TY - JOUR. T1 - LXRβ activation increases intestinal cholesterol absorption, leading to an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. AU - Hu, X.. AU - Steffensen, K. R.. AU - Jiang, Z. Y.. AU - Parini, P.. AU - Gustafsson, J. Å. AU - Gåfvels, M.. AU - Eggertsen, G.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Objectives. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are essential for the regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Because two isoforms exist, LXRα and LXRβ, with overlapping but not identical functions, we investigated whether LXRα and LXRβ exert different effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption. Design. Wild-type (WT), LXRα-/- and LXRβ-/- mice were fed control diet, 0.2% cholesterol-enriched diet or 0.2% cholesterol-enriched diet plus the LXR agonist GW3965. Results. When fed a control diet, all three genotypes showed similar levels of cholesterol absorption. Of interest, a significant increase in cholesterol absorption was found in the LXRα-/- mice, but not in the WT or LXRβ-/- animals, when fed a ...
Lipoproteins contain a core of hydrophobic lipids (triglycerides and cholesteryl esters) surrounded by a shell of hydrophilic lipids (phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol) and proteins (called apolipoproteins) that interact with body fluids. The plasma lipoproteins are divided into five major classes based on their relative density (Fig. 421-1 and Table 421-1): chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Each lipoprotein class comprises a family of particles that vary in density, size, and protein composition. Because lipid is less dense than water, the density of a lipoprotein particle is primarily determined by the amount of lipid per particle. Chylomicrons are the most lipid-rich and therefore least dense lipoprotein particles, whereas HDLs have the least lipid and are therefore the most dense lipoproteins. In addition to their density, lipoprotein particles can be ...
Lipoproteins contain a core of hydrophobic lipids (triglycerides and cholesteryl esters) surrounded by a shell of hydrophilic lipids (phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol) and proteins (called apolipoproteins) that interact with body fluids. The plasma lipoproteins are divided into five major classes based on their relative density (Fig. 27-1 and Table 27-1): chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Each lipoprotein class comprises a family of particles that vary in density, size, and protein composition. Because lipid is less dense than water, the density of a lipoprotein particle is primarily determined by the amount of lipid per particle. Chylomicrons are the most lipid-rich and therefore least dense lipoprotein particles, whereas HDLs have the least lipid and are therefore the most dense lipoproteins. In addition to their density, lipoprotein particles can be ...
Lipoproteins are important protein-lipid assemblies that are responsible for the transport of fats to different parts of the body via the bloodstream. The five major groups of lipoproteins are very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and chylomicrons. LDL and HDL are of particular interest due to their impact on human health. For example, studies have shown that higher levels of LDL promote health problems and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, those with higher levels of HDL seem to correlate with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore LDL is commonly referred to as bad cholesterol, while HDL is referred to as good or healthy cholesterol.. Lipoproteins are composed of lipids and proteins which are held together by noncovalent forces. There is an outer layer of phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol, and proteins, with a core of neutral lipids predominately cholesteryl esters ...
Brauns lipoprotein (BLP, Lpp, or murein lipoprotein), found in some gram-negative cell walls, is one of the most abundant membrane proteins; its molecular weight is about 7.2 kDa. It is bound at its C-terminal end (a lysine) by a covalent bond to the peptidoglycan layer (specifically to diaminopimelic acid molecules) and is embedded in the outer membrane by its hydrophobic head (a cysteine with lipids attached). BLP tightly links the two layers and provides structural integrity to the outer membrane. The gene encoding Brauns lipoprotein initially produces a protein composed of 78 amino acids, which includes a 20 amino acid signal peptide at the amino terminus. The mature protein is 6 kDa in size. Three monomers of Lpp assemble into a coiled-coil trimer. Large amounts of Brauns lipoprotein is present, more than any other protein in E. coli. Unlike other lipoproteins, it is linked covalently to the peptidoglycan. Lpp connects the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan. Lpp is anchored to the outer ...
Background Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. Methods and Results We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls) from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC) and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated
Atherosclerosis is the main killer in the western world. Current clinical praxis relies on the usage of total lipoproteins as markers for atherosclerosis, even though deaths occur in people with normal lipoprotein blood profiles. Each lipoprotein fraction presents a wide variability in both composition and structure that needs to be thoroughly assessed for more accurate use of these particles as biomarkers in the diagnostics of atherosclerosis. In this PhD project, the lipoprotein structure, composition and dynamics at model blood vessel surfaces will be investigated and correlated to the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Mapping of the lipoprotein structure will be done by small angle neutron and X-ray scattering while the compositional analysis will be done by proteomics and lipidomics, apart from biochemical assays. Despite of the importance of charting out lipid dynamics to exchange fat (lipoproteins carry fats in the body), only a few studies to date have addressed this point. We have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diet and drug therapy for lipoprotein (a). AU - Berglund, Lars. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Lipoprotein (a) has been implicated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward understanding the importance of genetics in the regulation of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a). However, the issue as to whether lipoprotein (a) levels should be treated is still debated and furthermore the possibilities to influence lipoprotein (a) levels remain limited. The potential clinical importance of Lipoprotein (a) has stimulated interest in the dietary and pharmacologic agents that affect this lipoprotein. At present, only a few of the existing therapeutic tools, such as nicotinic acid and estrogens, have been found to consistently affect lipoprotein (a).. AB - Lipoprotein (a) has been implicated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward ...
Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed and to where it will be supplied.. The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They carry mostly fats in the form of triglycerides. In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and secretes them into plasma where they are converted to intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL), which thereafter are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, ...
The largest reference interval range was observed in the medium very-low density lipoprotein subclass (2.5th 97.5th percentile; 0.08 to 0.68 mmol/L). The reference intervals were comparable among male and female participants, with the exception of triglyceride in high-density lipoprotein. Triglyceride subfraction concentrations in very-low density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein subclasses increased with increasing age and increasing body mass index. Triglyceride subfraction concentrations were significantly higher in ever smokers compared to never smokers, among those with clinical chemistry measured total triglyceride greater than 1.7 mmol/L, and in those with cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes as compared to disease-free subjects ...
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type inhibitor that regulates the initiation of tissue factor-mediated coagulation. Recent reports in the literature have described variable results using different methodologies for TFPI measurement. In this study, we used one clotting and two amidolytic methodologies to assess TFPI functional levels. The study groups included normal healthy donors as well as patients with acute hepatitis, diabetes, coronary artery bypass graft operations, deep vein thrombosis, and prior to and during heparin therapy. The aims were to compare the results obtained in normal plasma using different assay systems, to compare TFPI levels in a range of clinical samples, including those previously not determined using a clotting methodology, and to report TFPI levels in patient groups previously not investigated. The results clearly demonstrate poor correlation between functional TFPI values using the different methodologies, highlighting the requirement for ...
Aberrant metabolism of specific lipoprotein fractions, particularly LDL and HDL, is associated with atherosclerotic diseases and modulation of their plasma concentrations is a tenet of therapeutic strategies.30,31 Dysfunctional lipoprotein metabolism has also been implicated in human AAA formation, although associations have not been studied extensively.1 In this study, AngII-induced AAAs in multiple mouse models with different plasma lipoprotein distributions were used to determine whether facets of dyslipidemia were directly associated with AAA formation. We were unable to define any effect of reduced HDL-cholesterol concentrations, promoted by apoAI deficiency, on AngII-induced AAA formation in 2 mouse strains with dietary manipulations. However, our findings clearly demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia augmented the development of AngII-induced AAAs in mice. Changes in large-sized lipoprotein particles were associated with augmentation of AngII-induced AAAs. The only feature in common for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of dietary triacylglycerol structure on lipoprotein metabolism. T2 - A comparison of the effects of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol in which palmitate is esterified to the 2-or 1(3)-position of the glycerol. AU - Pufal, Deborah A. AU - Quinlan, Paul T. AU - Salter, Andrew M. PY - 1995/8/24. Y1 - 1995/8/24. N2 - The effect on lipoprotein metabolism of diets enriched in different isomers of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol was studied. One diet contained fat in which palmitate was esterified to the two outer positions of the glycerol (OOP) and the other in which it was esterified to the middle carbon (OPO). The lipid composition of chylomicrons was similar in rats fed either fat blend. However, triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons from OPO fed animals was relatively enriched in palmitic acid, at the expense of stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Silver phase HPLC and 2-positional analysis clearly demonstrated that the identity of the fatty acid in the 2-position was similar in both ...
Abstract: Lipoproteins were isolated, using preparative ultracentrifugation, from blood plasma of rabbits with alimentary hypercholesterolemia. Alterations in the lipoprotein structure were studied by means of light-dispersion, intrinsic fluorescence of the protein component in lipoproteins and by fluorescence of probes--I-aniline naphthalene-8-sulfonate and pyrene. The structural alterations consisted in an increase of size of the lipoproteins of very low density, elevated viscosity of the lipid phase of lipoproteins of low and very low density as well as in occurrence of additional positively charged groups on the surface of these particles. Potential importance of the impairments observed in structure of atherogenic lipoproteins from blood plasma in atherogenesis is discussed ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enrichment of Native Lipoprotein Particles with microRNA and Subsequent Determination of Their Absolute/Relative microRNA Content and Their Cellular Transfer Rate. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
PubMed journal article Increased plasma levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in patients with chronic atherosclerotic diseas were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Researchers plan to study the fat-rich particles, called lipoproteins, which circulate in the blood. This study is designed to improve understanding of normal, as well as abnormal, lipoprotein metabolism and the role it plays in the development of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).. Patients participating in this study will receive injections of lipoproteins or apolipoproteins (the protein component of lipoproteins) that have been isolated and purified. These lipoproteins will be labeled with small amounts of radioactive material and sterilized before they are injected into the patient.. Patients participating in the study will be required to have blood samples taken, and provide urine samples throughout the course of the study. In addition, patient will be required to follow a specially formulated diet. Patients will be weighed throughout the course of the study. ...
Dyslipidemias may account for the excess of cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Lipoprotein studies in ESRD patients are usually relative to prehemodialysis samples even if significative changes may occur after dialysis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ESRD on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) subpopulations distribution and acute change following hemodialytic procedures, including the relative contribution of heparin administration. We selected a group of normolipidemic male middle-aged ESRD patients free of any concomitant disease affecting lipoprotein remnant metabolism compared with controls. We separated TRL subfractions according to density and apoE content and evaluated the changes of these particles after hemodialytic procedures with or without heparin. ESRD subjects had higher TRL subfractions, with the exception of apoE-rich particles, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) largest subclasses, and a smaller low-density lipoprotein peak ...
Introduction: Previous studies suggest lower concentrations of both total and HDL cholesterol to be predictive of depression. We therefore investigated the relationship of lipids and lipoprotein distribution with elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) in healthy men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).. Methods: All MESA participants were 45-84 years old and free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease at baseline. They were recruited from six United States communities and were followed up in person at four clinic visits over a 9.5-year period. EDS were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥16 and/or use of antidepressant drugs. Lipoprotein distribution was determined from plasma by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.. Results: Among 4938 MESA participants without EDS at baseline, 1178 participants (23.9%) developed EDS during follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, lower total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol ...
High plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). In the postprandial state, there is a large increase in chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. The accumulation of potentially atherogenic particles is controlled by the balance of their synthesis and clearance. Chylomicrons are rich in triglyceride and secreted by the intestine postprandially. Chylomicrons compete with VLDL for hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). This competition may cause the increase in large plasma concentration of VLDL seen in the postprandial state. Postprandial increases in atherogenic plasma lipoprotein concentrations are accentuated in insulin-resistant states. Insulin resistance is associated with greater flux of free fatty acids, which may in turn lead to enhanced synthesis of VLDL. Alimentary lipidaemia has been shown to effect changes in the coagulation cascade which may provide additional connections between
To our knowledge, our study represents the first time that NMR lipoprotein variables have been assessed longitudinally in adults with SLE in relation to SLE disease activity and treatment. Each unit increase in the SLEDAI resulted in an increase in apoB-containing lipoproteins (total and small LDL-P) and a decline in apoB-containing HDL-P, which remained significant in multivariate analysis. Thus, more pathogenic lipoprotein variables occurred with SLE disease activity. In the general population, the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is often characterized by elevations in apoB-containing lipoproteins, including VLDL and small LDL-P concentrations, and lower levels of apoA-containing lipoproteins (HDL)27.. Prednisone use is often cited as a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis in SLE and is predictive of damage accrual and CV events2. In univariate and multivariate analyses, increases were demonstrated in VLDL variables and TGC with increases in the dose of prednisone. HDL was also ...
Class of lipoproteins that transport triglycerides from the intestine and liver to adipose and muscle tissues. Synthesized by the liver, they contain primarily triglycerides in their lipid cores, with some cholesterol esters. As their triglycerides are cleaved by endothelial lipoprotein lipase and transferred to hepatic tissues, the VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles lose most of their apolipoprotein C and become intermediate-density lipoproteins. ...
The adsorption of a number of lipoproteins, i.e., low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein (a), at silica and methylated silica as well as at the latter surface modified through adsorption of proteoheparan sulfate, was investigated with in situ ellipsometry at close to physiological conditions. It was found that LDL, oxLDL, HDL, and lipoprotein (a) all adsorbed more extensively at silica than at methylated silica. Upon exposure of the methylated silica surface to proteoheparan sulfate, this proteoglycan adsorbs through its hydrophobic moiety, thereby forming a layer similar to that in the biological system, with the polysaccharide chains forming brushes oriented toward the aqueous solution. Analogous to the biological system, both lipoprotein (a) and LDL were found to deposit at such surfaces, the latter particularly in the simultaneous presence of Ca2+. After HDL pre-exposure, however, no LDL deposition was observed, even at high LDL ...
Plasma lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, Lp[a] and HDL) function primarily in lipid transport among tissues and organs. However, cumulative evidence suggests that lipoproteins may also prevent bacterial, viral and parasitic infections and are therefore a component of innate immunity. Lipoproteins can also de …
PubMed journal article Export of the outer membrane lipoprotein is defective in secD, secE, and secF mutants of Escherichia col were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Bacteria outer membrane lipoprotein I: vaccine candidate; antigenically cross-reacts with all serotype strains of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme; amino acid sequence given in first source
The results of the present study strongly support the concept that GH has an important role in the physiological regulation of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. The reversal of the disturbed lipoprotein pattern in 18-month-old male rats by a moderate dose of GH implies that, although other mechanisms may be involved, a relative GH deficiency contributes to the development of age-related hypercholesterolemia in this species. However, the present data do not permit any definite identification of a single mechanism by which GH exerts its effect in this situation. Instead, the data rather indicate that the pleiotropic effects of GH on lipoprotein metabolism result in compensatory adjustments of age-related changes at a number of regulatory steps.. The present data confirm and extend previous studies of cholesterol metabolism in the aging rat.13 14 35 36 37 38 39 Thus, a significant hypercholesterolemia was present in 18-month-old rats, whereas only a minor increase was detected in 12-month-old ...
Varbo et al1 pick up the concept that apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins cause atherosclerosis by at least 2 distinct mechanisms: a lipoprotein remnant-related pathway potentially involving systemic low-grade inflammation and a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related pathway without inflammation. This is in line with our observation that the triglyceride (TG) content of lipoproteins within densities from 1.0063 to 1.063 kg/L (LDL-TG) is more closely related to systemic inflammation and angiographic coronary artery disease than cholesterol in this fraction.2 Indeed, LDL-TG is a reflection of the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoproteins (1.0063-1.019 kg/L) and buoyant LDL-1 and LDL-2 (1.019-1.034 kg/L), which are metabolically remnant lipoproteins; 62% of LDL-TG is contributed by these fractions.2. For methodical reasons, however, the work by Varbo et al1 may lend only limited support to this concept. The postprandial metabolism of lipoproteins is a dynamic process,3 and the time ...
Our findings indicate that the consumption of products that are low in trans fatty acids and saturated fat has beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
Recent clinical studies have revealed that increased serum triglyceride (TG) levels are closely related to atherosclerosis, independently of serum levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Among triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) are considered to be atherogenic and an independent coronary risk factor. We previously reported that monocytes cultured in the presence of RLPs increased their adhesion to vascular endothelial cells. The underlying mechanism involved activation of RhoA, a member of small GTP binding proteins, resulting in activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and s1-integrin. It is also known that RLPs enter vessel walls. In another study, we reported that RLPs induced smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, independently of oxidative stress. Recently, we identified the molecular mechanisms, in which RLPs from hypertriglyceridemic patients stimulated SMC proliferation via epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ...
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a distinctive cholesterol-rich lipoprotein complex in blood. Population studies show that Lp(a) levels are not normally distributed but are skewed towards low concentrations of ,10 mg/dl−1.1 Only 20% of Caucasians are thought to have levels ,30 mg/dl−1, the threshold level nominated for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in both children and adults.1 Although Lp(a) takes the form of an independent risk factor,1 it is the combined elevated levels of Lp(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or Lp(a) and fibrinogen (Fg) that is thought to have the greatest detrimental effect.2 3. We determined the Lp(a) concentrations in schoolchildren aged 12-13 years in South Wales, as well as the percentage of children exhibiting ...
Epidemiological investigation showed that triglyceride is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, but it is difficult to distinguish the effects of different lipoproteins by an experimental system in vivo, the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in atheroscler...
HDL, known as the good cholesterol, is an important lipoprotein in diagnosing cardiovascular disease. Its abundance in the bloodstream is considered to be a sign of good cardiovascular health, because HDL carries away cholesterol.. Ever since the discovery in 1949 that lipoproteins can be separated and isolated in an ultracentrifuge, spinning lipoproteins like HDL at speeds of 40,000 rpm or greater has been the norm. Samples often get spun at speeds of 65,000 to 120,000 rpm within 48 hours to hasten the isolation process.. But there have been whispers in the lipid community that the high speeds damage the molecules. So a trio of researchers at UCLA, led by Verne Schumaker, decided to see how speed affects HDL. The phenomenon of HDL potentially exhibiting sensitivity to the ultracentrifuge speed is sometimes mentioned between lipoprotein researchers, says Munroe, the first author on the paper. However, there was little in the literature describing this phenomenon.. In their JLR paper, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of lipoprotein profiles in patients with hypertriglyceridemic Fredrickson-Levy and Lees dyslipidemia phenotypes. T2 - The very large database of Lipids studies 6 and 7. AU - Quispe, Renato. AU - Hendrani, Aditya D.. AU - Baradaran-Noveiry, Behnoud. AU - Martin, Seth S.. AU - Brown, Emily. AU - Kulkarni, Krishnaji R.. AU - Banach, Maciej. AU - Toth, Peter P.. AU - Brinton, Eliot A.. AU - Jones, Steven R.. AU - Joshi, Parag H.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Introduction: The association between triglycerides (TG) and cardiovascular diseases is complex. The classification of hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) phenotypes proposed by Fredrickson, Levy and Lees (FLL) helps inform treatment strategies. We aimed to describe levels of several lipoprotein variables from individuals with HTG FLL phenotypes from the Very Large Database of Lipids. Material and methods: We included fasting samples from 979,539 individuals from a contemporary large study population of US adults. Lipids ...
Methods are disclosed which separate and identify lipoproteins in biological samples. An ultracentrifuge density gradient is used to separate lipoprotein fractions. The fractions are visualized, resulting in a lipoprotein profile. The fractions can be further analyzed by a wide array of laboratory and clinical methods. The lipoprotein profile can be used in clinical diagnoses and other medical applications ...
Methods RA patients naive to any type of biologic therapy starting anti-TNF therapy, were evaluated at two points (first, just before the first dose of the anti-TNF agent and second, at six months of stable anti-TNF therapy) according to a pre-established protocol including the following assessments of lipidic metabolism: Lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB) levels (total and lipoprotein specific), levels of paroxonase 1 (PON1), HDL, LDL, VLDL and total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids levels, as well as number of molecules of these lipids (mc, mt and mf respectively) in each lipoprotein, total mass (M) and number of particles (np) of the afore mentioned lipoproteins and levels of PCSK9 receptor. Inflammatory markers (ESR, hsCRP, Pentraxina 3 and SAA) and disease activity by joints counts and DAS28 index were also performed. Standard statistical tests were used for comparing both assessments.. ...
Lipoprotein Analysis (A Practical Approach) at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 0199631921 - ISBN 13: 9780199631926 - Oxford University Press - 1992 - Softcover
Lipoprotein a p a repre-sents a class of lipoproteins with some structural similarity to low density lipoprotein LDL, but containing a unique apoprotein, apoprotein a. First reported in 1963, Lp a is now considered to have an independent role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The level of Lp a in the blood is under strong genetic...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidized lipoproteins and endothelium. AU - Pirillo, Angela. AU - Zhu, Weimin. AU - Norata, Giuseppe D.. AU - Zanelli, Tiziano. AU - Barberi, Laura. AU - Roma, Paola. AU - Catapano, Alberico L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Endothelium is an early target of pro-atherosclerotic events, which may result in functional and morphological perturbations. Oxidized low density lipoproteins, an atherogenic factor with strong cytotoxicity, may potentially contribute to altered endothelial function through the activation of a stress response, which would rescue cells to full vitality, or, conversely, by leading to cell death. Evidence is presented here for the ability of chemically oxidized low density lipoproteins to induce the synthesis of the inducible form of heat shock protein 70 in cultured human endothelial cells, and for the association of epitopes of these modified lipoproteins with apoptotic endothelial cells in aortic sections from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.. AB - Endothelium is ...
Strong correlations between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk of stroke have never been clearly established. Unlike coronary heart disease, there is no significant direct relation between an increased risk of stroke and increased plasma total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; nor is there an inverse relation with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.1 Indeed, an inverse relation exists between total cholesterol concentrations and cerebral haemorrhage.2. The reasons for this weak or absent relation are several. The most compelling is that virtually all coronary heart disease can be ascribed to coronary atheroma, whereas less than half the incidence of stroke is due to large vessel atheroma. Non-atheromatous causes such as cardiac arrhythmias, small cerebral artery disease, and cortical degeneration are responsible for most of the rest. Another is that, in general, coronary deaths occur at a younger age than strokes, so the population with raised plasma ...
Journal Article 2011; 32(3): 322-327 PubMed PMID: 21712784 Citation Keywords: Adult, Aged, Aging:blood, Atherosclerosis:blood, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Female, Humans, Hypercholesterolemia:blood, Hyperlipoproteinemias:blood, Lipoproteins:blood, Lipoproteins, HDL:blood, Lipoproteins, LDL:blood, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Fa. OBJECTIVE: The identification of a non-atherogenic and an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, non-athero phenotype A vs. athero phenotype B, in a group of hypercholesterolemic subjects reveals newly discovered non-atherogenic hypercholesterolemia. Individuals with this type of hypercholesterolemia, or hyper-betalipoproteinemia LDL1,2, are probably not at increased risk to develop a premature atherothrombosis or a sudden cardiovascular event. Examined individuals with hyper-betalipoproteinemia LDL1,2 were divided into two subgroups: individuals under 40 years of age, and older individuals between 46 and 71 years of age. Subjects in the under 40 years of age group did not ...
BACKGROUND:. The study was part of the initiative Collaborative Projects (R01s) on Minority Health. The concept for the initiative was developed by the NHLBI staff after the 1993 Report of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, encouraged the NHLBI to establish minority centers to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The initiative was approved at the September 1992 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and released in October 1992.. Julian Marsh was one of three investigators in a collaborative program with Bonita Falkner as Program Coordinator.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. In a sub-set of subjects with either high or low plasma insulin levels after a glucose challenge (insulin sensitive or insulin resistant), the investigators determined the fractional and absolute synthesis and catabolic rates of apolipoproteins B and A-I, the dominant lipoproteins of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). They used stable ...
This fasting blood test is used to measure Apolipoprotein A-I (APO I), a major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood plasma. APO-I is a major component of the high-density lipoprotein complex frequently referred to as the good cholesterol which helps to clear cholesterol from arteries. Apolipoprotein B is attached to the LDL cholesterol molecule whose major role is to carry cholesterol to the tissues. The measurement of APO-B is considered to be a better indicator of risk for arterial plaque than LDL cholesterol. Research indicates the Apolipoprotein I B ratio may be a better indicator of cardiovascular disease than other cholesterol measures ...
Results:. Age, blood pressure, and serum lipoprotein(a) levels were greater in patients with early renal failure than in those with normal renal function and were independently associated with the presence of decreased creatinine clearance. Serum lipoprotein(a) and creatinine clearance were inversely correlated. The prevalence of coronary artery, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease was greater in patients with early renal failure than in those with normal renal function. The frequency distribution of apolipoprotein(a) isoforms was similar in patients with normal and those with impaired renal function. ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previously, the endothelium was considered as a passive exchange barrier of lipoproteins between plasma and extravascular tissues. This dogma is challenged by recent findings on a dual relationship between lipoproteins and endothelial permeability. RECENT FINDINGS: LDL and HDL as well as apolipoprotein A-I pass the intact endothelium through transcytosis by processes, which involve caveolin-1, the LDL-receptor, ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 or scavenger receptor BI. Moreover, HDL help the endothelium to maintain structural integrity and hence selective permeability for biomolecules by keeping interendothelial junctions closed, by inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis and by stimulating endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation as well as the recruitment and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells in damaged parts of the endothelium. Both apolipoprotein A-I and sphingosin-1-phosphate mediate many of the protective effects of HDL on the ...
LPP and LPP Plus™. Spectracells LPP™ test is the most advanced lipoprotein test currently available. Unlike traditional cholesterol tests, Spectracells LPP™ directly measures both the size and number of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including critical risk factors as cited by the National Cholesterol Education Program, giving an accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk.. Many patients understand that not all cholesterol is the same. There is the good HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol and the bad LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol. However, different types of HDL and LDL exist and some are much more dangerous than others. The LPP™ test determines the specific number of particles in each lipoprotein subclass (HDL and LDL) for a much more accurate assessment of risk. For example, the LPP™ test measures RLP (remnant lipoprotein) and Lp(a), both very atherogenic, but with very different effective treatment options. A standard cholesterol test does not ...
We read with great interest Sechi and colleagues report (1) on increased serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration in patients with early renal disease. We have also recently shown that patients with mild to moderate renal failure (n = 106) and creatinine clearance of 10 to 60 mL/min and no factors that influence lipoprotein metabolism (such as proteinuria [,0.5 g/24 h], hypoalbuminemia, glucose intolerance, and severe hyperparathyroidism) exhibit increased serum Lp(a) levels, along with the other more common lipid abnormalities seen in this population (2). In fact, the median serum Lp(a) level was significantly increased in patients compared with levels in 106 age- and sex-matched controls (20 mg/dL compared with 6.5 mg/dL; P , 0.01), whereas the percentage of patients with increased (,30 mg/dL) serum Lp(a) levels was significantly higher in patients with impaired renal function than in the control group (35% compared with 11.8%; P , 0.01 ...
We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural and synthetic transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms form heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ability of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Calculated Intermediate-Density Lipoprotein to Identify Nontraditional Lipoprotein Subclass Risk Factors in Dialysis Patients. AU - Belani, Sharina S.. AU - Goldberg, Anne C.. AU - Coyne, Daniel W.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Background: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and calculated intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) have been proposed as surrogate markers to estimate apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of non-HDL-C and calculated IDL-C to predict nontraditional lipoprotein risk factors among dialysis patients and to compare the prevalence of these nontraditional risk factors between dialysis modalities. Methods: The authors performed a cross-sectional analysis comparing standard lipid profile with lipoprotein analysis via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy among 186 hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis ...
Objective The study aimed to evaluate if the rate of tissue factor pathway inhibitor during pregnancy and following delivery could be a predictive factor for placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes in high-risk women. Methods This was a prospective multicentre cohort study of 200 patients at a high risk of occurrence or recurrence of placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes conducted between June 2008 and October 2010. Measurements of tissue factor pathway inhibitor resistance (normalized ratio) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor activity were performed for the last 72 patients at 20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks of gestation and during the postpartum period. Results Overall, 15 patients presented a placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome. There was no difference in normalized tissue factor pathway inhibitor ratios between patients with and without placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Patients with placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy
The effect of human plasma lipoproteins on lipogenesis from glucose has been studied in isolated rat adipocytes. The very-low-density lipoproteins increased lipogenesis specifically, whereas low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins were without effect. Such stimulation could be reproduced with partially delipidated very-low-density lipoproteins. Nod-esterified fatty acids and glycerol were also without effect. Pretreatment of the adipocytes with trypsin did not alter the effect of very-low-density lipoprotein. The presence of Ca2+ was required for the full activation of lipogenesis. The synthesis of acylglycerol fatty acids and of acylglycerol glycerol were equally increased. The effect of very-low-density lipoprotein was not additive to that of insulin. It is suggested that very-low-density lipoprotein may directly stimulate lipogenesis in fat-cells, particularly in states when the lipoproteins are present at high concentration in the circulation. ...
Physical activity (PA) and high aerobic fitness protects against cardiovascular disease and early death possibly among others because of an anti-atherogenic impact on lipoprotein particle concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of PA and diet on lipoprotein particle concentrations. Thirty-one severely obese women (age 43.6 ± 10.2 years; body mass index 43.0 ± 6.3 kg m−2) participated in a 1-year lifestyle intervention with repeated measurements of lipoprotein particle subclass concentrations and size of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as fat mass, PA and diet. Multiple regression was used to determine associations with change (Δ) in two principal components (PCs) describing lipoprotein distributions: ΔPC 1 LIPO (dominated by VLDL and LDL) and ΔPC 2 LIPO (dominated by large HDL and mean HDL particle size). ΔPA duration was the only variable that was significantly related to ΔPC ...
Chen, D, Xia, M, Hayford, C, Tham, E-L, Semik, V, Hurst, S, Chen, Y, Tam, HH, Pan, J, Wang, Y et al, Tan, X, Lan, H-Y, Shen, H, Kakkar, VV, Xu, Q, McVey, JH and Dorling, A. (2015) Expression of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Inhibits Secretion of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Attenuates Atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) Mice ...
Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor ELISA Kit (TFPI) (ab108904) has been cited in 1 publications. References for Human in sELISA
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of statin therapy on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. AU - Stein, Daniel T.. AU - Devaraj, Sridevi. AU - Balis, David. AU - Adams-Huet, Beverley. AU - Jialal, Ishwarlal. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Clinical trials with statins have demonstrated significant reductions in cardiovascular events. Remnant lipoproteins are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Because of the paucity of data on the effect of statins on remnant lipoproteins, we tested the effect of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels in a randomized crossover study in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. After a 6-week diet phase, patients (n=22) were randomized to pravastatin (40 mg/d), simvastatin (20 mg/d), or atorvastatin (10 mg/d) for 6 weeks, with a 3-week washout between each drug. All 3 drugs significantly decreased total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P,0.001). Mean ...
Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B were evaluated as potential indicators of the risk of coronary artery disease in young (less than 46 years) normocholesterolaemic, non-diabetic men who had previously sustained a myocardial infarction (n = 50) and in healthy age and sex matched controls (n = 122) with a similar socioeconomic background. Significant differences were observed between patients and controls in the mean concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, as well as in the ratios of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I to apolipoprotein B. No significant difference was demonstrated in the concentration of apolipoprotein A-I between the two groups. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that apolipoprotein B was the best ...
BACKGROUND: Circulating lipoprotein lipids cause coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the precise way in which one or more lipoprotein lipid-related entities account for this relationship remains unclear. Using genetic instruments for lipoprotein lipid traits implemented through multivariable Mendelian randomisation (MR), we sought to compare their causal roles in the aetiology of CHD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating non-fasted lipoprotein lipid traits in the UK Biobank (UKBB) for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B to identify lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D for CHD (consisting of 60,801 cases and 123,504 controls), we performed univariable and multivariable MR analyses. Similar GWAS and MR analyses were conducted for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The GWAS of lipids and apolipoproteins in the UKBB included
The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The relationship between CETP MspI, apo E and LPL PvuII gene polymorphisms and serum lipids were investigated in 173 patients with CAD and 111 healthy controls. The frequency of Apo ε4 (p , 0.05) and CETP M1 (p , 0.01) alleles were higher in the CAD group than in the control group. In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. Subjects with an ε2 allele had the lowest levels of TC and LDL-C, while subjects with the ε4 allele had the highest. In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Antibodies towards high density lipoproteins components in patients with psoriasis. AU - Alves, José António Pereira Delgado. AU - Batuca, Joana Rita Ramos Pires. N1 - 4th World Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Conference on Psoriasis - New Insights and Innovations, Stockholm, SWEDEN, OCT, 2015. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. M3 - Other contribution. VL - 135. PB - Nature Publishing Group. CY - 75 VARICK ST, 9TH FLR, NEW YORK, NY 10013-1917 USA. ER - ...
The effects of the triphasic oral Contraceptive (Ethinylestradiol (EE) and Levonorgesterol (LNG)) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was evaluated in ninety-seven black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited between June 1984 and May 1985 and they were followed up for twelve months. There was an increase in fastlng levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c). These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at nine months and twelve months (p, 0.05). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. This triphasic oral contraceptive was found to have minimal effect on the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism ...
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an atherosclerosis-causing lipoprotein that circulates in human plasma as a complex of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). It is not known whether apo(a) attaches to LDL within hepatocytes prior to secretion or in plasma subsequent to secretion. Here we describe the development of a line of mice expressing the human apo(a) transgene under the control of the murine transferrin promoter. The apo(a) was secreted into the plasma, but circulated free of lipoproteins. When human (h)-LDL was injected intravenously, the circulating apo(a) rapidly associated with the lipoproteins, as determined by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. Human HDL and mouse LDL had no such effect. When h-VLDL was injected, there was a delayed association of apo(a) with the lipoprotein fraction which suggests that apo(a) preferentially associated with a metabolic product of VLDL. The complex of apo(a) with LDL formed both in vivo and in vitro was resistant to boiling in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The binding and metabolism of low-density lipoprotein by skin fibroblasts of fetuses and newborns with anencephaly. AU - Carr, B. R.. AU - Parker, C. R.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - We have previously demonstrated that the fetus with anencephaly is hypercholesterolemic. The plasma levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are threefold greater than those of normal fetuses. We have provided evidence that elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were caused by reduced uptake and metabolism of low-density lipoprotein by atrophic adrenal glands deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptors. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if other tissues, namely, skin fibroblasts, of the fetus with anencephaly were also deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptors. We compared the binding and metabolism of low-density lipoprotein by skin fibroblasts of fetuses with anencephaly and normal subjects. Cultures of skin fibroblasts were ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/An_Ultracentrifugal_Analysis_of_Human_Se.html?id=XCwqAAAAYAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAn Ultracentrifugal Analysis of Human Serum Lipoproteins ...
Lipoproteins are of great interest in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of spirochaetes. Because spirochaete lipobox sequences exhibit more plasticity than those of other bacteria, application of existing prediction algorithms to emerging sequence data has been problematic. In this paper a novel lipoprotein prediction algorithm is described, designated SpLip, constructed as a hybrid of a lipobox weight matrix approach supplemented by a set of lipoprotein signal peptide rules allowing for conservative amino acid substitutions. Both the weight matrix and the rules are based on a training set of 28 experimentally verified spirochaetal lipoproteins. The performance of the SpLip algorithm was compared to that of the hidden Markov model-based LipoP program and the rules-based algorithm Psort for all predicted protein-coding genes of Leptospira interrogans sv. Copenhageni, L. interrogans sv. Lai, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, Treponema pallidum and Treponema denticola. Psort sensitivity (13-35
Individuals with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, often experience vascular complications resulting, at least in part, from dyslipidemia [1]. Conventional lipid panels indicate that typically only those with type 2 diabetes, as opposed to type 1, have altered plasma lipids. Underlying changes in lipoprotein particle size and concentrations may better predict vascular disease risk. Recently, changes in the lipoprotein profiles of subjects with diabetes were revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of lipoprotein subclasses [2, 3]. These changes included increased concentrations of LDL, small LDL, and large VLDL particles which reportedly confer a higher cardiovascular disease risk [4-8]. Many factors influence lipoprotein size and concentration. This thesis focuses on one factor, a promoter polymorphism in the gene for hepatic lipase, LIPe C-514T, which has been associated with decreased hepatic lipase activity, increased plasma HDL-C levels, and larger LDL and HDL particles [9, ...
The effects of hemostatic substances on the vascular tone in porcine coronary arteries and the influence of low density lipoprotein on tension were investigated. Thrombin induced a marked concentration-dependent relaxation in prostaglandin F2 alpha-precontracted strips with intact endothelium, whereas it produced a modest constriction in endothelium-denuded arteries. Methylene blue abolished the relaxation, but indomethacin did not affect it significantly. An exposure of the intact strips to low density lipoprotein resulted in a marked inhibition of the relaxation to thrombin but did not interfere with vasodilation by sodium nitroprusside. The inhibition by low density lipoprotein was reversed completely by washing. In contrast, high density lipoprotein lacked such inhibitory effects. Adenosine diphosphate, calcium ionophore A23187, and platelet-activating factor also produced relaxation in the intact strips. An exposure of the strips to low density lipoprotein almost abolished relaxation to ...
BACKGROUND: Both increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) concentrations and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions have been shown to reflect unfavourable cardiovascular risk. However, the correlation between Lp-PLA2 and lipoprotein subfractions in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been assessed yet.. METHODS: A total of 324 consecutive subjects who were not treated with lipid-lowering drugs were enrolled (angiographically proven CAD: n = 253; non-CAD: n = 71). Plasma Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured using ELISA. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions were determined by Lipoprint System.. RESULTS: Plasma Lp-PLA2 concentrations were higher in patients with CAD compared with those without CAD (153.61 ± 78.73 vs. 131.41 ± 65.49 ng/ml, p = 0.028). The univariable correlation analysis revealed that Lp-PLA2 concentrations were positively correlated with the cholesterol concentrations of each LDL subfractions and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolving lipoprotein risk factors. T2 - Lipoprotein(a) and oxidized low- density lipoprotein. AU - Jialal, I.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Westernized populations. Evolving lipoprotein risk factors include LDL oxidation and lipoprotein(a) [lp(a)]. Several lines of evidence support a role for oxidatively modified LDL in atherogenesis and its in vivo existence. There are both direct and indirect measures of oxidative stress. The most relevant direct measure of lipid peroxidation is urinary F2 isoprostanes. The most common indirect measure of LDL oxidation is quantifying the lag phase of copper-catalyzed LDL oxidation by assaying conjugated diene formation. Lp(a) is increased in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. However, not all prospective studies have confirmed a positive relationship between Lp(a) and cardiovascular events. Lp(a) appears to present three major problems: ...
Looking for Low density lipoprotein? Find out information about Low density lipoprotein. A lipoprotein containing more lipids than protein that transports cholesterol from the liver to various tissues throughout the body. Abbreviated LDL.... Explanation of Low density lipoprotein
While conventional LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride measurements reflect aggregate properties of plasma lipoprotein fractions, NMR-based measurements more accurately reflect lipoprotein particle concentrations according to class (LDL, HDL, and VLDL) and particle size (small, medium, and large). The concentrations of these lipoprotein sub-fractions may be related to risk of cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders. We performed a genome-wide association study of 17 lipoprotein measures determined by NMR together with LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, ApoA1, and ApoB in 17,296 women from the Womens Genome Health Study (WGHS). Among 36 loci with genome-wide significance (P|5x10(-8)) in primary and secondary analysis, ten (PCCB/STAG1 (3q22.3), GMPR/MYLIP (6p22.3), BTNL2 (6p21.32), KLF14 (7q32.2), 8p23.1, JMJD1C (10q21.3), SBF2 (11p15.4), 12q23.2, CCDC92/DNAH10/ZNF664 (12q24.31.B), and WIPI1 (17q24.2)) have not been reported in prior genome-wide association studies for plasma lipid concentration.
Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL). The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70-120 nm (large
article{d2947f44-dfb5-4a12-914b-fc2ae6c9f261, abstract = {Objective: To evaluate the modification of lipid and lipoprotein by use of low doses of continuous-combined formulations of 17beta-estradiol (E-2) and norethisterone acetate (NETA) in healthy postmenopausal women. Design: The study was designed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 120 healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to one of three treatment arms: (1) placebo group (n = 40); (2) E-2/NETA 0.25-mg group-subjects receiving oral continuous-combined E-2 1 mg and NETA 0.25 mg (n = 40); (3) E2/NETA 0.5-mg group-women who were treated with E-2 1 mg and NETA 0.5 mg (n = 40). The duration of study was 12 months. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B were determined on four occasions (i.e., baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month ...
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States. Abundant epidemiologic evidence establishes its multifactorial character and indicates that the effects of the multiple risk factors are at least additive. Risk factors include hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), hyperhomocysteinemia, inflammatory, and hypercoagulable states. Atheromas are complex lesions containing cellular elements, collagen, fibrin, and lipids. The progression of the lesion is chiefly attributable to its content of unesterified cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. Cholesterol in the atheroma originates in circulating lipoproteins. Atherogenic lipoproteins include low-density (LDL), intermediate density (IDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and Lp(a) species, all of which contain the B-100 apolipoprotein (Apo B-100). Chylomicron remnants containing apo B-48 are also atherogenic. All of these are subject to oxidation by ...
Although blood lipids and lipoproteins are strongly related to coronary atherosclerosis, their association with cerebrovascular atherosclerosis is less clear. A review of more than 20 publications in which a relation was sought between plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis leads to the general conclusion that such a relation exists and that it is stronger in older than in younger individuals. A relation was found between blood lipids and/or lipoproteins and the extent and/or severity of cerebrovascular atherosclerosis in all but three of 26 reviewed studies. However, the specific nature of the relation is obscure because the various studies cannot easily be compared with one another. Interstudy variations in lipoprotein fraction analyzed, methodology for the analysis of lipids and lipoproteins, arterial segment examined, population sampled, control selection in case-control studies, statistical analytic approach taken, and methodology for the assessment ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is endowed with a variety of surface-exposed proteins representing putative vaccine candidates. Lipoproteins are covalently anchored to the cell membrane and highly conserved among pneumococcal serotypes. Here, we evaluated these lipoproteins for their immunogenicity and protective potential against pneumococcal colonisation. A multiplex-based immunoproteomics approach revealed the immunogenicity of selected lipoproteins. High antibody titres were measured in sera from mice immunised with the lipoproteins MetQ, PnrA, PsaA, and DacB. An analysis of convalescent patient sera confirmed the immunogenicity of these lipoproteins. Examining the surface localisation and accessibility of the lipoproteins using flow cytometry indicated that PnrA and DacB were highly abundant on the surface of the bacteria. Mice were immunised intranasally with PnrA, DacB, and MetQ using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) as an adjuvant, followed by an intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae D39. PnrA protected
View all domain architectures containing the Outer membrane lipoprotein domain in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bareilly str. CFSAN000189.
The purpose of this study was to examine serum selenium (Se), lipoproteins and testosterone responses to a single session of circuit resistance exercise. Fourteen male college students volunteered in the present study. Blood samples were taken at 30minutes before, immediately after 25 and 60minutes of single session of circuit resistance exercise (10 exercise, 20s for each exercise, and at 60%1RM). A significant increase in serum selenium and a decrease in testosterone, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low density lipoprotein were found during recovery period. The present data indicate that a single session of circuit resistance exercise was able to change serum Se, lipoproteins and testosterone levels. An acute increased Se and decreased testosterone might indicate an energy deficiency following a circuit resistance exercise.
In major prospective studies it has been reported that high heart rate at rest predicts the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men, but the mechanisms producing these relationships are unknown. Since lipoprotein levels contribute strongly to the risk of CHD and CVD, we examined the relationship of resting heart rate to plasma concentrations of high-density (HDL), low-density (LDL), and very low-density (VLDL) lipoproteins, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and A-II, and serum concentrations of lipoprotein subfractions in 81 men to determine if atherogenic lipoproteins could potentially induce the reported association of heart rate with development of CHD or CVD. The significant (p less than or equal to .05) Spearmans correlations for resting heart rate vs HDL2 mass (rs = - .24), HDL3 mass (rs = - .40), HDL cholesterol (rs = - .36), apo A-I (rs = - .29), triglycerides (rs = .31), VLDL cholesterol (rs = .24), VLDL mass (rs = .27), and LDL mass of Sof 0-7 subfraction (rs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary fat. T2 - Assessing the evidence in support of a moderate-fat diet; the benchmark based on lipoprotein metabolism. AU - Kris-Etherton, P. M.. AU - Binkoski, A. E.. AU - Zhao, G.. AU - Coval, S. M.. AU - Clemmer, K. F.. AU - Hecker, K. D.. AU - Jacques, H.. AU - Etherton, T. D.. N1 - Funding Information: Research Committee to the Medical Research Council (1968). PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - There is a growing database that has evaluated the effects of varying amounts of total fat on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and overweight and obesity. The evidence clearly suggests that extremes in dietary fat should be avoided, and instead a diet moderate in total fat (25-35% energy) is preferable for the majority of individuals. Moreover, we now appreciate the importance of individualizing dietary fat recommendations within this range of total fat. With respect to cardiovascular disease, a diet higher in total fat (30-35% energy) affects the lipid and lipoprotein ...
Tighe , P , Duthie , G , Brittenden , J , Vaughan , N , Mutch , W , Simpson , W G , Duthie , S , Horgan , G W & Thies , F 2013 , Effects of wheat and oat-based whole grain foods on serum lipoprotein size and distribution in overweight middle aged people : a randomised controlled trial , PloS ONE , vol. 8 , no. 8 , e70436 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sterol synthesis and low density lipoprotein clearance in vivo in the pregnant rat, placenta, and fetus. Sources for tissue cholesterol during fetal development. AU - Belknap, W. M.. AU - Dietschy, J. M.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Whereas the greatest relative increase in body mass occurs during the third trimester of fetal life, the source of the cholesterol that supports this growth is uncertain. These studies used [3H]water and 125I-cellobiose-labeled low density lipoproteins to quantitate absolute rates of cholesterol acquisition in vivo by the fetus of the rat. Preliminary studies demonstrated that [3H]water administered intravenously to the mother rapidly equilibrated with the body pool of water in the fetus and that 22-μg atoms of H from the water pool were incorporated into each micromole of newly synthesized cholesterol. After administration of [3H]water to pregnant rats, the rates of sterol synthesis per 100 g of whole body weight were severalfold higher in the fetus ...
If your healthcare provider makes a pointer for treatment, he may recommend several types of cholesterol screening. The first choice is called fasting lipid account. In this procedure, your doctor takes a sample of your blood utilizing a non-penetrated skin hook. Your healthcare provider then gauges your triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, high pressure in your arteries, and low density lipoproteins. Lipoproteins Transport Fat And Cholesterol In The Bloodstream. If you take every one of these right into factor to consider, after that your doctor can figure out how healthy you are. He can additionally suggest a medicine that is created particularly to lower cholesterol. One more option would certainly be a mix of medications. Some people like to take a natural cholesterol medicine along with a daily workout routine and a healthy way of life modifications program. If you do choose to utilize cholesterol reducing medicines, make sure to follow your medical professionals orders carefully. ...
Abstract: An ability of high density lipoproteins HDL3 to accept cholesterol from erythrocyte membranes was studied in healthy persons and in patients with ischemic disease of heart. The cholesterol-acceptory function was estimated as follows: by incorporation of fluorescent probes (cholestatriene and pyrene) into particles of HDL3, by elimination of cholesterol from erythrocyte membranes and by increase of the lipoproteins size evaluated using the method of quazi-resilient dispersion of laser light. In ischemic disease of heart the property of high density lipoproteins, specifically of HDL3 fraction, to accept cholesterol from cell membranes was impaired. Middle size of HDL3 particles was decreased in the patients with ischemic heart disease as compared with that of healthy persons ...
Get accurate and quick report of Lipoproteins Lp A Test in Vadodara at your nearest Metropolis lab or your home at affordable cost. Lipoproteins (Lp (a)) test measures the the Lp(a) level in the blood.
Get accurate and quick report of Lipoproteins (Lp (a)) in Surat.Lipoproteins (Lp (a)) test measures the the Lp(a) level in the blood.
Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy: Molecular Characterization of Three Italian Patients and Literature Survey Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare kidney disease, mainly ..
NYU. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Patients with psoriasis have a 50% higher risk of cardiovascular disease when compared to patients without psoriasis, the mechanisms of which are still under investigation. Dyslipidemia is also highly prevalent in psoriasis including elevation in a variety of lipoproteins causal in atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein(a) is an LDL like particle which is associated with atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, and the development of clinical cardiovascular disease. Traditionally lipoprotein(a) is felt to be inherited rather than acquired, but some evidence suggest that lipoprotein(a) is elevated in those with underlying inflammatory conditions and associated with systemic inflammation including circulating IL-6.. We therefore aimed to determine if lipoprotein(a) is elevated in psoriasis and associated with underlying systemic inflammatory profiles and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main ...
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) - Get up-to-date information on Low density lipoprotein (LDL) side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Low density lipoprotein (LDL)
Adiponutrin (PNPLA3) is a predominantly liver-expressed transmembrane protein with phospholipase activity that is regulated by fasting and feeding. Recent genome-wide association studies identified PNPLA3 to be associated with hepatic fat content and liver function, thus pointing to a possible involvement in the hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the association between two common variants in the adiponutrin gene and parameters of lipoprotein metabolism in 23,274 participants from eight independent West-Eurasian study populations including six population-based studies [Bruneck (n = 800), KORA S3/F3 (n = 1644), KORA S4/F4 (n = 1814), CoLaus (n = 5435), SHIP (n = 4012), Rotterdam (n = 5967)], the SAPHIR Study as a healthy working population (n = 1738) and the Utah Obesity Case-Control Study including a group of 1037 severely obese individuals (average BMI 46 kg/m2) and 827 controls from the same geographical region of Utah. We observed a strong additive
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a single session of exercise versus accumulated sessions of exercise on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Twelve young (22.5±2.5 years, mean±SEM), overweight (body mass index=29.7±3.9 kg.m-2), sedentary participants performed, in random order, a single exercise session (treadmill exercise at 60% maximal oxygen consumption for 90 minutes), accumulated exercise sessions (the same protocol as above for three consecutive days), and a control session (no exercise for six consecutive days). Blood samples taken immediately before each exercise/control session, and at 24, 48 and 72 after exercise were analyzed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, based upon a priori analyses (i.e., pre versus post-exercise time points) both within and across protocols. Significant interactions and main effects were analyzed using post-hoc ...
The sine qua non of atherosclerosis is the presence of sterols in arterial wall macrophages. Sterols are delivered to the arterial wall by the penetration of the endothelium by an apoB-containing lipoprotein, which transport the sterols. In other words, unless an apoB-containing lipoprotein particle violates the border created by an endothelium cell and the layer it protects, the media layer, there is no way atherogenesis occurs. For now, lets focus only on the most ubiquitous apoB-containing lipoprotein, the LDL particle. Yes, other lipoproteins also contain apoB (e.g., chylomicrons, remnant lipoproteins such as VLDL remnants, IDL and Lp(a)), but they are few in number relative to LDL particles. I will address them later.. The endothelium is the one-cell-thick-layer which lines the lumen (i.e., the tube) of a vessel, in this case, the artery. Since blood is in direct contact with this cell all the time, all lipoproteins - including LDL particles - come in constant contact with such ...
Low density lipoprotein (Science: biochemistry) a lipoprotein substances (combination of a fat and a protein) which acts as a carrier for cholesterol and fats in the bloodstream. high levels of low density lipoprotein are considered a positive risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Less than 130 mg/dl is desirable, 130 to 159 mg/dl is borderline high, over 160 is considered high. Acronym: ldl ...