Abstract: Heritablities and correlations were estimated between lamb body weight at different ages and reproductive traits in the Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed. Data and pedigree information for Lori-Bakhtiari sheep used in this study were 5826 records of body weight of lambs from 240 sires and 1627 dams, and 5741 records of reproductive traits from 1797 ewes collected from 1989 to 2006 from a Lori-Bakhtiari flock at the Shooli station in Shahrekord. The lamb traits investigated were weights at birth (BWT), weaning (WWT) and at six months of age (WT6). The reproductive traits were conception rate (CR), litter size at birth per ewe lambing (LSB/EL), litter size at weaning per ewe lambing (LSW/EL), litter size at birth per ewe exposed to a ram (LSB/EE), litter size at weaning per ewe exposed (LSW/EE), total litter weight at birth per ewe lambing (TLWB/EL), total litter weight at weaning per ewe lambing (TLWW/EL), total litter weight at birth per ewe exposed (TLWB/EE) and total litter weight at ...
Two hundred two sows (98 parity 1 and 104 parity 2 sows) were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of dietary valine and lysine on sow lactation performance. Treatments included two levels of lysine (.8 or 1.2%) and three valine to lysine ratios (80, 100, 120% of lysine). This experiment was conducted at a research farm of a production facility in New South Wales, Australia from January to March, 1994. For all sows, increasing dietary lysine increased litter weaning weight and litter weight gain and reduced sow weight loss. Increasing dietary valine tended to increase litter weight gain. Parity 1 sows had a greater response in litter weight gain to dietary lysine than parity 2 sows. Parity 1 sows also exhibited a linear increase in litter weight gain as dietary valine increased. Parity 2 sows had an increase in litter weight gain at the low lysine level but a decrease in litter weight gain at the high lysine level with increasing valine in the diet. Both ...
outdoor litter box cat how to get rid of cat urine smell in the house disk trend magazine you should show your cat its litter box from the first day it comes to your house experts thought that you should put the litter box in the place that your.. best rated cat litter accessories cat supplies the home depot wooden pet house xl and litter box, where to place the litter box of our cat love ferplast lettieracosmicferplast cosmicferplastlettiera, outdoor litter box outdoor cat litter box ideas about pet life outdoor litter box outdoor litter box for cat how to build an outdoor litter box for outdoor litter box , litter box trash can teambuzzinfo litter box trash can classified stainless steel outdoor litter box trash cans for hospitals china manufacturer, outdoor litter box amazoncom booda petmate dome cleanstep cat box brushed nickel, indooroutdoor litter box clean organize pinterest litter indooroutdoor litter box, why is my cat peeing outside her litter box petfinder why is my cat peeing outside ...
Number of piglets born alive (NBA) has been a major component of sow productivity, and genetic improvement programmes linked to it have been given priority (Kim et al., 2005). The number of teats a sow has limits the number of piglets it can nurture to weaning. When a sow farrows more piglets in a litter than its number of teats, the excess piglets have to be fostered (Canario et al., 2010). To date, sows from most breeds exhibit NBA of over 12 (Umesiobi, 2009). Kim et al. (2005) reported average teat numbers of 14 in Large White and Landrace sows. Therefore, the success of continued selection for litter size is likely to be limited by the number of teats.. Since improvement for NBA is approaching its optimum level, the next challenge could be to maximize piglet survival and growth rates. Milligan et al. (2002) suggested that one reason for low survival rates and a reduced average litter weight at weaning in large litters is the unfavourable positive correlation between NBA and within-litter ...
Eleven generations of selection for increased index of ovulation rate and embryonal survival rate, followed by three generations of selection for litter size, were practiced. Laparotomy was used to count corpora lutea and fetuses at 50 d of gestation. High-indexing gilts, approximately 30%, were farrowed. Sons of dams in the upper 10% of the distribution were selected. Selection from Generations 12 to 14 was for increased number of fully formed pigs; replacements were from the largest 25% of the litters. A randomly selected control line was maintained. Responses at Generation 11 were approximately 7.4 ova and 3.8 fetuses at 50 d of gestation (P | .01) and 2.3 fully formed pigs (P | .01) and 1.1 live pigs at birth (P | .05). Responses at Generation 14 were three fully formed pigs (P | .01) and 1.4 live pigs (P | .05) per litter. Number of pigs weaned declined (P | .05) in the index line. Total litter weight weaned did not change significantly. Ovulation rate and number of fetuses had positive genetic
article{e8eea27c-bd6d-4ad1-a0b0-261425a1c584, abstract = {Many Arctic regions are currently experiencing substantial summer and winter climate changes. Litter decomposition is a fundamental component of ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, with fungi being among the primary decomposers. To assess the impacts of seasonal climatic changes on litter fungal communities and their functioning, Betula glandulosa leaf litter was surface-incubated in two adjacent low Arctic sites with contrasting soil moisture regimes: dry shrub heath and wet sedge tundra at Disko Island, Greenland. At both sites, we investigated the impacts of factorial combinations of enhanced summer warming (using open-top chambers; OTCs) and deepened snow (using snow fences) on surface litter mass loss, chemistry and fungal decomposer communities after approximately 1 year. Enhanced summer warming significantly restricted litter mass loss by 32% in the dry and 17% in the wet site. Litter moisture content was significantly reduced by ...
Litter size is among the most important traits in swine breeding. However, information on the genetics of litter size in pigs is lacking. In this study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and 3 (IGFBP2 and IGFBP3) genes in Berkshire pigs and analyzed their association with litter size traits. The IGFBP2 SNP was located on chromosome 15 intron 2 (455, A , T) and the IGFBP3 SNP was on chromosome 18 intron 2 (53, A , G). The AT type of IGFBP2 and the GG type of IGFBP3 had the highest values for all litter size traits including total number born (TNB), number of pigs born alive, and breeding value according to TNB ...
Modern sow lines have been genetically selected for increased litter size. This increase in litter size, however, is also associated with higher piglet mortality. This piglet mortality can be partly explained by lower piglet birth weights and higher within-litter variation in birth weight. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that these factors, the lower piglet birth weights and the higher within-litter variation, are (at least partly) explained by impaired follicular development of sows during and after lactation, as this is the period in which antral follicles develop that contain the oocytes that will give rise to the next litter. Increased litter size also results in increased metabolic demands of modern sows during lactation, due to the necessary higher milk production. As the metabolic state highly influences follicular development, the increased metabolic demands may therefore impair follicular development and contribute to lower piglet birth weights and higher within-litter variation ...
DOB: Date of birth. Breeder ID: The pedigree numbers of the breeding female(s) and male Breeder Unit: Mice were either pair-mated (1 female and 1 male) or trio-mated (2 females and 1 male). All matings were between siblings.. Dam Age at Mating (wks): The age of the female(s) on the day she was mated: = Mating Date - Breeders DOB/7. Dam Age at Birth of First Litter (wks): The age of the female(s) on the day her first litter was born, in weeks: = Litter DOB - Breeders DOB/7. Dam Age at Retirement (wks): The age of the female(s) on the day she was retired: = Date Retired - Breeders DOB/7. Litter Number: This number indicates the birth order of all the litters from a given breeding unit.. Latency to 1st litter/Days to First Litter (wks): The amount of time that elapsed between the mating date of a breeder unit and the birth of the first litter: = Mating Date - Litter DOB/7. Litter size born: The number of mice born in a given litter. Litter size weaned: The number of mice weaned in a given litter ...
Reproductive behavior of Akodon montensis has not been extensively studied, and the mating system that best characterizes this species is currently unknown.. Reproductive efforts of male Akodon montensis occurs via a four-stage process. First, recrudescence of spermatogenesis occurs, followed by the act of mating. These two stages take place between October and February (the wet season). The third stage, regression of activity and spermatogenesis, and the fourth stage, rest, take place from March to July (the dry season). If the immediate environment and weather are favorable, mating can take place year round. Typically, females have two litters but may have more if environmental conditions are favorable. Litter size ranges from 3 to 10 offspring, with an average litter size of 5. On average, gestation lasts 23 days, and offspring are typically weaned within 15 days. Males achieve sexual maturity in 32 to 37 days while females achieve sexual maturity between 35 and 91 days. Sexual maturity is ...
An on-farm experiment was conducted utilizing 189 sows to evaluate the effect of adding 396 soybean oil to the lactational diet on subsequent pig performance and sow weight loss. Feeding sows a diet containing 3% soybean oil during lactation did not significantly decrease sow weight loss or improve litter performance. However, the oil addition tended to increase individual pig weaning weight (.5 Ib), litter weaning weight (3 lb), and sow feed intake (.5 lb/day) compared to feeding a 14% crude protein milo-soybean meal diet. Also, sow lactational weight loss was slightly reduced wit h the diet containing oil. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was increased (P,.01) for sows fed the diet with soybean oil compared to sows fed the control diet. We postulate that the increased calorie intake from adding soybean oil to sow lactation diets during the summer months may increase litter weaning weight ...
Female reproductive performance is a critical component of sustainable pig production systems. There is abundant evidence of genetic variation in these traits among pig breeds. The aims of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting reproductive traits and to identify and characterise positional candidate gene(s) underlying the QTL. A Large White - Meishan F2 population was scanned for QTL with effects on reproductive traits. This analysis revealed 13 putative QTLs on seven different chromosomes with effects on five different traits: ovulation rate (OR), teat number (TN), prenatal survival (PS), total born alive (TBA) and litter size (LS). QTL for PS and LS on chromosome 8 were fine mapped and Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) confirmed as a candidate gene. A genome-wide association study was performed on a diverse population of different breeds and crosses lines, for reproductive traits including LS, TBA, number of stillborn piglets, and number of mummified piglets. ...
Genetic selection and management changes during the last decades have significantly increased the average litter size of sows. However, this recent success has not correlated with an extension of longevity and reduction in replacement rate. Longevity or lifetime production of sows is determined by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Nutrition is an environmental factor of importance, and it has long been appreciated that animals fed with specific diets may perform differently. The advent of modern science revealed that this is partly due to the ability of nutrients to act as signalling molecules that, through appropriate intracellular sensing mechanisms, can control gene expression and modulate cell functions. Based on this concept, nutrigenomics studies now aim to show that not only are certain nutrients essential for general health, but also that specific quantities of precise nutrients are necessary during critical periods of energy deficiency and oxidative stress such as ...
pigs ; litter size ; prenatal survival ; ovulation rate ; single nucleotide polymorphisms ; SNPs ; teat number ; Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 ; SPP1 ; QTL ; quantitative trait loci ; placenta ; endometrium
Keep odors and clumps under control with Blue Naturally Fresh Multi-Cat Clumping Cat Litter. This proprietary formula uses fibrous materials found only in walnut shells to provide proven odor control for multi-cat households. This super absorbent clumping cat litter produces hard clumps in as little as 15 minutes, making cleanup simple and mess-free. The low dust and low tracking multicat cat litter is sure to help keep your pet and home clean and healthy. Blue Naturally Fresh Multi-Cat Clumping Cat Litter is 100% natural and biodegradable. Your cats litter box can be messy and smelly. But with the right litter, maintaining and cleaning the litter box can become less of a hassle. Some litters dont clump consistently or prevent odors. Instead they leave dust and track all over your house when your cat steps out of the litter box. Blue Naturally Fresh Multi-Cat Clumping Cat Litter addresses these most inconveniences. This clumping cat litter is super absorbent and creates hard clumps that are ...
A litter box including a housing for disposing therein litter for use by a pet, and a grinder for grinding excreta found in the litter box. The litter box preferably includes litter substantially impervious to grinding by the grinder. The litter box includes a filtering assembly for filtering the excreta, ground by the grinder, from the litter. The litter box preferably includes a cleansing liquid which is in fluid communication with the litter, Wherein the grinder agitates the litter and the cleansing liquid so as to cause cleansing of the litter.
Iron-deficiency anemia is a public health concern that frequently occurs in pregnant mammals and neonatal offspring. Ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate (Fe-CGly) is a newly designed iron fortifier with proven effects in iron-deficient rats and weanling piglets. However, the effects of this new compound on pregnant mammals are unknown. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Fe-CGly on sow reproductive performance and iron status of both sows and neonatal piglets. A total of 40 large-white sows after second parity were randomly assigned to two groups (n=20). They were receiving a diet including 80 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4 or Fe-CGly, respectively, from day 85 of gestation to parturition. The serum (day 110 of pregnancy) and placentas of sows were sampled. Litter size, mean weight of live born piglets, birth (live) litter weight, number of live born piglets, and the number of still-born piglets, mummies, and weak-born piglets were recorded. Once delivered, eight litters were ...
Summary: The objective was to associate preweaning factors in gilt multiplication with the subsequent lifetime productivity in commercial sow herds. Sows were farrowed at two multiplication farms in North Carolina between May and December 2013. Preweaning data was collected on 12,943 gilts and their birth litters, including total number born, number nursed, number weaned, litter sex ratio, cross-foster status, weaning age, birth dam parity and individual traits such as birth weight, weaning weight and preweaning average daily gain. Gilts were traced from finishing facilities to commercial sow farms in eastern North Carolina. Of the 12,934 gilts individually tagged at birth, 6,249 entered a commercial sow farm. When including all gilts tagged at birth in the analysis, a lower litter size at birth, gilts not cross-fostered, greater piglet birth weight, piglet weaning weight and preweaning average daily gain were associated with increased ability to remain to parity 1. Yet only a lower litter size ...
This work assessed whether walking affects bodily development and metabolic parameters of female rats raised in small litters (three pups, group S) or control litters (nine pups, group C). After weaning, some of the rats had five sessions per week of a 30-min treadmill walking (CE and SE), while the others remained sedentary (CS and SS) until the age of 120 days. Exercise caused a reduction of body weight (CS/CE = 1.18), Lee index (CS/CE = 1.04), fasting blood glucose (CS/CE = 1.35), mesenteric (CS/CE = 1.23), and ovarian fat (CS/CE = 1.33) in CE, but only glucose was decreased in SE (SS/SE = 1.16). The diameter of adipocytes decreased to a half in the small-litter groups. Exercise increased subcutaneous (CS/CE = 0.88 and SS/SE = 0.71), but decreased retroperitoneal adipocytes (CS/CE = 1.2 and SS/SE = 1.3). Litter size reduction had little impact on females at the age of 120 days, but the light physical activity seemed insufficient to counteract all the effects of lactational overfeeding. On the ...
Photo credit: ,a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/editor/1535689884/",Editor B,/a, / ,a href="http://foter.com/",Foter,/a, / ,a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/",CC BY,/a,. Then I had this eureka moment while I was renovating my attic bedroom. I was in the process of painting the walls, so I had those disposable plastic paint trays lying around. Thats when it hit me: I could use those as a tear resistant litter box liner.. Since then, I place a plastic litter box liner over the litter box first. Then I just drop the paint tray in, and pour the litter right on top. I scoop the litter a couple of times a day, for about two weeks (it totally depends on the litter you use… I use the Blue brands Quick Clumping). When Im ready to change the litter completely, I just dump the whole thing, leaving behind a litter pan with no soiled litter stuck to the bottom.. Its been almost a year since I started using paint trays as liners, and its made a huge difference. I spend less time ...
ay for 2.5 weeks before parturition. Litter size was recorded at parturition. The worm burden was determined and mucosal tissue samples for local immune cells collected at weeks +1 and +3 relative to parturition, with five animals slaughtered at each time from each group. The animals in the high protein group had a lower faecal egg count (FEC), lower worm burdens of T. circumcincta and T. colubriformis, more intestinal mucosal mast cells and globule leukocytes than their low protein counterparts. Single bearing ewes lost less bodyweight after lambing, had a lower FEC and more intestinal globule leukocytes than multiple bearing ewes. A significant interaction of protein treatment x litter size on FEC showed that single bearing ewes fed the high protein level markedly suppressed FEC. Vaccination induced a higher parasite specific antibody response (in serum total antibody, IgE and IgA, and saliva total antibody and IgA) in the vaccination period. The vaccinated animals also had a lower number of ...
Knowledge of seasonality in oestrus and litter size of bitches in assistance dog breeding colonies may support colony management through the efficient allocation throughout the year of resources required for the breeding programme. However, while it is generally accepted that day length is the main factor regulating seasonal variations in breeding in most species,1 experimental and observational studies of seasonality in oestrus, and its regulatory factors, are limited and somewhat conflicting for domesticated dogs.2-5 This may reflect the diversity of the study populations, which include free-roaming, predominately mixed breed dogs in less developed communities, and purebreed or first crossbreed pet and laboratory dogs in developed communities.. Studies from less developed communities include one from Jaipur, in the temperate region of northern India, where oestrus was more commonly observed in free-roaming bitches during late autumn and winter.3 By contrast, there was no evidence of ...
Many private owners and breeders want to use this service: sonographic diagnosis of the litter size and the gestational age. This survey determines the accuracy of this technique and gives information about the optimal time of the examination
The animal litter comprises a cellulose litter material that contains a pheromone-like attractant substance which makes the litter attractive to animals seeking a place to defecate and/or urinate. The litter material is pelletized to give the litter a consistency comparable to that of fine gravel. The pellets formed from the litter material hydrate slowly but positively and are disposable in water. The density of the pellets is such that they retain their structural integrity on hydration. The pellets are formed from ground paper which has been moistened with sufficient water to hold the particles together but not so much as to cause the pellets to feel moist. An acid salt may either be added in the water or as a dry powder to the ground paper. This salt carried by the water in the pellets neutralizes the animal urine (and the ammonia-like compounds formed from it) while maintaining the pH of the litter at a level acceptable to the animals. A pheromone-like attractant substance is added to the pellets
Best Silica Cat Litter Brands Based on Consumer Reviews. Of the pure crystal litters, Dr. Elseys Precious Cat Long-Haired Cat Litter received particularly high scores from consumers, with an average rating of 5 stars out of 5 at PetSmart.com.. Just the Crystals, another top-rated product, has an average rating of 4.4 from a large number of reviewers at Amazon.com. These crystals, designed specifically for the Forever Litter Tray, are fragrance-free and come in recyclable packaging (the Forever Litter Tray, used with Scoop Free Automatic Litter Boxes, is a also a highly rated product made from 100% recycled materials).. Health Meter Early Detection System Cat Litter, in addition to providing excellent odour control, can alert owners to bladder infections, urinary tract stones or crystals, liver disease, and kidney problems because the crystals change colour in response to these medical conditions. Though not extensively reviewed, this product was rated highly at PetSmart, with an average of 4.2. ...
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A litter box, sometimes called a sandbox, litter tray, litter pan, or catbox, is an indoor feces and urine collection box for cats (as well as rabbits, ferrets, micro pigs; small dogs, such as Beagles and Chihuahuas; and other pets that instinctively or through training will make use of such a repository) that are permitted free roam of a home but who cannot or do not always go outside to relieve themselves. Many owners of these animals prefer not to let them roam outside for fear that they might succumb to outdoor dangers, such as weather, wildlife or traffic (it has been claimed indoor cats, on average, live ten years longer than outdoor cats). A litter box makes it possible to shelter pets from these risks. In the wild, cats naturally excrete in soft or sandy soil for easy burial. They use their paws in a backward sweeping motion to cover their feces. To stimulate this instinctive desire, a litter boxs bottom is filled typically with an inch (2.5 cm) or more of cat litter. Litter box filler ...
Topigs has found several SNPs which explain genetic variation in litter birthweight and litter uniformity and can be used to breed sows that farrow large, heavy and uniform litters.
I am very pleased on how this litter has turned out to this point and am extremely interested in knowing how all the puppies mature. Despite the number of puppies whelped, all the puppies weights were uniform, with birth weight averaging 5-7 oz.. The subsequent growth of the puppies over the past weeks has been moderate with current average weights of about 5 lbs 8 oz for the females and about 6 lbs for the males. These weights are average with those of Tory s last litter, however, lower than those litters whelped by her mom, Rogue, where the weights ranged from 12 lbs up to 16 lbs in the 7th week (at birth, Rogue s puppies, both litters averaging 6 puppies, usually weigh around 1 lb each). This doesnt surprise me, however, and I have fewer concerns about the soundness of this litter on a whole. Usually, the larger the puppies and the more accelerated the growth, the greater the risk for bone disorders. Therefore, I feel that this litter will probably not have an increased risk of developing ...
The pig is an important dual purpose animal model for agriculture and biomedical applications. With an increasing global population and an increased demand for animal protein, domesticated animals such as pigs are critical for tackling the emerging global food security crisis. Unlike domestic ruminants, the pig has a short gestational interval (114 days), is a litter bearing animal carrying an average of 14 piglets in one pregnancy, and in commercial setting can give rise to three pregnancies in one year. These attributes make it not only a valuable model for agriculture but also for genetic engineering applications, where relatively short pregnancy and large litter size is preferred for generating and propagating genetically modified animals. From a biomedical standpoint, there is an increased awareness among the biomedical community that mouse models cannot meet the complete spectrum of biomedical needs, and an alternative animal model such as the pig is required to meet the shortcomings of ...
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A litter circle is a sizable pattern created by the flattening of litter such as clay-based (clumping/non-clumping), crystal or natural and biodegradable cat litter. Litter circles are also referred to as litter formations, because they are not always circular in shape. Litter circles have become the subject of speculation by various paranormal and anomalistic investigators…
Two experiments of divergent selection for uterine efficiency in rabbits were performed. Rabbit does were unilaterally ovariectomized and a laparoscopy was made at mid-gestation to observe the number of corpora lutea and implanted embryos in the functional genital tract. Selection was based on the number of fetuses which died between implantation and birth in the first experiment, and on litter size in the second one, both using BLUP on an animal model. This paper presents the average values of observed traits and their heritability. Results show that an effective overcrowding of one uterine hom was obtained at implantation. The additive genetic variability of embryonic survival seems to be greater than that of fetal survival. Some differences in heritabilities between intact and unilaterally ovariectomized females tend to appear ...
The present work characterises how selection for reproduction (by comparing two generations ¿ 16th and 36th ¿ of the V line selected for litter size at weaning) or foundation for reproductive longevity (the LP line) can affect the blood lymphocytes populations of reproductive rabbit does under normal [conventional housing, average daily minimum and maximum temperatures of 14 ◦C and 20 ◦C, respectively] and heat stress conditions [climatic chamber, 25 ◦C and 36 ◦C] from the first to the second parturition. Housing under heat stress conditions significantly reduced the B lymphocytes counts in female rabbits (−34 ¿ 106/L; P , 0.05). The highest lymphocytes population value in blood (total, T CD5+, CD4+ and CD8+) was noted at the first parturition, while the B lymphocytes count was significantly lower at the second parturition (−61 ¿ 106/L; P , 0.05). Selection for litter size at weaning (V females) reduced the average counts of total and B lymphocytes in ...
I hope this will help some of you. My cat pooping out of the box issues - Understood and Resolved!!. My cat Cosmo who is 13 years old, suddenly starting pooping outside his litter box, but he would oddly enough, still go Pee in the box. But he wasnt just pooping outside his litter box, he was way, far away from it, shitting on the carpet in our living room =/ I didnt know what was going on. He was having bouts of diarrhea that ended up on the hallway or living room carpet, and it wasnt because he couldnt make it to the litter box in time, or anything like that. I caught him about to drop one right in front of me on the carpet, so I moved him quickly to his litter box, but he jumped out, waited for me to leave, and then went and pooped on the same spot I had just moved him from! You can imagine my stress. I changed boxes, locations, litter, anything I could try, I did, and nothing worked.. Meanwhile, I went to the vet to get Cosmo looked at because his diarrhea and occasional vomiting was ...
cat litter pan litter tray Photo: http://www.keepsthelitterinthebox.com LitterHOUSE Litter Box SAVES DOGS LIVES No Dogs Get In This Litter Box!! The uniq...
for bats indicated that bat species with smaller litter size, greater body mass, longevity and more litters per year, tended to host more zoonotic viruses. Rodents have a broad range of reproductive strategies, but in bats, litter size is negatively correlated with the number of litters per year (Pearsons product moment correlation, p = 0.024). No bat species consistently has more than three offspring per year, but at lower latitudes (less than 20°), there is some variation as to how these offspring are distributed throughout the year. Our analyses suggest that species which spread births over the year host more zoonotic viruses. A potential physiological explanation is the trade-off between immune function and reproduction. Sex hormones can modulate immunocompetence and affect disease resistance genes and behaviour that may make individuals more susceptible to infection [44]. A potential ecological explanation is the replenishment of the susceptible pool from births. Immunizing, horizontally ...
Years ago, we had just a couple litters annually, and generally not more than one litter at a time. However, the wonderful pure English lines that we now breed seem to consistently have smaller litters; usually only 5-7 pups at a time. Long gone are the days of 12-14 pup litters the Field/American Labs produced. (I had a mentor tell me that would happen if we got away from breeding the American lines and it did!). Anyway, that means in order to keep up with the demand (and we arent doing very well currently) we are having more litters but about the same number of pups. I think Ive come up with a creative and acceptable, maybe even superior way to have more litters at a time but still keep the integrity of our unique breeding philosophy. Now when we are expecting more than one litter at about the same time, we have began to pay our guardian families to nurture their own dogs pups! I whelp the litter but they handle and actually nurture each one throughthe daily Early Neurological Stimulation ...
Early detection of fever in sows can reduce piglet mortality and the consumption of antibiotics. Research from Aarhus University has refined a method that uses an infrared camera to remotely measure the sows body temperature.
Like her sire, Gero v.d. Mooreiche, Allee vom Blitzkrieger is very strong, hard & high drive. Allee was always pronounced in her schutzhund and civil work. Her stable character also allowed her to participate as a therapy dog. She is dam to the "C" Litter, "F" Litter (Faroh) & "D"Litter (Dax) vom Blitzkrieger. Allee is in excellent health so, less than 2 months before her 7th birthday, Allee has given Blitzkrieger Kennel one more litter before she retires from breeding! After breeding Allee to Bronco v.d. Doberwache in Europe, Feb/99 (one pup/ Faroh) and 3 failed attempts with Broncos frozen semen, Allee was bred to Broncos son. ...
No one likes cleaning the litter box but it is something that every cat owner needs to do regularly. And when we say regularly, we mean scooping at least once a day and cleaning it thoroughly once a week. Scooping is a straight-forward enough operation, but for cleaning, you might do well with some pro tips.. The first thing to do is to put on a mask and gloves. Do not clean your cats litter box without a mask. It protects you from particles that will get in the air and which can cause toxoplasmosis. If you are pregnant, do not clean the litter box. Ever.. Depending on whether your litter box features a lining or not, you will be putting the liner or the entire contents of the box in a trash bag that needs to be sealed straight away and carried outside. If anything is spilled, make sure you collect all of it.. You should then use warm water and detergent to clean the box thoroughly. Do not use anything more aggressive than simply dish detergent as it can be harmful for the kitty. Scrub, rinse ...
A package or bed of litter for small animals, having at least two horizontally disposed layers of particulate, liquid absorbent material, the upper layer of which is of relatively coarse particles and contains an odor suppressant therein. The lower layer may have odor suppressant in an amount substantially less than in the upper layer, though normally the lower layer would not contain any substantial amount of odor suppressant material. The litter is normally packaged in an elongated container, with the relatively coarse particulate material on top and the relatively fine particulate material on the bottom. When the litter is to be used, the bottom of the container is opened to permit the discharge of the litter from the container into a box, with the relatively fine material on the bottom and the relatively coarse material containing the odor suppressant on top.
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Albiker, Danielle and Zweifel, Ruedi (2019) Wirkung von Pflanzenkohle im Futter oder in der Einstreu auf den Stickstoffgehalt in der Einstreu bei Broilern. [Charcoal in the feed or litter of broilers and its effects on litter nitrogen contents.] In: Mühlrath, Daniel; Albrecht, Joana; Finckh, Maria R.; Hamm, Ulrich; Heß, Jürgen; Knierim, Ute and Möller, Detlev (Eds.) Innovatives Denken für eine nachhaltige Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft. Beiträge zur 15. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau, Kassel, 5. bis 8. März 2019, Verlag Dr. Köster, Berlin. Ammer, Stefanie; Quander, Nele; Gangnat, IDM; Maurer, Veronika and Leiber, Florian (2017) Mastleistung und Fleischqualität von männlichen Legehybriden bei Fütterung unterschiedlicher Proteinquellen. Paper at: 14. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau, Campus Weihenstephan, Freising-Weihenstephan, 07.-10. März 2017. Home, Robert (2015) Soziale Faktoren der Umstellung auf Biolandbau in der Deutschschweiz. Paper at: 13. ...
However, we have recently laid this covention aside. Our old black cat, Gothmog (named for the Balrog, NOT the Ringwraith!) died of cancer of the liver at the relatively early age of 9 years. She left behind her daughter, Humbug. She was so named because when she was born - the only kitten in Gothmogs first litter - she was brown and cream stripes, just like the peppermint sweet. She is a beautiful tabby, very symetrically marked, but is also very neurotic. However, she loved Goths second litter of four kits and played with them very well, so when her mother died, we decided to take in two more kittens to keep her company. The word was sent out that there was a vacancy for two respectable kittens and, very shortly afterwards, a Farmers Wife of our acquaintance arrived on the doorstep with two, totally grey, adorable little kittens. They looked at us appealingly (any cat-lover will know exactly what I mean) and we were hooked. They strolled round the house and looked at everything, found the ...
My cat all of a sudden started pooping right outside the box on the litter box mat. He is 10 years old and has never had any problems with the litter box
This is the first litter of Sophie and she has been a great mum. This litter are a lovely bunch all very similar and extroverts. Quite chunky babies who love their food. All are brown tabby of varying shades. One kitten will be going to a show home but I have not yet fully decided so the kittens with under observation next to their names are not available to be chosen just yet but will be in the next couple of weeks (all apart from one of them) both parents are big cats and I expect the kittens to grow up to be the same especially the boys as Zhenda is huge ...
Timed-mated CD® rats, pregnant based on gestational weight gain of greater than 50 g, were exposed to hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD, CAS No. 87-68-3) at 100, 200, 400, 750, 1100 or 1500 ppm in the diet from gestational day (GD) 17 to postnatal day (pnd) 10, eight or nine dams per dose. Dams were weighed on GD 0, 6, 11, 16, and 17 through pnd 10, and observed twice daily for clinical signs of toxicity. Food and water consumption was measured throughout the exposure period. Dams were allowed to deliver their litters. The day following the delivery of the entire litter was designated pnd 1. On pnd I through 3, litters were evaluated for number, sex and weight of each pup. On pnd 4, pups were weighed and counted, and litter size culled to 10 with equivalent sex ratio if possible. Pups were also weighed and counted on pnd 7 and 10. On pnd 10, one pup/sex/litter from each dose group was selected for collection of urine and serum. Urine samples were evaluated for osmolality. Urine and serum samples ...
The Blitzkrieger "G" litter combines Gero v.d.Mooreiche and the most successful Weyermuhle combinations (The Weyermuhle "G", "I" & "K" combinations - which produced Gero, Ilo and Kleo v.d. Weyermuhle)! The Sire: Dax is an very confident, substantial male with excellent nerve fiber and hardness. He is OFA good (prelim), full dentition and vWD clear. Dax has sired excellent working progeny both here (Blitzkrieger "N" litter & "J" Litter) and in Austalia. Dax sire, Gero v.d. Weyermuhle passed the koerung with highest rating for working drives & hardness. Gero passed SchH3 and FH (tracking) trials. Dax dam, Allee v. Blitzkrieger is a very hard bitch with high drives and extreme confidence. Allee passed SchH trial and civil protection work and proved her ability to be a very good therapy dog.. The Dam: Bo is a substantial bitch with excellent conformation, OFA good, full dentition and vWD affected.. She has balanced drives and excellent nerve fiber. Her sire, Ilo v.d. Weyermunle passed the koerung ...
We examined the factors influencing maternal food intake and pup growth in Norway rats. Mother rats allowed pups in naturally large litters to grow at a slower rate than pups in naturally small litters. Pups reared by dams in a warm ambience (26 degr