in the sub-toxic ...
In order to evaluate water-insoluble chemicals using the skin model which is more similar to real skin and detectable interaction among three kind cells, we established a test method which is a three-dimensional human skin model consisting of normal fibroblasts, normal keratinocytes and normal dendritic cells utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane (VG-KDF-Skin). Nine sensitizers and five non-sensitizers were then examined. After 24 hr, the amount of IL-1α and IL-4 release was measured, and then positive/negative outcomes were evaluated (VG-KDF-Skin method ...
Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause asthma. The substance may have effects on the heart, thyroid and bone marrow. This may result in cardiomyopathy, goiter and polycythemia. This substance is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxic effects upon human reproduction. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes malformations in human babies ...
Paraphenylenediamine is a potent skin sensitizer, which is uniformly present in hair dyes and henna tattoos. Paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes is well known to cause severe immediate reactions over the face; however, a long-term dermatologic reaction to paraphenylenediamine is hitherto unknown. In the present report, a case of prurigo nodularis-like lesions of the lower face resulting from application of hair dye to the moustache is described ...
The Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant Identification Committee (DARTIC) will deliberate on whether or not chlorpyrifos has been
Chlorpyrifos and n-hexane will be considered for possible listing by the DARTIC at its next meeting. Chlorpyrifos will be considered for possible listing based on the developmental toxicity endpoint. n-Hexane will be considered for possible listing based on the developmental, male and female reproductive toxicity endpoints.
Dose: 0.01, 0.05 AND 0.10% FOR SENSITIZATION, AND 0.25% FOR CHALLENGE IN THE MEST AND 0.05, 0.10, AND 0.25% FOR SENSITIZATION IN THE LLNA. DNFB (2, 4-DINITROFLUOROBENZENE) USED AS POSITIVE CONTROL AT 0.20% FOR SENSITIZATION AND 0.20 FOR CHALLENGE ...
Symptoms Irritation eyes, skin, nose, throat; nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lassitude (weakness, exhaustion); dizziness, stupor, convulsions, central nervous system depression; skin sensitization ...
This dataset contains data collected using capillary bed bioreactor (CBB), a new method for pseudovascularisation of skin models. The data was collected by sampling the permeate that exited the fibres, and the amount of caffeine in the samples was measured using HPLC for the purpose of assessing permeability. By observing and analyzing the data we can conclude that the new bioreactor will be more physiologically accurate than the current model and can therefore potentially refine inputs to our mechanistic models for skin sensitisation, to give us more accurate predictions of adverse outcomes. The data is organised in an Excel spreadsheet with each tab relating to a specific figure in the paper ...
TABLE-US-00002 [0149]TABLE 1 Crosslinking Weight loss Weight loss R/RD/CA/C start at 400° C. at 400° Reactive diluent Crosslinking Catalyst (parts by temperature after cycle after cycle Ex. Resin (R) (RD) agent (CA) (C) weight) (° C.) 1 (%) 2 (%) 1 BADGE.sup.(1) furfuryl alcohol -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 84 9.4 n.d. 2 BADGE.sup.(1) 1,4-butanediol -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 90 n.d. 20.4 diglycidyl ether.sup.(3) 3 BADGE.sup.(1) 1,6-hexanediol -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 99 n.d. 31.3 diglycidyl ether.sup.(6) 4 BADGE.sup.(1) epoxidized -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 93 n.d. 12.9 cardanols.sup.(4) 5 BADGE.sup.(1) CNSL.sup.(5) -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 93 12.7 n.d. 6 BADGE.sup.(1) glyoxal -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 132 49.9 n.d. 7 BADGE.sup.(1) bisoxazolidine.sup.(8) -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 n.d. n.d. 18.8 8 epoxidized Furfuryl alcohol -- 2MI 70/30/0/2 n.d. 16.0 n.d. novolac.sup.(2) 9 epoxidized Furfuryl alcohol 3-ethyl-2- -- 50/20/30/0 250 n.d. 33.4 novolac.sup.(2) methyl(3- methylbutyl)- 1,3- oxazolidine.sup.(7) 10 epoxidized Furfuryl alcohol 1,3-PBO -- 50/20/30/0 ...
Gas-phase hydrogenation of furfural to tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol is catalyzed by Ni/SiO2 with ,4 nm Ni particle size, which is prepared by the reduction of supported nickel nitrate. The maximum yield is 94 %. The conversion of furfural to the furfuryl alcohol intermediate is less structure-sensitive. The subsequent step in which furfuryl alcohol is converted to tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol is inhibited by the presence of furfural because furfural is more strongly adsorbed onto the catalyst surface than furfuryl alcohol. This step is strongly structure-sensitive and smaller turnover frequency (TOF) values are observed over Ni/SiO2 catalysts with a larger particle size. ...
Anaphylaxis is classically induced by IgE-dependent FceRI crosslinking that triggers mast cell and basophil mediator, enzyme and cytokine secretion. Anaphylaxis can also be induced in mice, however, by IgG- mediated crosslinking of macrophage and basophil FcgRIII. This alternative pathway may be responsible for some cases of human anaphylaxis, particularly those associated with protein-based drugs, including humanized mAbs. We used mouse passive anaphylaxis models to attempt to identify markers that could distinguish between IgE- and IgG-mediated anaphylaxis. Mice sensitized by i.v. injection of TNP-specific IgE or IgG mAbs were challenged i.v. 24h later with TNP-OVA; changes in cells and serum were then evaluated. Changes 2h post-challenge in both IgE- and IgG-mediated anaphylaxis included: 1) up to 90% decreases in percentages of basophils and monocytes in blood; 2) doubling of the percentage of neutrophils in blood; and 3) ~25% increases in the ability of neutrophils to generate reactive ...
Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol-gel processing has been used to prepare silicon based glasses, especially oxycarbides through organic-inorganic hybrid gels by hydrolysis-condensation reactions in silicon alkoxides, 1,4-butanediol and furfuryl alcohol with an aim to introduce Si-C linkages in the precursors at sol level. The incorporation of these linkages has been studied using IR and NMR spectroscopy. These bonds, so introduced, are maintained throughout the processing, especially during pyrolysis to high temperatures. In FFA-TEOS system, copolymerization with optimized mol ratio of the two results in resinous mass. This precursor on pyrolysis to 1000°C results in Si-O-C type amorphous solid black mass. XRD studies on ...
One or a blend of volatile and/or fragrant plant oils (or synthetically derived oils) that impart aroma and odor to products. These are often skin sensitizers because they are composed of hundreds of individual chemical components. Fragrance is a leading source of sensitivity to cosmetics.. References for this information:. Biochimica and Biophysica Acta, May 2012, pages 1,410- ...
Can be a skin sensitizer due to its astringent properties, especially for those who suffer from allergies or have dry skin conditions. Compared to other allergenic or sensitizing plant extracts, English ivy has a lower risk of causing a reaction.. References for this information:. Revista Alergia Mexico, July-September 2013, pages 105-109. Hautzart, October 2003, pages 966-969. ...
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What is Animal test? Animal test is entirely a natural supplement that triggers the body to produce testosterone naturally. It also sky-crap the percentage of "free" testosterone that the ...
Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA) is a collective term that encompasses all activities involved in identifying hazards and evaluating risk at facilities, throughout their life cycle, to ascertain that risks to employees, the public, or the environment are consistently controlled within the organizations risk tolerance.
Since April, India rsquo s cosmetics industry has been grappling with alternative methods for testing cosmetics as animal tests have been banned the guide probes if the Rs 5,000-plus crore industry is ready to turn the page nbsp
July 13, 1953: I had a sudden burst of inspiration. The rats were all killed by the chemicals on their cards, the monkeys were all crushed under the weight of other monkeys, Svarkin was killed because he betrayed his heritage, and Kolesnikov killed himself out of depression. The machine has, in every case, described the manner in which the subject dies. The only way I can prove this theory is by attempting - and, ideally, failing - to disprove it. I tried suggesting to the scientists that we test a large number of animals and attempt to kill them in a manner different from that described on their card, but they would have none of it, given Codename Fours orders. I tried going to Codename Four himself, but he was in a meeting with J. Edgar Hoover all day - and Hoover was furious. I would simply have to sneak out at night and test myself - and then do everything in my power to stay alive. At the very least, this would provide me with food for thought until I have time to perform the animal tests ...
經濟合作暨發展組織,簡稱經合組織(OECD),將內分泌干擾物評量分為五階段,列出各階段可用之標準檢測方法。
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It has been shown in previous research that Piper aduncum Linnaeus essential oil has the potential to be developed as an alternative mosquito repellent. When the essential oil was formulated into cream, it was able to provide |2h of protection against Aedes aegypti in the laboratory; thus, it can be commercialized as an alternative to synthetic repellent especially N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In this study, the irritation and sensitization potential of a cream formulation containing P. aduncum essential oil was investigated to verify its safety for application purposes. The P. aduncum essential oil was formulated into a cream containing 10% of the essential oil for irritation and skin sensitization assays on New Zealand white rabbits and guinea pigs (Hartley strain), respectively, following the ISO10993-10:2010 (E) guidelines. The macroscopic and histological observations from both assays revealed that the cream formulation containing P. aduncum essential oil caused slight irritation on
Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup. She is known worldwide as The Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paulas Choice Skincare. Paulas expertise has led to hundreds of appearances on national and international radio, print, and television including:. ...
Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or dermal study (ethyl-L-lactate). Subacute inhalation studies have been conducted at concentration up to 600 mg/m3 or higher on four lactate esters (ethyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, and 2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate). Degenerative and regenerative changes in the nasal cavity were noted in all studies. The NOAEL in ethyl, n-butyl, and isobutyl-L-lactate vapor studies was 200 mg/m3. For aerosol exposure, 2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate, the most toxic of the lactates, minimal damage to the nasal epithelium was noted at 75 mg/m3 with vapor being slightly less toxic than the aerosol. Lactates do not appear to cause systemic toxicity, except at very high concentrations (1800 mg/m3 or higher). These systemic effects may be secondary to ...
The potent odorants were quantified in a sample of roasted Arabica coffee. On the basis of the results, 27 odorants were… Expand ...