The effect of native low density lipoprotein (LDL) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EC) recruitment of mononuclear cells (Monos) was investigated. ECs were exposed to LDL at atherogenic concentrations (240 mg cholesterol [Chol]/dl) for as long as 4 days (LDL-treated ECs). LDL-treated ECs bound substantially greater amounts of freshly isolated human monocytes and U937 cells than did control ECs. The enhanced Mono binding was time and LDL concentration dependent. LDL-induced binding was reduced to control levels when cycloheximide was added together with LDL, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was required. Furthermore, this LDL effect was not a general feature of apolipoproteins, as high density lipoprotein in physiologically relevant concentrations (45 mg Chol/dl, 4 days) had no effect on EC-Mono binding. Conditioned media from LDL-treated EC cultures did not increase EC binding of Monos. In contrast, minimally modified LDL increased EC-Mono binding more than eightfold. In ...
Patton, J G.; Alley, M C.; and Mao, S J., "Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low density lipoproteins. A requirement for lipids to maintain antigenic structure." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 75 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The action of oxidized low density lipoprotein on calcium transients in isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes. AU - Liu, K.. AU - Massaeli, Hamid. AU - Pierce, G. N.. PY - 1993/3/9. Y1 - 1993/3/9. N2 - The effect of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on the Ca2+ transients of isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes was assessed. LDL was oxidized by a free radical generating system in vitro. The systolic Ca2+ concentration in transients was significantly increased after treatment with 100 μg of oxLDL cholesterol/ml for 16 min without having any effect on the diastolic [Ca2+]. However, a toxic effect was observed when the concentration of oxLDL was increased to 1,000 μg/ml. Cells treated with 100 μg of oxLDL/ml were more sensitive to the blocking action of nicardipine on the Ca2+ transient than were control cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, oxLDL failed to produce a stimulatory effect on the transient when the extracellular [Ca2+] was lowered. The malondialdehyde content in the oxLDL ...
Mechanical stretch inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells by up-regulating integrin αVβ3 and stablization of PINCH-1 Academic Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estradiol binding prevents ApoB-100 misfolding in electronegative LDL(-). AU - Brunelli, Roberto. AU - Balogh, Gabor. AU - Costa, Graziella. AU - De Spirito, Marco. AU - Greco, Giulia. AU - Mei, Giampiero. AU - Nicolai, Eleonora. AU - Vigh, Laszlo. AU - Ursini, Fulvio. AU - Parasassi, Tiziana. PY - 2010/8/31. Y1 - 2010/8/31. N2 - Seeking for a modified lipoprotein present in plasma that could account for the atherogenic effect of high cholesterol, several years ago electronegative LDL(-) was identified. The peculiar feature of LDL(-) is an apoprotein misfolding that triggers the formation of aggregates, perfectly fitting in size the subendothelial droplets observed in early phases of atherogenesis. Apoprotein misfolding was therefore proposed as a possible atherogenic modification. LDL(-) can be spontaneously produced in vitro by plasma incubation through phospholipid hydrolysis catalyzed by the activity of endogenous phospholipases. As a consequence, apoprotein is misfolded. ...
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) - Get up-to-date information on Low density lipoprotein (LDL) side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
We have investigated whether arterial wall low density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism in areas of disturbed flow differs from the metabolism in adjacent regions of undisturbed flow. Using the rabbit aorto-iliac bifurcation as a model, we examined the rates of LDL incorporation and catabolism in vivo and correlated them to the arterial flow patterns in these regions. The trapped ligand method was used to quantitate the rates of LDL incorporation and degradation over a 20-hour period in three hemodynamic zones of the daughter iliac branch: 1) a region of flow separation where the shearing forces are elevated along the medial wall and reduced along the lateral wall, 2) a transition region where the flow patterns begin to approach the fully established situation, and 3) a unidirectional flow region with symmetric fluid shearing forces along the medial and lateral walls. Our results indicate an elevated rate of LDL incorporation into the lateral versus the medial wall in the proximal zone of flow ...
The effects of hemostatic substances on the vascular tone in porcine coronary arteries and the influence of low density lipoprotein on tension were investigated. Thrombin induced a marked concentration-dependent relaxation in prostaglandin F2 alpha-precontracted strips with intact endothelium, whereas it produced a modest constriction in endothelium-denuded arteries. Methylene blue abolished the relaxation, but indomethacin did not affect it significantly. An exposure of the intact strips to low density lipoprotein resulted in a marked inhibition of the relaxation to thrombin but did not interfere with vasodilation by sodium nitroprusside. The inhibition by low density lipoprotein was reversed completely by washing. In contrast, high density lipoprotein lacked such inhibitory effects. Adenosine diphosphate, calcium ionophore A23187, and platelet-activating factor also produced relaxation in the intact strips. An exposure of the strips to low density lipoprotein almost abolished relaxation to ...
BioAssay record AID 445602 submitted by ChEMBL: Antioxidant activity against copper-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation in human blood assessed as malonoldehyde formation by thiobarbituric acid method.
Abstract It is thought that the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It is well known that lipid peroxidation reactions are propagated by peroxyl radicals and it follows, therefore, that the capacity of an individual LDL particle to scavenge these oxidants may be an important indicator of its atherogenic potential. There are several components within LDL which scavenge peroxyl radicals including chain breaking antioxidants and amino acids on the protein. It is not clear at present which of these antioxidants is most important. In attempting to address the question we have used a simple method for the measurement of the total capacity of the LDL particle to scavenge peroxyl radicals. This assay depends upon the ability of antioxidants in LDL to inhibit the peroxyl radical dependent oxidation of luminol. We have found that approximately 80% of the antioxidant capacity of LDL, isolated from a number of donors, could be accounted for by the α
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an atherosclerosis-causing lipoprotein that circulates in human plasma as a complex of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). It is not known whether apo(a) attaches to LDL within hepatocytes prior to secretion or in plasma subsequent to secretion. Here we describe the development of a line of mice expressing the human apo(a) transgene under the control of the murine transferrin promoter. The apo(a) was secreted into the plasma, but circulated free of lipoproteins. When human (h)-LDL was injected intravenously, the circulating apo(a) rapidly associated with the lipoproteins, as determined by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. Human HDL and mouse LDL had no such effect. When h-VLDL was injected, there was a delayed association of apo(a) with the lipoprotein fraction which suggests that apo(a) preferentially associated with a metabolic product of VLDL. The complex of apo(a) with LDL formed both in vivo and in vitro was resistant to boiling in the ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Oxidized LDL as an effective anti-cancer bio nanoparticle. AU - Wang, Pei Wen. AU - Chen, Chu Huang. AU - Shieh, Dar Bin. PY - 2008/11/10. Y1 - 2008/11/10. N2 - Low density lipoproteins are natural nanoparticles derived from lipid metabolism. Ox-LDLs are generated by LDLs ongoing auto-oxidation. It has been shown that oxLDL induced apoptosis of endothelial cells and is highly associated with arthrosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Our study demonstrated ox-LDLs not only induce endothelial cell apoptosis but also promote tumor ceDs ongoing apoptosis. Measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) revealed a significant loss of the ΔΨ upon exposure to oxLDL and a dose dependency was observed. Further exploration to redirect oxLDL as an alternative cancer cell targeting chemotherapeutic agent and anti-cancer drug carrier could be a potential new therapeutic strategy.. AB - Low density lipoproteins are natural nanoparticles derived from lipid metabolism. Ox-LDLs ...
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. LDL consists of several subclasses of particles with different sizes and densities, including large buoyant (lb) and intermediate and small dense (sd) LDLs. It has been we …
Vessel Plus is an open acccess journal, which publishes articles related to vascular diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, aneurysm, atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, peripheral vascular or pulmonary vascular diseases, etc.
Background: Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) is recognized as one of the major processes involved in atherogenesis. The in vitro standardized measurement of LDL oxidative susceptibility could thus be of clinical significance. The aim of the present study was to establish a method which would allow the evaluation of oxidative susceptibility of LDL in the general clinical laboratory. Results: LDL was isolated from human plasma by selective precipitation with amphipathic polymers. The ability of LDL to form peroxides was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after incubation with Cu2+ and H2O2. Reaction kinetics showed a three-phase pattern (latency, propagation and decomposition phases) which allowed us to select 150 min as the time point to stop the incubation by cooling and EDTA addition. The mixture Cu 2+/H2O2 yielded more lipoperoxides than each one on its own at the same time end-point. Induced peroxidation was measured in normal ...
Purpose: : Lipids accumulate with age in Bruchs membrane (BrM) and are associated with AMD. In atherosclerosis, lipid accumulation in the vessel wall has been associated with both the presence (Skalen et al., Nature, 2002) and absence (Pillarisetti et al., JCI, 1997) of glycosaminoglycans. We used GAGases to remove GAGs from bovine BrM and determined the effects on hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the tissue and on low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport across the tissue. We also separately determined the effect of LDL concentration on its transport through BrM. Methods: : 2x2 cm tissue squares of BrM and choroid from non-tapetal regions were gently separated from post-mortem bovine eyes. The tissue was treated with chondroitinase ABC, heparinase III, both enzymes or neither for 6 to 24 hours. Enzymatic activity was confirmed morphologically in control studies. The tissue was then placed into a Ussing chamber and perfused with buffer or buffer with fluorescent 3,3-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine ...
Low density lipoprotein (Science: biochemistry) a lipoprotein substances (combination of a fat and a protein) which acts as a carrier for cholesterol and fats in the bloodstream. high levels of low density lipoprotein are considered a positive risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Less than 130 mg/dl is desirable, 130 to 159 mg/dl is borderline high, over 160 is considered high. Acronym: ldl ...
Current computational analysis results quantify Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and its impact on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) concentration of a fully deployed straight artery stent. Atherosclerosis shows predilection in arterial regions with hemodynamic particularities, as local disturbances of WSS in space, and locally high concentrations of lipoprotein. The WSS and subsequently the LDL distribution are important indicators of stent performance. A typical 6.0 mm diameter straight stented artery is used to elucidate the WSS and the LDL transport under steady flow conditions treating the blood as a non-Newtonian fluid. Struts are 50.0 % embedded into the arterial wall. Emphasis is placed in the LDL distribution at the upstream and downstream flow regions of each strut intersection. Reduced WSS values are observed towards outlet. At the strut intersections, high WSS values are observed possibly causing platelet activation. Prone to plaque development are flow regions located at specific strut ...
The main cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus is a cardiovascular disease. Among the many risk factors of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients, LDL(low density lipoprotein) cholesterol is now being regarded as one of the most important modifiable one. Recent researches have revealed that the plasma LDL could be sub-divided according to the size of the particles into large buoyant LDL and small dense LDL. Small dense LDL is very atherogenic. Increased plasma triglyceride and the presence of insulin resistance are proved to be positively correlated well with the amount of small dense LDL in diabetic patients.. We would like to see omega-3 acid(OMACOR) which is now widely used in clinical practice to decrease plasma triglyceride could change the amount of plasma small dense LDL in type 2 diabetic patients with combined hyperlipidemia.. This trial is consisted of 6 weeks of wash out for the patients already taking statin. After that, daily 4 grams of omega-3 acid(OMACOR) will be ...
Conclusions Increasing evidences indicated a link between bone marrow cells and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It was recognized that a higher percentage of circulating endothelial progenitor cells expressed osteocalcin in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Widespread increased myeloid calcifying cells contribute to ectopic vascular calcification in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, mouse model and human studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived progenitor cells may contribute to a variety of vascular pathologies including calcification, atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. In view of the capacity of differentiation into osteoblast from BM-MSCs, we investigated whether BM-MSCs was involved in the process of angiosteosis in atherosclerosis when exposed to vascular injure and hyperlipemia. Thus, we mimicked the phenotype transformation of VSMC exposed to hyperlipemia to investigate the differentiation of BM-MSCs. Data reported in this study demonstrated that ox-LDL significantly ...
Concentration: 1 mg / ml, determined by the Lowry method Source: From fresh human plasma that has tested negative for Hepatitis C, HIV-I and HIV-II antibodies as well as Hepatitis surface antigens. Purification: After series ultra centrifugations, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is isolated from Human plasma (Density: 1.
Definition of large LDL particle in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is large LDL particle? Meaning of large LDL particle as a legal term. What does large LDL particle mean in law?
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ERBB) family member ERBB4 is essential for normal cardiac, neuronal, and mammary development and is activated by mutation in several cancers (1-4). As for other receptor kinases, ligand-induced phosphorylation of Tyr sites in ERBB4 recruits downstream signaling proteins. In addition, ERBB4 is unique in the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in that juxtamembrane-a (JM-a) spliced isoforms undergo ligand-induced ecto-domain and intramembrane proteolysis to release a soluble intracellular fragment that enters the nucleus and modifies transcription (5-7). In this context, ERBB4 can act as both a nuclear chaperone [such as for the transcription factor STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5)] and a transcriptional modulator [such as for interactions with estrogen receptor, yes-associated protein (YAP), the transcription factor AP-2, the transcriptional coregulator TRIM28/KAP1, and TAB2 in complex with the transcriptional ...
Low density lipoprotein in blood. Illustration of low density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad cholesterol, in the bloodstream. This biochemical assembly consists of a core of esterified cholesterol molecules surrounded by a shell of unesterified cholesterol (orange with violet cap) and phospholipids (orange with blue cap). The complex structure includes carrier proteins (blue) known as apo-B proteins, which assist transport in the blood. When there are high levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood it builds up on the sides of blood vessels hardening them, a condition named atherosclerosis. This narrows the blood vessels and may block them. - Stock Image F012/9765
LLDL electronegativa (LDL(-)) és una LDL modificada present en circulació amb propietats inflamatòries incloent la inducció de lalliberament de citoquines en cèl·lules relacionades amb larteriosclerosi, tals com monòcits i cèl·lules endotelials. Es coneix poc sobre les vies intracel·lulars activades per lLDL(-), en especial en monòcits. En aquesta tesi shan estudiat els primers passos a través dels quals lLDL(-) indueix lalliberament dIL-6, IL-10 i MCP-1 en monòcits humans. Concretament, shan estudiat els components inflamatoris de lLDL(-) i la seva interacció amb receptors cel·lulars de monòcits. En relació amb els components inflamatoris, es va observar que la ceramida (CER) és, en part, responsable dels efectes inflamatoris de lLDL(-). La CER es relaciona amb un augment en la susceptibilitat a lagregació de lLDL(-) i a la seva inducció de citoquines en monòcits. Aquestes propietats de lLDL(-) augmenten a 37ºC i disminueixen per la incubació daquesta lipoproteina
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An elevated level of LDL cholesterol is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and is also associated with aging. Modification of LDL particle is one of the main contributors to the development of atherosclerosis and is elevated with increasing plasma LDL concentrations. Modified LDL is usually composed of LOOH/aldehydes, unfolded protein and some protein post-translational modifications. It has been debated whether the lipid peroxides or unfolded apoB-100 protein is important. An important pathway in atherosclerosis may be the phosphorylation of JNK-2 in ECs. OxLDL-R CD-36 knockout macrophages which have decreased foam cell formation and decreased JNK-2 phosphorylation as well as an ApoE and JNK-2 double knockout mouse has decreased lesion size and MFC formation. Foam cells have increased ROS production and mitochondria are the major source of ROS and this evidence may suggest that p-JNK-2 is involved in regulating mitochondrial function.; We hypothesize that ONOO- induced nitration ...
In this study, we observed that although the initiation of atherosclerosis is delayed in mice expressing RK3359-3369SA LDL with reduced proteoglycan-binding activity, they eventually develop the same level of atherosclerosis as mice expressing control LDL. Proteoglycan-binding-defective LDL was not retained in nonatherogenic aortae, but similar levels of retention were observed for proteoglycan-binding-defective LDL and control LDL in atherosclerotic lesions. We further showed an involvement of LPL in retention of LDL in later stages of atherogenesis, and the enzyme did not need to be active to mediate its proatherogenic role. Our findings indicate that direct LDL-proteoglycan binding is necessary to initiate atherogenesis, but at later stages of development, facilitated binding leads to accelerated retention of LDL in lesional aortae.. Our finding that the initiation of atherogenesis was delayed in mice expressing proteoglycan-binding-defective LDL is in agreement with our earlier results ...
Lipid molecules are sucked from the order asacol online gut epithelial cells are packed into a transportation particles ventolin asma (chylomicrons) which receives via lymphatics to the bloodstream. Under the action of capillary endothelial lipoprotein main component of chylomicrons - neutral triglycerides - cleaved to glycerol and free fatty acids. Part of the fatty acids may bind to albumin and zovirax ointment genital herpes glycerol and free fatty acids act in the fat cells and converted into triglycerides. The remnants of chylomicrons blood trapped hepatocytes, are endocytosed and destroyed in the lysosomes. In the liver, forming lipoproteins for transport side effects for nexium 40 mg of synthesized lipid molecules in it. These lipoproteins are very low and low-density lipoprotein, which is transported from the liver to other tissues triglycerides, cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein uptake from the blood cells of tissues via lipoprotein receptors endotsitiruyutsya, released for the needs ...
This is a two -part measure which is paired with CMS 61: Preventive Care and Screening: Cholesterol - Fasting Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) Test Performed. If the fasting LDL-C results are documented this measure CMS 64 should also be reported.. To be eligible for performance calculations, patients must have at least one face-to -face visit with the eligible professional during the measurement period and have one fasting LDL-C performed during the same measurement period with the exception of patients with 0 or 1 risk factors who may have an fasting LDL-C performed up to four (4) years prior to the current measurement period. To meet the numerator criteria for this measure, the patients fasting LDL-C (low density lipoprotein) meets or exceeds the recommended LDL-C goal.. ...
Title:Misfolding of Apoprotein B-100, LDL Aggregation and 17-β -estradiol in Atherogenesis. VOLUME: 21 ISSUE: 20. Author(s):R. Brunelli, M. De Spirito, G. Mei, M. Papi, G. Perrone, C. Stefanutti and T. Parasassi. Affiliation:Unità di Tecniche Terapeutiche Extracorporee - Centro per lo Studio, Diagnosi, Terapia delle Dislipidemie e Prevenzione della Aterosclerosi- Immunoematologia e Medicina Trasfusionale Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare- Università di Roma "Sapienza", Roma, Italy.. Keywords:Amyloid, electronegative low density lipoprotein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, phospholipase A2, subendothelial droplets, 17-β-estradiol.. Abstract:The long quest for a missing mechanistic rationale accounting for the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been focused on various possible modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL), turning this physiological cholesterol carrier into a damaging agent able to trigger atherogenesis and later the ...
Given the ability of PPARδ agonists to increase fatty acid catabolism, cholesterol efflux, and energy expenditure in muscle, interest has focused on therapeutic utility in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and obesity. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by high levels of triglyceride-rich, very-low-density lipoprotein particles and their cholesterol ester-rich remnant particles, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and small dense low-density lipoproteins (Adiels et al., 2006). Our present knowledge regarding PPARδ in relation to metabolic diseases is based to a large extent on genetically modified animals and the use of high-affinity synthetic ligands for PPARδ, but it is also based on a few studies in humans and in vitro-based approaches.. Both the genetic leptin-resistant (db/db) and the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice are obese/diabetic animal models that have been investigated in relation to how PPARδ exerts its metabolic effects. One of the first ...
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the blood vary from large and fluffy to small and dense (sdLDL). LDL particle (LDL-P) testing evaluates LDL particles according to these properties (subfraction testing). The test helps determine whether a person has increased risk of heart disease.
CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G,A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of ...
A person's total cholesterol number consists of low density lipoproteins , high density lipoproteins and triglycerides, another fatty substance found
In other words, conventional calculated LDL is the least reliable of all the ways of examining low-density lipoprotein.. It can also go the other way: High calculated LDL, low LDL particle number or ApoB or direct LDL. And, indeed, these other measures have proven superior in their ability to predict "events" like heart attack over conventional calculated LDL.. Unfortunately, relying on conventional LDL is like a broken speedometer on your car. You really cant gauge accurately how fast youre going; sometimes you could be way off. While insurance companies and many physicians still continue to balk at this argument, the data have already been generated that show that lipoprotein analysis (my bias is NMR) is not just superior, but enormously superior for accuracy and event prediction.. In addition, lipoprotein analysis has proven a crucial tool that accounts for our extraordinary success in reducing and controlling CT heart scan scores in the Track Your Plaque program. I doubt that we could have ...
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Background: There is growing evidence that supports oxidized LDL particles may have an ability to inhibit osteoblastic activity, and increase osteoclastic activity; hence these particles may lead the balance to osteoporosis. However, the relationship between oxidized LDL and osteoporosis has not been investigated in human studies yet. The main aim ...
Saying that High LDL is bad is generic, LDL particles are not the same, LDL a, are big and fluffy not oxidized particles that are harmless but LDL b, are small, dense and oxidized and are the ones that penetrate the vascular endothelium that at the end causes atherosclerosis. High LDL a, low LDL b, Ok. Low LDL a and high LDL b, not good and what causes high LDL b, to be higher than LDL a, high carbohydrates diet, high consumption of vegetable oil (oil from cereals), processed foods…etc. Oh…, BTW, the good Dr. on the video is in need to cut back on his high carbohydrates diet. Free tip !!. ...
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Cerebrovascular accumulation of Aβ (β-amyloid) occurs in aging and AD (Alzheimers disease). Hypercholesterolaemia, which is associated with raised plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein), may predispose to AD. Soluble Aβ is found in the circulation and enhances vasoconstriction. Under conditions that may favour the formation of short Aβ oligomers, as opposed to more severe polymerization leading to Aβ fibrillogenesis, we investigated the influence of LDLs on the vasoactive actions of soluble Aβ. Thus the actions of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in combination with native or oxidized LDL on vasoconstriction to NA (noradrenaline) and vasodilatation to ACh (acetylcholine) were examined in rat aortic rings. LDL, particularly when oxidized, potentiated NA-induced constriction when combined with soluble Aβ40 and, especially, Aβ42. Soluble Aβ40 reduced relaxation induced by ACh, but Aβ42 was ineffective. Native and oxidized LDL also attenuated relaxation. Synergism occurred between oxidized LDL and Aβ with ...
RESULTS In the entire study group, 47 subjects had LDL phenotype A (LDL diameter ,25.75 nm) and 3 subjects had an intermediate phenotype (25.50-25.75 nm). An interrelation between LDL size and LDL triglyceride (LDL-TG) per apolipoprotein (apo) B (Spearmans rank correlation analysis; r = −0.78; P , 0.001) or LDL cholesterol ester (CE) per apoB (r = 0.58, P , 0.001) was found, and 39% of the plasma samples studied were characterized by a monodispersed LDL pattern. Furthermore, LDL diameters correlated negatively with total TGs (men: r = −0.52, P , 0.001; women: r = −0.61, P , 0.001) and positively with insulin sensitivity (total population: r = 0.54, P , 0.001). In addition, LDL size was inversely related to the [VLDL + LDL cholesterol (CH)]/HDL-CH ratio and positively to the HDL-CE/TG ratio, which were both related vice versa to CETP activity levels. A direct relation between CETP activity levels and LDL size or composition was not observed. In a linear regression analysis including ...
Abstract: Penyakit Kardiovaskular (PKV) menjadi penyebab utama morbiditas dan mortalitas. Karena itu, penting dilakukan identifikasi dini berbagai faktor risiko yang berperan dalam PKV. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) merupakan salah satu faktor risiko mayor PKV. Small dense-Low density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) yang merupakan LDL berukuran kecil dan padat (diameter ,25.5 nm dan densitas 1.044-1.063 g/mL) dan terbentuk bila terdapat hipertrigliseridemia (,1.5 mmol/L atau , 120mg/dL). Sd-LDL dikenal sebagai LDL aterogenik karena mudah masuk ke dinding arteri dan teroksidasi. Sd-LDL mempunyai afinitas rendah terhadap reseptor LDL akibatnya lebih lama dalam sirkulasi. Selain itu, sd-LDL juga dapat menyebabkan disfungsi endotel. Kadar sd-LDL plasma dapat diperiksa dengan metode GGE, ultrasentrifugasi, PAGE, presipitasi, homogeneous dan rasio K-LDL/ApoB. Direct homogeneous assay merupakan metode sederhana terbaru yang dapat dikerjakan sebagai pemeriksaan rutin dan mengukur sd-LDL secara ...
Commonly known as bad cholesterol. LDLs are made of lipids and proteins, with more lipid than protein. They carry cholesterol and fat through the bloodstream. High levels are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.. ...
LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. Its also sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. Lipoproteins are made of fat and protein. They carry cholesterol, triglycerides, and other fats, called lipids, in the blood to various parts of the body. LDL can clog your arteries. Your LDL level is what doctors watch most closely. You want your LDL to be low. Too much LDL, commonly called "bad cholesterol," is linked to cardiovascular disease. If it gets too high, you will need treatment. A healthy LDL level is one that falls in the best or near-best range. Best: Less than 100 mg/dL (less than 70 mg/dL for persons with a history of heart disease or those at very high risk) Near Best: 100 - 129 mg/dL Borderline High: 130 - 159 mg/dL High: 160 - 189 mg/dL Very High: 190 mg/dL and higher ...
Coronary heart disease is a build-up of fat and white blood cells in the wall of coronary arteries. Doctors refer to this mixture of lipid and immune cells as a "plaque".. Pathophysiology of plaque formation. The current belief is that the interplay between white blood cells and abnormal fat levels in the blood cause the formation of plaque in the walls of arteries.7-9. The driving force behind plaque formation is abnormally high levels of a specific type of fat in the blood - low-density lipoprotein (LDL).10. LDL from the blood is always entering the walls of arteries and then moving back into the bloodstream. When LDL levels get too high, however, some of the LDL stays in the artery wall.7,10. If LDL stays in the artery wall, it can come into contact with enzymes that turn it into a different type of fat, called oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL).8,10. The cells in the wall of the artery recognize OxLDL as abnormal, and they send out distress signals to the immune system.8. The cells ...
... ,Oxidized LDL (Competitive) EIA The Oxidized LDL Competitive ELISA is based on the monoclonal antibody 4E6. Oxidized LDL in the sample competes with a fixed amount of oxidized LDL bound to the microtiter well for the binding of the biotin- labeled specific antibodies. After a washi,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Methods for selectively modulating triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein levels in a patient by administering a certain dose of 6-(5-carboxy-5-methyl-hexyloxy)-2,2-dimethylhexanoic acid monocalcium salt are disclosed.
The human body has Lipoprotein with high and low density. The use of the steroid affects these levels and the low-density lipoprotein increases and the high-density lipoprotein levels which can create a condition - atherosclerosis this builds a plaque inside the arteries walls which may lead to heart attack or strokes. This could be countered by eating healthy meals and avoid oily and greasy food items.. The women users are at a higher risk while using Testoviron as it may lead to virilization. The potential side effects specific to women with the use of the steroids could be hair growth on the face or the body, development of deep-husky voice, reduction in breast size or smaller development, disruption of the menstrual cycle.. The dosage and the frequency of use directly influence the level of side effects. The side-effects that are generated are sometimes temporary or mild and sometimes they are serious and can lead to organ damage or dysfunctionality. There are estrogenic side effects while ...
LDL vs. HDL: There are two major kinds of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Lipoproteins are made out of proteins and…. Continue Reading →. ...