TC Hardman, SW Dub Rey, S Soni, S Chalkley; Erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport (SLC) Activity and Retinol Binding Protein (Rbp) Excretion in Healthy Normotensive Subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 August 1998; 95 (s39): 5P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs095005pa. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and the erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport in hypertension (multiple letters) [2]. AU - Delanghe, J.. AU - De Buyzere, M.. AU - Wuyts, B.. AU - Tournoy, K.. AU - Duprez, D.. AU - Clement, D.. AU - Hardman, T.. AU - Lant, A.. AU - Wierzbicki, A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030912115&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030912115&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Letter. C2 - 9185032. AN - SCOPUS:0030912115. VL - 11. SP - 251. EP - 252. JO - Journal of Human Hypertension. JF - Journal of Human Hypertension. SN - 0950-9240. IS - 4. ER - ...
The objective of the present study was to determine whether information about a biometrically inferred single gene with large effects on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport is useful in predicting the probability of having hypertension. We used multivariate logistic regression to model the relationship between the probability of having hypertension and predictor traits in a sample of 382 unrelated adult women and 347 unrelated adult men from Rochester, Minn. First, we identified a set of demographic, biochemical, and physiological predictors. Second, we analyzed whether the relationship between the probability of having hypertension and the identified predictor traits was heterogeneous between the biometrically inferred single locus genotypes with large effects on sodium-lithium countertransport level. Third, if there was no heterogeneity, we assessed whether sodium-lithium countertransport genotypes made an additional contribution to predicting the probability of having hypertension ...
1. The influences of lithium dosage, urine flow rate and acute administration of amiloride on the renal handling of lithium in normal conscious dogs were investigated.. 2. Lithium was administered in the diet at daily doses of 100 mg or 2 mg of lithium carbonate for the 2 days preceding the investigation. Urine flow rate was altered by water loading with and without arginine vasopressin infusion (5 pg min−1 kg−1). Amiloride was administered as an intravenous bolus (130 μg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion (1.22 μg h−1 kg−1).. 3. Glomerular filtration rate (exogenous creatinine clearance) did not change within series and was not different between series; it averaged 3.27 ml min−1 kg−1. Control levels of fractional lithium excretion (12.4 ± 1.2%, mean ± sem) were not influenced by hydration, hydration plus arginine vasopressin administration or the lithium dosage. However, in hydrated dogs having a plasma lithium concentration of 130-140 μmol/l, amiloride administration was ...
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Lithium, one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, also has dramatic effects on morphogenesis in the early development of numerous organisms. How lithium exerts these diverse effects is unclear, but the favored hypothesis is that lithium acts through inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase). We show here that complete inhibition of IMPase has no effect on the morphogenesis of Xenopus embryos and present a different hypothesis to explain the broad action of lithium. Our results suggest that lithium acts through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta), which regulates cell fate determination in diverse organisms including Dictyostelium, Drosophila, and Xenopus. Lithium potently inhibits GSK-3 beta activity (Ki = 2 mM), but is not a general inhibitor of other protein kinases. In support of this hypothesis, lithium treatment phenocopies loss of GSK-3 beta function in Xenopus and Dictyostelium. These observations help explain ...
We describe simple behavior tests that are sensitive to lithium and show that deletion of one copy of the Gsk-3β gene mimics the effect of lithium on these behaviors. Molecular targets of GSK-3, including β-catenin, are also affected similarly by lithium and Gsk-3β haploinsufficiency. These behavioral and molecular correlations strongly support the hypothesis that GSK-3 is an important target for the behavioral effects of lithium.. Lithium decreases time immobile in the FST in a robust, dose-dependent manner. To our knowledge, an effect of chronic lithium in the FST has not been reported. Lithium does not affect time immobile for rats in the FST (Hata et al., 1995; Kitamura et al., 2002; Einat et al., 2003; Wegener et al., 2003). Acute lithium injection has been reported to reduce time immobile in mice if animals are tested 30 min after injection but not at 45 min (Nixon et al., 1994; Redrobe and Bourin, 1999a). Acute lithium also reportedly enhances the effect of antidepressants on the FST ...
Since the end of World War II lithium production has been greatly increased. The metal is separated from other elements in igneous minerals such as those above. Lithium salts are extracted from the water in mineral springs, brine pools and brine deposits. The metal is produced through electrolysis from a mixture of fused 55% lithium chloride and 45% potassium chloride at about 450 °C.[79] In 1998 it was about 95 USD/kg (or 43 USD/lb).[80]. Worldwide identified reserves of lithium in 2008 were estimated by the US Geological Survey as 13 million tonnes,[40] though it is extremely difficult to accurately estimate the worlds lithium reserves,[81] and some have predicted a Lithium Gold Rush.[81][82] as finite reserves are depleted. Deposits of lithium are found in South America throughout the Andes mountain chain. Chile is the leading lithium producer, followed by Argentina. Both countries recover the lithium from brine pools. In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in ...
0037] As used herein, inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity are referred to as inorganic particles containing lithium elements and having a capability of conducting lithium ions without storing lithium. Inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity can conduct and move lithium ions due to defects present in their structure, and thus can improve lithium ion conductivity and contribute to improve battery quality. Non-limiting examples of such inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity include: lithium phosphate (Li3PO4), lithium titanium phosphate (LixTiy(PO4)3, 0,x,2, 0,y,3), lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LixAlyTiz(PO4)3, 0,x,2, 0,y,1, 0,z,3), (LiAlTiP)xOy type glass (0,x,4, 0,y,13) such as 14Li2O-9Al2O3-38TiO2-39P2O5, lithium lanthanum titanate (LixLayTiO3, 0,x,2, 0,y,3), lithium germanium thiophosphate (LixGeyPzSw, 0,x,4, 0,y,1, 0,z,1, 0,w,5), such as Li3.25Ge0.25P0.75S4, lithium nitrides (LixNy, 0,x,4, 0,y,2) such as Li3N, SiS2 type glass (LixSiySz, 0,x,3, ...
The article reviews the existing evidence and the concept of the anti-suicidal effect of lithium long-term treatment in bipolar patients. The core studies supporting the concept of a suicide preventive effect of lithium in bipolar patients come from the international research group IGSLI, from Sweden, Italy, and recently also from the U.S. Patients on lithium possess an eight- time lower suicide risk than those off lithium. The anti-suicidal effect is not necessarily coupled to lithiums episode suppressing efficacy. The great number of lives potentially saved by lithium adds to the remarkable benefits of lithium in economical terms. The evidence that lithium can effectively reduce suicide risk has been integrated into modern algorithms in order to select the optimal maintenance therapy for an individual patient ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intercellular lithium on epinephrine induced accumulation of cyclic AMP in skeletal muscle. AU - Frazer, A.. AU - Haugaard, E.. AU - Mendels, J.. AU - Haugaard, N.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - The effects of lithium and of magnesium ions on adenosine 3,5 monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation in isolated rat hemidiaphragms were investigated. Magnesium ions caused a small but significant increase in the basal concentration of cyclic AMP, whereas lithium ions had no effect. However, pretreatment of tissues with LiCl caused a significant dose dependent reduction in the effect of epinephrine on the concentration of cyclic AMP. Magnesium ions enhanced the rise in tissue cyclic AMP caused by epinephrine, but this stimulatory effect of magnesium ions was reduced in tissues that had been pretreated with LiCl. It was concluded that lithium ions act at an intracellular site to inhibit hormone induced accumulation of the cyclic nucleotide and it was proposed that magnesium and ...
Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for lithium is recommended in guidelines; however, the prevalence of TDM for lithium is seldom reported. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of TDM for lithium and evaluated the impact of the regulatory warnings requiring routine TDM for lithium. Methods: Monthly claims data covering around 1.7 million persons aged 20-74 years old during the period January 1, 2005, and March 31, 2015, were evaluated. All patients who had at least one prescription for lithium were selected and included to calculate the annual prevalence of TDM for lithium. Also we assessed whether the 2 regulatory warnings requiring routine TDM for lithium and issued in April 2012 and September 2012 had an impact on TDM for lithium, using segmented regression analysis. Results: Between 2005 and 2014, 136,956 prescriptions of lithium were issued to 5823 patients, and the annual prevalence of TDM for lithium was 14.9% (95%
Lithium, the light silvery metal used in everything from pharmaceutical applications to batteries that power your smart phone or electric car, could also help harness on Earth the fusion energy that lights the sun and stars. Lithium can maintain the heat and protect the walls inside doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house fusion reactions, and will be used to produce tritium, the hydrogen isotope that will combine with its cousin deuterium to fuel fusion in future reactors.
Lithium (Greek lithos, meaning stone) was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817. In 1818, Christian Gmelin observed that lithium salts give a bright red color in flame. W.T. Brande and Sir Humphrey Davy later used electrolysis on lithium oxide to isolate the element. Lithium was first used in greases. Then nuclear weapons became a big use of lithium. Lithium was also used to make glass melt easier and make aluminium oxide melt easier in making aluminium. Now lithium is used mainly in batteries.. It was apparently given the name lithium because it was discovered from a mineral, while other common alkali metals were first discovered in plant tissue.. ...
Lithium (Greek lithos, meaning stone) was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817. In 1818, Christian Gmelin observed that lithium salts give a bright red color in flame. W.T. Brande and Sir Humphrey Davy later used electrolysis on lithium oxide to isolate the element. Lithium was first used in greases. Then nuclear weapons became a big use of lithium. Lithium was also used to make glass melt easier and make aluminium oxide melt easier in making aluminium. Now lithium is used mainly in batteries. It was apparently given the name lithium because it was discovered from a mineral, while other common alkali metals were first discovered in plant tissue. ...
Manic depression, or manic-depressive illness, is also known as bipolar disorder. Here you can see the brain activity of someone with manic depression.
The positive electrode active material layer includes a positive electrode active material. The positive electrode active material is not limited as long as it can occlude and release lithium ions. Examples include oxides of transition metals such as Fe, Co, Ni, and Mn, composite oxides of transition metals and lithium, and sulfides of transition metals.. Specific examples of transition metal oxides include MnO, V 2 O 5 , V 6 O 13 , and TiO 2 . Specific examples of the composite oxide of transition metal and lithium include a lithium nickel composite oxide whose basic composition is LiNiO 2 ; a lithium cobalt composite oxide whose basic composition is LiCoO 2 ; a basic composition of LiMnO 2 and LiMnO. And lithium manganese composite oxide such as 4 . Further, specific examples of the transition metal sulfide include TiS 2 and FeS.. Among these, a composite oxide of lithium and a transition metal is preferable because it can achieve both high capacity and high cycle characteristics of a lithium ...
Lithium fights crime and some of your most nagging health concerns. Turns out its not only the strict use of the death penalty lowering crime rates in some areas of Texas. Using 10 years of data accumulated from 27 Texas counties, researchers found that the incidence of homicide, rape, burglary, and suicide, as well as other crimes and drug use, were significantly lower in counties whose drinking water supplies contained 70-170 micrograms of lithium per liter than those with little or no lithium in their water.. The researchers wrote: These results suggest that lithium at low dosage levels has a generally beneficial effect on human behavior…increasing the human lithium intakes by supplementation, or the lithiation [adding lithium] of drinking water is suggested as a possible means of crime, suicide, and drug-dependency reduction at the individual and community level.. And thats not to mention all of the lithium health benefits we went over in Part 1: It may be useful in treating ...
Study Design This is the second study of a multiphase, multicenter trial that will comprehensively examine lithium in the treatment of pediatric participants with bipolar I disorder. In order to examine the treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium, this study will include four phases of treatment. The first phase, the Efficacy Phase, will include participants being randomized to either lithium or placebo for 8 weeks to determine the efficacy of lithium in the treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder. Once participants complete the Efficacy Phase, participants may be eligible to continue in the Long- Term Effectiveness Phase for a maximum of 24 weeks of lithium treatment. Subsequently, participants meeting response criteria during the Long-Term Effectiveness Phase will be eligible to continue in the Discontinuation Phase. During the Discontinuation Phase, participants will be randomized to either placebo or lithium treatment for up to 28 weeks. Finally, those participants ...
Lithium is a drug used to treat mood disorders and also has many side effects, including central nervous system (CNS) complications (such as cognitive dulling), associated with its use. The mechanism of its action still remains unknown. Over the years, many leads have started emerging. It has been shown to inhibit several enzymes in the cell and has been implicated in altering many neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction pathways (serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmissions). Effect of exposure to therapeutic levels of lithium on mature glutamatergic synapses is being studied and several changes in glutamate receptor subtypes have already been reported. Effects of lithium on developing glutamatergic synapses have not been studied. The thesis tries to document and understand the changes brought about by long term lithium treatment on developing glutamatergic synapses in vitro in hippocampal neuronal cultures. In the present work, patch clamp technique was used to monitor ...
What is Bipolar disorder - Manic Depression? Your Health Online A to Z directory of dealing with Bipolar manic depression Health Problems & Self Care Strategies for natural nutritional remedies
© 2019 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: 1. To determine the efficacy of lithium in alleviating acute manic symptoms compared to placebo and other drug treatments. 2. To review acceptability of treatment with lithium measured by: a.Overall drop-out from study b.Adherence to study medication c.Patient preference 3. To investigate the adverse effects of lithium treatment, including general prevalence of side effects. Specific unwanted effects that will be studied include: a.Gastrointestinal disturbances b.Tremor c.Polyuria and polydipsia d.Weight gain e.Precipitation of depressive episodes f.Documented renal pathology g.Lithium intoxication 4. To determine overall mortality rates on lithium treatment.
Signs of manic depression are diverse and vary according to the individual. They may be physical or psychological, and indicate increases in mania, hypomania, depression or a mixed state. Understanding the signs of manic depression requires diligence and awareness. Some of these signs may be serious and require immediate medical attention.
Think young into your 90s with this anti-aging secret for your brain. The biggest problem with lithium treatment is peoples perception of it. Since its most well known use is for bi-polar disorder, lithium sometimes encounters the same stigma as mental illness itself.. Ive been taking a lithium supplement every day for several years. When I tell people about it, they sometimes get funny looks on their faces and start eyeing the corners of the room for straight jackets. These reactions dont surprise me, since, as I said, lithium is usually associated with mental illness. But Ive never suffered from a mental disorder (although certain mainstream medical doctors and possibly a federal agency or two might disagree). Treating manic-depressive (bi-polar) illness is lithiums most widely known use-but it isnt an anti-psychotic drug, as many people believe. In fact, lithium isnt a drug at all. Its actually a mineral-part of the same family of minerals that includes sodium and potassium.. You ...
Read or print original Manic Depression lyrics 2020 updated! Manic depression is touchin my soul / I know what I want but I just dont
Forty-six lithium (Li) patients who had been on Li for about 1-11 years were studied while on Li and after about 3 months (7 weeks-26 months) off Li. Kidney function was compared between patients on Li and the same patients off Li, and, in 32 matched pairs, between patients on and off Li and psychiatric controls. Urine osmolality (U-osmol) was significantly lower, urine volume higher in patients on Li than in controls. Measures of both glomerular and tubular function improved when Li-patients discontinued medication. U-osmol remained somewhat lower than in controls and was negatively correlated with time-on-Li. Although serum creatinine was somewhat higher in Li-patients off Li than in controls, clearance values were not different between the two groups. Long-term lithium treatment causes a permanent reduction of tubular function. Time-on-Li is a risk factor. In this population the reduction was clinically insignificant. In addition, Li treatment causes a reversible reduction of both tubular and ...
Lithium was first used in the 19th century as a treatment for gout after scientists discovered that, at least in the laboratory, lithium could dissolve uric acid crystals isolated from the kidneys. The levels of lithium needed to dissolve urate in the body, however, were toxic.[80] Because of prevalent theories linking excess uric acid to a range of disorders, including depressive and manic disorders, Carl Lange in Denmark[81] and William Alexander Hammond in New York City[82] used lithium to treat mania from the 1870s onwards. By the turn of the 20th century, as theory regarding mood disorders evolved and so-called brain gout disappeared as a medical entity, the use of lithium in psychiatry was largely abandoned; however, a number of lithium preparations were still produced for the control of renal calculi and uric acid diathesis.[83] As accumulating knowledge indicated a role for excess sodium intake in hypertension and heart disease, lithium salts were prescribed to patients for use as a ...
Material and methods. The study included 111 patients (76 women, 35 men), aged 34-85 (mean age 61 years) receiving lithium for 5-39 years (mean length 18 years). Lithium efficacy was assessed using a three-step scale identifying Excellent Responders (ER), Partial Responders (PR) and Non-Responders (NR), as well as the Alda Scale rating lithium efficacy within the range of 0-10. Various clinical factors that can be linked with lithium efficacy were also analysed, including age at onset of the illness, polarity of the first episode, age at the first occurrence of elevated or depressed mood, number of affective episodes preceding lithium treatment, duration of the illness prior to lithium treatment, type of BP (I or II), family history of affective illness, comorbidity of anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and medication abuse/dependence, suicide attempts preceding lithium therapy and the duration of lithium treatment ...
INTRODUCTION Lithium salts were introduced into medical therapy in the mid-19th century, with reports of their use in migraine prophylaxis, and in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, gout and neutropenia (1,2). Currently, they are available in immediate- and extended-release formulas and are used to treat mania, refractory and recurrent depression and bipolar disorders with reduced morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances in pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders, these salts remain effective and inexpensive alternatives (3,4). Lithium can promote major endocrine and metabolic disturbances, mainly in thyroid and parathyroid functions, and in the mineral metabolism (5). This review article will discuss the main endocrine disorders related to the use of lithium salts. PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS The exact mechanism by which lithium acts as a mood stabilizer is still unknown. Many molecular and cellular activities are involved in its neuroprotective and neurotropic properties. ...
The intrinsic anion oxidation potential (Delta E-v) and lithium ion pair dissociation energy (Delta E-d) are two important properties for predicting the potential use of new lithium salts for battery electrolytes. In this work several cyano substituted fluoroalkylated benzimidazole and imidazole anions have been investigated computationally to obtain Delta E-v and Delta E-d. Varying the number and position of cyano substituents results in large effects on the electrochemical stability of the anion and on the possible lithium ion pair configurations. The lengthening of the fluoroalkyl group introduces several new stable ion pair configurations and a small increase in anion oxidation stability. The most promising fluoroalkylated anions in the present work are the 4,5,6,7-tetracyano-2-fluoroalkylated benzimidazolides (TTB and PTB), with oxidation potentials suitable for high voltage Li-ion battery applications (|4.2 V) and much improved Delta E-d compared to PF6- -a benchmark for commercially available
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The electrodeposition of lithium metal is a key process in next-generation, high energy density storage devices. However, the high reactivity of the lithium metal causes short cycling lifetimes and dendrite growth that can pose a serious safety issue. Recently, a number of approaches have been pursued to stabilize the lithium metalâ electrolyte interface, including soft polymeric coatings that have shown the ability to enable high-rate and high-capacity lithium metal cycling, but a clear understanding of how to design and modify these coatings has not yet been established. Here, we studied the effects of several polymers with systematically varied chemical and mechanical properties as coatings on the lithium metal anode.. By examining the early stages of lithium metal deposition, we determine that the morphology of the lithium particles is strongly influenced by the chemistry of the polymer coating. We have identified polymer dielectric constant and surface energy as two key descriptors of the ...
QUEBEC CITY, QUEBEC--(Marketwired - Oct. 10, 2017) - Nemaska Lithium Inc. (Nemaska Lithium or the Corporation) (TSX:NMX)(OTCQX:NMKEF) announced today an update on the concentrate production, Phase 1 Plant operation and project financing.. Flotation Concentrate Results. Nemaska Lithium is pleased to announce that it has received flotation concentrate at an average grade of 6.3% Li2O. The flotation concentrate received originates from mineral fines (a more finely crushed material that is not suitable for DMS processing) that was processed by SGS Lakefield via a flotation circuit. In addition, Nemaska Lithium has produced a Dense Media Separation (DMS) concentrate at an average grade of 6.3% Li2O.. Phase 1 Plant Thermal Roasting Commissioning. Nemaska Lithium has started processing spodumene concentrate from the Whabouchi mine through the thermal roasting section (calcination and acid baking) of the Phase 1 Plant. It is expected to take about three to four weeks to build an inventory of lithium ...
Lithium was first used in the 19th century as a treatment for gout after scientists discovered that, at least in the laboratory, lithium could dissolve uric acid crystals isolated from the kidneys. The levels of lithium needed to dissolve urate in the body, however, were toxic.[82] Because of prevalent theories linking excess uric acid to a range of disorders, including depressive and manic disorders, Carl Lange in Denmark[83] and William Alexander Hammond in New York City[84] used lithium to treat mania from the 1870s onwards. By the turn of the 20th century, as theory regarding mood disorders evolved and so-called brain gout disappeared as a medical entity, the use of lithium in psychiatry was largely abandoned. Some suggest that the pharmaceutical industry was reluctant to invest in a drug that could not be patented,[85] however a number of lithium preparations were yet produced for the control of renal calculi and uric acid diathesis.[86] As accumulating knowledge indicated a role for ...
Why Lithium Orotate? Lithium is an alkali metal found in trace amounts of most rocks, as well as mineral springs, ocean water, and nearly all vertebrae tissue. Vital Nutrients offers low-dose lithium supplied as lithium orotate, a bioavailable salt. Lithium supports the phosphoinositol pathway. Lithium may be used to p
Disclosed herein are methods for making a solid lithium ion electrolyte membrane, the methods comprising combining a first reactant chosen from amorphous, glassy, or low melting temperature solid reactants with a second reactant chosen from refractory oxides to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature to form a homogenized composite, wherein the first temperature is between a glass transition temperature of the first reactant and a crystallization onset temperature of the mixture; milling the homogenized composite to form homogenized particles; casting the homogenized particles to form a green body; and sintering the green body at a second temperature to form a solid membrane. Solid lithium ion electrolyte membranes manufactured according to these methods are also disclosed herein.
For more than 60 years, the mood stabilizer lithium has been used alone or in combination for the treatment of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression and other mental illnesses. Despite this long history, the molecular mechanisms trough which lithium regulates behavior are still poorly understood. Among several targets, lithium has been shown to directly inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and beta (GSK3α and GSK3β). However in vivo, lithium also inhibits GSK3 by regulating the activity of other mechanisms like the formation of a signaling complex comprised of beta-arrestin 2 and Akt. Here, we provide an overview of in vivo evidence supporting a role for inhibition of GSK3 in some behavioral effects of lithium. We also explore how regulation of GSK3 by lithium within a signaling network involving several molecular targets and cell surface receptors (e.g. G protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases) may provide cues to its relative pharmacological selectivity and its effects on
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This is a multiphase, multicenter, trial that will comprehensively examine lithium in the treatment of pediatric patients with bipolar I disorder. In order to examine the treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium, this study will include four phases of treatment. The first phase, the Pharmacokinetic Phase, will include 8 weeks of Open Label treatment to determine empirically based dosing strategies for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Patients completing the Pharmacokinetic Phase, may be eligible to continue in the Long-Term Effectiveness Phase for a maximum of 16 weeks of lithium treatment. Subsequently, patients meeting response criteria during the Long-Term Effectiveness Phase will be eligible to continue in the Discontinuation Phase. During the Discontinuation Phase, patients will be randomized to either placebo or lithium treatment for up to 28 weeks. Finally, those subjects who experience a mood relapse during the Discontinuation Phase will be enrolled in an Open Label ...
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At the contraluminal membrane there is evidence for one common transport system. At the luminal membrane, the transport of organic cations occurs by an electroneural Hf/organic cation system. E Contraluminal Transporters Fig. 7. Location of transporters for organic anions and cations in the renal proximal tubule (from Ullrich (1994)). Note: PAH is the organic anion p-aminohippuric acid. transporter, which transports sodium ions into the cell and hydrogen ions out (Fig. 7) (Somogyi, 1996). A key feature of a drug undergoing tubular secretion is that it will compete with another drug for secretion, thus competition for transport is competitive. These interactions have been categorized by Somogyi (1996); Table 7 summarizes their nature and sequelae. INTERACTIONS INVOLVING RENAL EXCRETORY MECHANISMS Table 7. 35 DRUGS WHICH ALTER TUBULAR REABSORETION OF LITHIUM BY ALTERING ITS RENAL CLEARANCE* Loop diuretics Increased serum lithium concentrations (61%) in 116 normal subjects; danger of toxicity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of acute and chronic administration of lithium on steady-state levels of mouse brain choline and acetylcholine. AU - Krell, Robert D.. AU - Goldberg, Alan M.. PY - 1973/12/15. Y1 - 1973/12/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0015732233&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0015732233&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0006-2952(73)90104-4. DO - 10.1016/0006-2952(73)90104-4. M3 - Article. C2 - 4769601. AN - SCOPUS:0015732233. VL - 22. SP - 3289. EP - 3291. JO - Biochemical Pharmacology. JF - Biochemical Pharmacology. SN - 0006-2952. IS - 24. ER - ...
Inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) are being explored as therapy for chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously demonstrated that the GSK inhibitor lithium is beneficial in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In this study we report that lithium suppresses EAE induced by encephalitogenic interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing T helper (Th1) cells but not by interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells. The therapeutic activity of lithium required functional IFN-γ-signalling, but not the receptor for type I IFN (IFNAR). Inhibitor/s of GSK3 attenuated IFN-γ dependent activation of the transcription factor STAT1 in naïve T cells as well as in encephalitogenic T cells and Th1 cells. The inhibition of STAT1 activation was associated with reduced IFN-γ production and decreased expansion of encephalitogenic Th1 cells. Furthermore, lithium treatment induced Il27 expression within the spinal cords of mice with EAE. In contrast, such ...
Lithium is a light metal used in medical, electrical, chemical, environmental, and engineering applications. Lithium concentrations occur in residual late-stage granitic pegmatites, clay hectorite deposits and lacustrine evaporites, and in continental, geothermal and oil-field brines. Main sources for commercial lithium production in the world are brines and pegmatites.
Thyroid disease: Individuals with thyroid disease should use the drug with caution. Thyroid side effects can occur in both men and women on lithium and may result in one of three thyroid abnormalities: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism or euthyroid goiter (enlargement of the thyroid with normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], and the thyroid hormones T4 and T3).. * Dehydration: Prolonged or severe fluid losses can significantly increase the toxicity of lithium. Thus, the drug should be used with caution in patients with medical conditions that cause significant fluid losses such as long periods of sweating, diarrhea, or a lengthy fever. In some situations the dose in these patients may need to be reduced, or even discontinued, temporarily.. As discussed above, there are numerous disease-related concerns regarding its side effects. Individuals starting lithium who have pre-existing medical conditions, or those who develop medical conditions while taking this medication, should work ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A case of renal failure requiring a renal transplant secondary to lithium treatment. AU - Bora, Seema S.. AU - Madan, Rohit. AU - Sharma, Ashish. PY - 2012/7/24. Y1 - 2012/7/24. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84864022386&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84864022386&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.4088/PCC.11l01283. DO - 10.4088/PCC.11l01283. M3 - Letter. C2 - 22690362. AN - SCOPUS:84864022386. VL - 14. JO - The primary care companion for CNS disorders. JF - The primary care companion for CNS disorders. SN - 1523-5998. IS - 1. ER - ...
Lithium has been known for years to be useful for mood disorders. No one has described why lithium has this stabilizing impact on mood. And if you have a mutation in the MTHFR C677T gene, you are likely to have mood fluctuations, and you are also likely to have low serum lithium levels. Lithium comes…
In 1843, lithium carbonate was used as a new solvent for stones in the bladder. In 1859, some doctors recommended a therapy with lithium salts for a number of ailments, including gout, urinary calculi, rheumatism, mania, depression, and headache. In 1948, John Cade discovered the antimanic effects of lithium ions. This finding led lithium, specifically lithium carbonate, to be used to treat mania associated with bipolar disorder. Lithium carbonate is used to treat mania, the elevated phase of bipolar disorder. Lithium ions interfere with ion transport processes (see sodium pump) that relay and amplify messages carried to the cells of the brain.[8] Mania is associated with irregular increases in protein kinase C (PKC) activity within the brain. Lithium carbonate and sodium valproate, another drug traditionally used to treat the disorder, act in the brain by inhibiting PKCs activity and help to produce other compounds that also inhibit the PKC.[9] Lithium carbonates mood-controlling properties ...
Other. Do Inquiry Before Purchasing Report Here: https://market.biz/report/north-america-lithium-chloride-market-2017-scc/110204/#inquiry. Leading Manufacturers Analysis in Lithium Chloride 2017:. Brivo Lithium, FMC Corp, Huizhi Lithium Energy, Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium, Jiangxi Dongpeng New Materials, Harshil Industries, SQM, Albemarle Corp, Leverton-Clarke, American Elements, Kurt J Lesker and Tianqi Lithium. In the first part, the Lithium Chloride market report provides a general overview of the Lithium Chloride industry including definitions, Lithium Chloride Market growth and Lithium Chloride demand growth rate, classifications, profit margins of Lithium Chloride, a wide range of applications and Lithium Chloride industry chain structure. The 2017s report on Lithium Chloride industry offers the North America Lithium Chloride development history, development trends and Lithium Chloride industry competitive landscape analysis.. In the second part, the Lithium Chloride industry report covers, ...
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Lithium orotate, is a salt of orotic acid and lithium. It is available as the monohydrate, LiC5H3N2O4·H2O. In this compound, lithium is non-covalently bound to an orotate ion, rather than to a carbonate or other ion, and like other salts, dissociates in solution to produce free lithium ions. It is marketed as a dietary supplement, though only barely researched between 1973-1986 to treat certain medical conditions, such as alcoholism and Alzheimers disease. While lithium orotate is capable of providing lithium to the body, like lithium carbonate and other lithium salts, there are no systematic reviews supporting the efficacy of lithium orotate and it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of any medical condition. In 1973, Nieper reported that lithium orotate contained 3.83 mg of elemental lithium per 100 mg and lithium carbonate contained 18.8 mg of elemental lithium per 100 mg Nieper went on to claim that lithium did not dissolve from the orotate ...
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Bipolar disorder (BD) has been suggested to be associated with accelerated aging and premature cell senescence. While findings on shorter telomeres in BD are controversial, a recent study showed that long-term lithium treatment correlates with longer telomeres in BD. In our study, we sought to investigate the correlation between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and long-term lithium treatment in a sample of 200 BD patients characterized for lithium response. We also compared data from two different methods commonly used to measure telomere length, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). We also measured, for the first time, the effect of lithium in vitro on the expression of the telomerase gene in human-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Our findings showed that LTL correlated negatively with age (p=0.0002) and was independent of sex, diagnosis, age at onset, suicidal behavior, number of mood episodes, response to lithium and use of other ...
MarketsandMarkets: Lithium Compounds Market by Derivative (Lithium Carbonate, Lithium Hydroxide, Lithium Concentrate, Lithium Metal, Butyl Lithium, Lithium Chloride), End Use (Li-Ion Batteries. Glass & Ceramics, Medical, Lubricants), and Region - Global Forecast to 2025 of 390 pages is now available with MarketReportsHub.com at starting price of US$ 5650 for a single user PDF. Talk to us for other pricing options.
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Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Lithium Carbonate may cause harm to the fetus. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Lithium Carbonate while you are pregnant. Lithium Carbonate is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Lithium Carbonate since it may cause harm to the fetus. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Lithium Carbonate while you are pregnant. Lithium Carbonate is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Lithium Carbonate.. Possible Side Effects ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Lithium Carbonate may cause harm to the fetus. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Lithium Carbonate while you are pregnant. Lithium Carbonate is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Lithium Carbonate since it may cause harm to the fetus. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Lithium Carbonate while you are pregnant. Lithium Carbonate is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Lithium Carbonate.. Possible Side Effects ...
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These processes will enable Nemaska Lithium to have excellent control on cost and quality of its final lithium products, for the benefit of its customers. *Cost Projections and Exchange Rate $1.00 CAD = $0.80 US - Per 2016 Updated Feasibility Study press released on April 4, 2016. About Nemaska Lithium Nemaska Lithium intends to become a lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate supplier to the emerging lithium battery market that is largely driven by electric vehicles, cell phones, tablets and other consumer products. The Corporation is developing in Quebec one of the most important spodumene lithium hard rock deposit in the world, both in volume and grade. The spodumene concentrate produced at Nemaska Lithiums Whabouchi mine will be shipped to the Corporations lithium compounds processing plant to be built in Shawinigan, Quebec. This plant will transform spodumene concentrate into high purity lithium hydroxide and carbonate using the proprietary methods developed by the Corporation, and for ...
Lithium may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There have been reports of lithium having adverse effects on nidations in rats, embryo viability in mice, and metabolism in-vitro of rat testis and human spermatozoa have been attributed to lithium, as have teratogenicity in submammalian species and cleft palates in mice. Studies in rats, rabbits and monkeys have shown no evidence of lithium-induced teratology. Data from lithium birth registries suggest an increase in cardiac and other anomalies, especially Ebsteins anomaly. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking lithium, she should be apprised of the potential risk to the fetus. If possible, lithium should be withdrawn for at least the first trimester unless it is determined that this would seriously endanger the mother.. Chronic lithium therapy may be associated with diminution of renal concentrating ability, occasionally presenting as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, with polyuria and polydipsia. Such patients should be ...
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The report including six parts, the first part maainly introduced the product basic information; the second parts mainly analyzed the Asia Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate industry; the third part mainly analyzed the North American Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate industry; the fourth part mainly analyzed the Europe Industrial-grade Lithium Carbonate industry; the fifth part mainly analyzed the market entry and investment feasibility; the sixth part was the report conclusion chapter ...
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Lithium Australia NL (ASX: LIT) reported on an agreement with Pilbara Minerals Limited (ASX: PLS) to jointly pilot the development of LITs 100%-owned Sileach™ process, a proprietary technology that has shown promise to recover 92% of lithium from alpha- spodumene, even low-grade spodumene.. The production of pure, affordable lithium from hard rock (spodumene) is becoming a central issue for the deployment of lithium ion batteries. The energy footprint of hard rock lithium extraction processes makes them twice as expensive as conventional brines-based processes.. And so, much of the worlds lithium is produced from brines by Albemarle (NYSE:ALB), Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile (NYSE:SQM) and FMC (NYSE:FMC) from Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Australia and eastern China, and is shipped over long distances to battery makers in Asia.. There is a need to improve the purity of lithium while decreasing the net processing cost. Lithium is produced from brines as a carbonate salt using evaporation ...
We compared the tubular transport of sodium and the erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity in hypertensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and in normotensive control subjects. In addition, we assessed the effects of inhibition of converting enzyme on …
TY - CONF. T1 - Lithium ion conductive polymer electrolytes by side group rotation(II). AU - Satou, Akira. AU - Nishimura, Shin. AU - Urabe, Syuuichi. AU - Yamamoto, Hitoshi. AU - Ueyama, Norikazu. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ionic conductivities were measured. An ionic conductivity of polymer 1, was above 10-5 S/cm, even at -60°C. Its activation energy below 20°C exhibited 11 kJ/mol. On the other hand, that of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte exhibited 105 kJ/mol. The difference of the activation energy implied that lithium ion transfers in polymer electrolytes was promoted by rotation motion of the dimethoxyphenyl side group instead of segmental motion of polymer main chain.. AB - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ...
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Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Lithium Carbonate may cause harm to the fetus. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Lithium Carbonate while you are pregnant. Lithium Carbonate is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Lithium Carbonate may cause harm to the fetus. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Lithium Carbonate while you are pregnant. Lithium Carbonate is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Lithium Carbonate ...
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders are common, disabling and tend to be recurrent. They carry a high risk of suicide. Maintenance treatment, aimed at the prevention of relapse, is therefore of vital importance. Lithium has been used for some years as the mainstay of maintenance treatment in bipolar affective disorder, and to a lesser extent in unipolar disorder. However, the efficacy and effectiveness of prophylactic lithium therapy has been disputed. Low suicide rates in lithium-treated patients have led to claims that lithium has a specific anti-suicidal effect. If so, this is of considerable importance as treatments for mental disorders in general have not been shown convincingly to be effective in suicide prevention. OBJECTIVES: 1. To investigate the efficacy of lithium treatment in the prevention of relapse in recurrent mood disorders. 2. To examine the effect of lithium treatment on consumers general health and social functioning, its acceptability to consumers, and the side-effects of treatment. ...
Lithium cation is the charge carrier in lithium-ion battery. Electrolyte solution in lithium-ion battery is usually based on mixed solvents consisting of polar carbonates with different aliphatic chains. Despite various experimental evidences indicating that lithium ion forms a rigid and stable solvation sheath through electrostatic interactions with polar carbonates, both the lithium solvation structure and more importantly fluctuation dynamics and functional role of carbonate solvent molecules have not been fully elucidated yet with femtosecond vibrational spectroscopic methods. Here we investigate the ultrafast carbonate solvent exchange dynamics around lithium ions in electrolyte solutions with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and find that the time constants of the formation and dissociation of lithium-ion···carbonate complex in solvation sheaths are on a picosecond timescale. We anticipate that such ultrafast microscopic fluxional processes in lithium-solvent complexes ...
0082] The chelating agent(s) may be any of a variety of molecules that can complex with unwanted metal cations to form stable and neutral compounds while, at the same time, not adversely affecting the flow of lithium ions between the negative and positive electrodes 12, 14. The particular chelating agent or agents may, in some instances, be chosen to selectively complex with certain metal cations that are known or expected to be present in the electrolyte solution at some point during operational lifetime of the lithium ion battery 10. For example, spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) that may be present in the positive electrode 14 may leach Mn2+ cations into the electrolyte solution during normal operation of the lithium ion battery 10. These mobile Mn2+ cations, in turn, can migrate through the electrolyte solution and across the microporous polymer separator 16 until they eventually reach the negative electrode 12. Moreover, if the negative electrode 12 is formed from graphite, the Mn2+ ...
Lithium Ion Battery Market by Type (Lithium Cobalt Oxide, Lithium Iron Phosphate, Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt), Power Capacity (0 to 3000mAh, 3000mAh to 10000mAh, 10000mAh - Market research report and industry analysis - 10627876
Posted on June 3, 2014 by marvik This new market research report on Lithium Chloride provides comprehensive market data, including market size and forecast by Lithium Chloride application and products on a regional basis from 2012 to 2020. In addition, the Lithium Chloride report also includes comprehensive industry landscape, with Lithium Chloride market dynamics, drivers, restraints, challenges, opportunities and critical success factors (CSFs). The Lithium Chloride report analyzes key market players, providing company market share analysis and detailed profiles of these companies, with product benchmarking.. Table of Contents. Executive Summary ...
Lithiums effects are two-fold: the first effect is that it may be absorbed instead of Na+. If it is prescribed, the lithium dose is typically cut by half, because thiazide diuretics boost lithium levels in the blood and could cause toxicity. Diuretics that act at the distal renal tubule, (for example, hydrochlorothiazide [ Hydrodiuril ], spironolactone [ Aldactone ], triamterene [ Dyrenium ; Dyazide, Maxzide]), can increase blood concentrations of lithium. The following medications can increase the levels and effects of lithium: Diuretics, such as: hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide®), furosemide (Lasix®), bumetanide (Bumex®), torsemide (Demadex®), acetazolamide (Diamox®), chlorthiazide (Diuril®), and chlorthalidone (Thalitone®) Its also important to monitor for imbalances of electrolytes, the … Diuretics (water pills) should be used cautiously in patients receiving lithium. There have been many reports of lithium toxicity in patients coadministered thiazide diuretics, and studies looking ...
Lithium Carbonate is used in the medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder. It stabilizes the mood and reduces extreme behavior. Know more about Lithium Carbonate!
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Batteries are a big deal today as without them we could not have cellphones, laptops, and many other advanced pieces of technologies. While batteries have enabled these technologies, they also limit them by needing to be recharged for continued use. Researchers at Stanford University have recently made a discovery that could lead to batteries with substantially greater lifespans than what you can find today.. Lithium-ion batteries are very popular today because they are rechargeable and can store a great deal of energy. Within each of these batteries is an electrolyte, containing lithium ions, an anode and a cathode, likely made of graphite of silicon. While those materials work well for the anode, researchers have known for some time that lithium would make a better anode, but lithium poses two challenges. One is that as a lithium anode would absorb lithium ions from the electrolyte, the anode would swell to such a size that it would fracture, which could lead to a short circuit as lithium ions ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Novel structured electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Milcarek, Ryan. AU - Wang, Kang. AU - Ahn, Jeongmin. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - In this study, a multi-layer structure solid electrolyte (SE) for all-solid-state electrolyte lithium ion batteries (ASSLIBs) was fabricated and characterized. The SE was fabricated by laminating ceramic electrolyte Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) with polymer (PEO)10-Li(N(CF3SO2)2 electrolyte and gel-polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/ Li(N(CF3SO2)2. It is shown that the interfacial resistance is generated by poor contact at the interface of the solid electrolytes. The lamination protocol, material selection and fabrication method play a key role in the fabrication process of practical multi-layer SEs.. AB - In this study, a multi-layer structure solid electrolyte (SE) for all-solid-state electrolyte lithium ion batteries (ASSLIBs) was fabricated and characterized. The SE was fabricated by laminating ceramic ...
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
BACKGROUND: Despite lithiums being the most effective drug for bipolar disorder and in clinical use for decades, we still know very little about its early effects relevant to its mode of action. METHODS/DESIGN: The Oxford Lithium Trial is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of 6-week lithium treatment in participants with bipolar disorder and mood instability. Its aim is to identify early clinical, neurocognitive and biological effects. Participants (n = 40) will undergo an intensive battery of multi-modal investigations, including remote monitoring of mood, activity and physiology, as well as cognitive testing, fMRI and magnetoencephalography, together with biochemical and gene expression measurements to assess renal, inflammatory and circadian effects. DISCUSSION: The findings derived from this trial may be of value in predicting subsequent therapeutic response or side effects, not only relevant to the use of lithium but also providing a potential signature to help in more rapid
Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of lithium on prostaglandin E1- stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of human platelets. AU - Yao-Chun, Wang. AU - Pandey, Ghanshyam N.. AU - Mendels, Joe. AU - Frazer, Alan. PY - 1974/2/15. Y1 - 1974/2/15. N2 - The effect of lithium (Li) on the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1(PGE1) was examined. In platelet sonicates, Li, as well as sodium (Na), potassium (K), and rubidium (Rb) significantly reduced the PGE1-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition due to Rb was significantly less than that produced by the other cations; at a high concentration, 64 mM, Li was a more potent inhibitor than the other cations. In intact platelets, only Li reduced the PGE1-enhanced accumulation of [3H]cyclic AMP, K and Rb being ineffective. As little as 1 mM Li significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of PGE1 on [3H]cyclic AMP production in this sytem. The inhibition produced by Li was not blocked by phentolamine, whereas ...
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Schou reasoned that the lack of enthusiasm for lithium related in part to the fact that the pilot trials had not ruled out some common sources of error and he determined to carry out a more rigorous study.. Together with several colleagues he gave lithium salts to 38 patients (21 women and 17 men) with mania who had been admitted to Sindssygehospitalet Risskov Denmark. Eight of the patients had additional symptoms that the authors considered to be atypical for bipolar disorder including auditory hallucinations and thought disorder.. After a period of baseline evaluation lithium was administered in an open-label fashion to some of the patients and in others double-blind randomisation using a placebo was used, switching the treatment at 14-day intervals. Most of the patients received lithium carbonate (0.9-1.8 g/day) but a few were treated with lithium citrate and lithium chloride. Electroconvulsive therapy was curtailed and whenever possible sedatives avoided during the trial period. Serum ...
Lithium-ion batteries are crucial to the future of energy storage. However, the energy density of current lithium-ion batteries is insufficient for future applications. Sulfur cathodes and silicon anodes have garnered a lot of attention in the field due their high capacity potential. Although recent developments in sulfur and silicon electrodes show exciting results in half cell formats, neither electrode can act as a lithium source when put together into a full cell format. Current methods toward incorporating lithium in sulfur-silicon full cells involves prelithiating silicon or using lithium sulfide. These methods however, complicate material processing and creates safety hazards. Herein, we present a novel full cell battery architecture that bypasses the issues associated with current methods. This battery architecture gradually integrates controlled amounts of pure lithium into the system by allowing lithium the access to external circuit. A high specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg after 250
Surviving Manic Depression: A Manual on Bipolar Disorder for Patients, Families, and Providers E. Fuller Torrey M.D., Michael B. Knable D.O. B00375LL12 Surviving Manic Depression: A Manual on Bipolar Disorder for Patients, Families, and Providers
BACKGROUND: The effects of lithium treatment on the thyroid gland have been demonstrated in a number of studies. Most of this research is based on cross-sectional studies and prospective studies are required to confirm these observations. METHOD: During our genetic association studies, we recruited 115 males and 159 females suffering with affective disorders who had received lithium treatment. We observed longitudinally 57 of these patients, who attended our clinic for between 1 and 7 years and had no thyroid abnormalities at baseline. We performed regular checks of thyroid antibodies, thyroid function tests and lithium levels. RESULTS: Hypo- and hyperthyroidism, including cases that developed prior to lithium treatment, were more common in women (25.8%) than in men (8.7%) and increased with age. By the age of 65, the risk in women increased to 50%. Hypothyroidism was induced by lithium in 17% women. In the prospective study, 4 out of 33 women developed hypothyroidism (an incidence of 27.4 cases ...
Graphitic carbon is currently considered the state-of-the-art material for the negative electrode in lithium ion cells, mainly due to its high reversibility and low operating potential. However, carbon anodes exhibit mediocre charge/ discharge rate performance, which contributes to severe transport-induced surface structural damage upon prolonged cycling and limits the lifetime of the cell. Lithium bulk diffusion in graphitic carbon is not yet completely understood, partly due to the complexity of measuring bulk transport properties in finite-sized nonisotropic particles. To solve this problem for graphite, we use the DevanathanStachurski electrochemical methodology combined with ab initio computations to deconvolute and quantify the mechanism of lithium ion diffusion in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The results reveal inherent high lithium ion diffusivity in the direction parallel to the graphene plane (∼10-7 -10-6 cm2 s -1 ), as compared to sluggish lithium ion transport along ...
Lithium Americas Corp., formerly Western Lithium USA Corp., is a resource company. The Company is focused on development of two lithium development projects: the Cauchari-Olaroz project, which is located in Jujuy province of Argentina and the Lithium Nevada project, which is located in north-western Nevada, the United States. Its segments are Organoclay, Lithium Nevada, Cauchari-Olaroz and Corporate. Its geographical segments are Canada, the United States, Germany and Argentina. The Cauchari-Olaroz project is a lithium brine mineral project. The Lithium Nevada project is a smectite clay-based lithium project. In addition, its plant facility located in Fernley, Nevada, is constructed to manufacture specialty organoclay products (Hectatone products), derived from hectorite and other clays. Hectatone specialty organoclay products, derived from its hectorite clay and other clays, are used by oil and gas industry as specialty viscosifier additives for drilling fluids and in other sectors. ...
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Rechargeable lithium metal batteries with increased energy density, performance, and safety may be possible with a newly-developed, solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), according to Penn State researchers.. As the demand for higher-energy-density lithium metal batteries increases - for electric vehicles, smartphones, and drones - stability of the SEI has been a critical issue halting their advancement because a salt layer on the surface of the batterys lithium electrode insulates it and conducts lithium ions.. This layer is very important and is naturally formed by the reaction between the lithium and the electrolyte in the battery, said Donghai Wang, professor of mechanical and chemical engineering. But it doesnt behave very well, which causes a lot of problems.. One of the least-understood components of lithium metal batteries, the degradation of the SEI contributes to the development of dendrites, which are needle-like formations that grow from the lithium electrode of the battery and ...