TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis of olive mill waste to enhance rhamnolipids and surfactin production. AU - Ramírez, IM. AU - Vaz, DA. AU - Banat, Ibrahim M. AU - Marchant, Roger. AU - Alameda, EJ. AU - Román, MG. PY - 2016/1/13. Y1 - 2016/1/13. N2 - The aim of this work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of hydrolysis pretreatment of olive mill (OMW) waste before use as a carbon source in biosurfactant production by fermentation. Three hydrolysis methods were assessed: enzymatic hydrolysis, acid pretreatment plus enzymatic hydrolysis, and acid hydrolysis. Fermentation was carried out using two bacterial species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Our results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis was the best pretreatment, yielding up to 29.5 and 13.7 mg/L of rhamnolipids and surfactins respectively. Glucose did not show significant differences in comparison to enzymatically hydrolysed OMW. At the best conditions found rhamnolipids and surfactins reached concentrations of 299 and 26.5 ...
In contrast, C. parapsilosis, our most common breakthrough Candida spp., has not been associated with characteristic hot-spot mutations. Instead, a naturally occurring polymorphism in the FKS gene is thought to confer higher echinocandin MICs. Among 759 C. parapsilosis isolates recovered in global surveillance, the MIC90 of micafungin was 2 μg/ml, although no organism had an MIC of ,2 μg/ml (42). The amino acid substitution of proline for alanine (P660A) encoded in the FKS1 hot-spot region of C. parapsilosis appears to be responsible for the intrinsically higher MICs (12). In our C. parapsilosis breakthrough isolates, none had characteristic hot-spot mutations but all contained the naturally occurring P660A substitution and mixed echinocandin MICs. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of our C. parapsilosis isolates had nonsusceptible micafungin MICs (range, 4 to 8 μg/ml), a finding which clearly differs from the global surveillance data (42). These six isolates all had caspofungin MICs of 0.5 to 1 ...
Objectives: We investigated the effects of fluconazole and micafungin for the therapy of deep-seated candidiasis in a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mouse model.. Methods: We used the experimental model of intraperitoneal fungal abscess caused by Candida albicans, as described previously.. Results and conclusions: Micafungin efficacy was equal to that of fluconazole in one-tenth dosage even in peritonitis. We also assessed the short-term (24 h) and long-term (8 days) therapeutic effects after the end of therapy. Although the therapeutic effect of fluconazole was similar to that of micafungin at 24 h after the end of therapy, the effect of micafungin was superior to that of fluconazole at 8 days after the end of therapy.. ...
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In patients with cancer a meta-analysis showed that primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) with moldactive antifungals agents reduced the documented aspergillosis (Robenshtok JCO 2007). Micafungin, an echinocandin with activity against Candida and Aspergillus, has a good safety profi le, even in patients with liver or kidney impairments, and it can be used at the same time with the conditioning treatment (CT). Moreover it has no signifi cant interactions with other drugs. In the last three years (September-08/September-11) we have progressively changed our PAP with intravenous itraconazole by micafungin during the neutropenic period in HSCT. We used intravenous itraconazole on the day +1 and micafungin at the beginning of CT. Both were used until resolved mucositis and oral fungal prophylaxis with posaconazole could be started. Moreover intravenous PAP ...
Micafungin is an antifungal medication that fights infections caused by fungus. Micafungin is used to treat infections caused by the Candida fungus. Micafungin is also used to prevent Candida fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients. Micafungin is for use in adults and children who are at least 4 months old...
Whilst micafungin (Mycamine®) has much to offer, little is known about its pharmacokinetic profile in ICU patients with specific co-morbidities such as obesity, hypoalbumenia, and severe liverfunction disturbances. Also, ICU patients are known to experience changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) due to changes in hemodynamics, extracorporeal elimination techniques, interacting comedication, etc. Based on criteria outlined below, micafungin may prove to be the drug of choice in this cohort of patients. Therefore it seems prudent to conduct a trial in a cohort of patients who receive micafungin but with co-variates that may be of influence to the pharmacokinetic profile. To build a valid pharmacokinetic model, all patients on micafungin will be included in the analysis and used for model building. Co-variates that will be explored are at least: obesitas, liverfunction, albumin, creatinin-clearance. Simulations will be performed to determine if adequate exposure is reached under different ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Failure of mycoplasma lipoprotein MALP-2 to induce NK cell activation through dendritic cell TLR2. AU - Sawahata, Ryoko. AU - Shime, Hiroaki. AU - Yamazaki, Sayuri. AU - Inoue, Norimitsu. AU - Akazawa, Takashi. AU - Fujimoto, Yukari. AU - Fukase, Koichi. AU - Matsumoto, Misako. AU - Seya, Tsukasa. PY - 2011/4/1. Y1 - 2011/4/1. N2 - Macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2), a mycoplasmal diacylated lipopeptide with palmitic acid moiety (Pam2), activates Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 to induce inflammatory cytokines. TLR2 is known to mature myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) to drive mDC contact-mediated natural killer (NK) cell activation. Here we tested if MALP-2 activates NK cells through stimulation of TLR2 on mDC. Although synthetic MALP-2 with 6 or 14 amino acids (a.a.) stretch (designated as s and f) matured mDC to induce IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α to a similar extent, they far less activated NK cells than Pam2CSK4, a positive control of 6 a.a.-containing diacyl lipopeptide. ...
Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilising agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index
November 4, 1999. Hedge Balls, Acorns and Hardware. Grazing short pastures, which most beef producers are doing, provides the opportunity for beef cattle to consume numerous particles that oftentimes create problems producers need to be aware of. The height of the grass available for grazing certainly leaves something to be desired. One prominent cattle producer reminded me several years ago to remember that under short grazing conditions an old cow will eat anything. Whenever we have these grazing conditions the door is open for obstacles we normally don t think about.. One of these problems is the availability of hedge apples or hedge balls. I know of no digestive problems resulting from cattle consuming hedge balls. However, choking is a problem if large portions of the hedge ball are swallowed or the hedge ball is swallowed whole. Cows choking on hedge balls have excessive salivation, and bloat frequently occurs resulting in death due to not being able to belch. Lodging of the large ...
Downloadable! This paper examines four different daily datasets of hedge fund return indexes: MSCI, FTSE, Dow Jones and HFRX, all based on investable hedge funds, and three different monthly datasets of hedge fund return indexes: CSFB, CISDM and HFR which comprise both investable and non-investable hedge funds. Our study, based on standard statistical analysis, non-parametric analysis of the distribution and non-parametric regressions with respect to the S&P500 index shows that key data biases and disparate index construction methodologies lead to different statistical properties of hedge fund databases. One key variable that highly affects the statistical properties of hedge fund index returns is the �investability� of hedge funds
A lipopeptide is a molecule consisting of a lipid connected to a peptide.[1] Bacteria express these molecules. They are able to self-assemble into different structures.[1][2][3] Certain lipopeptides are used as antibiotics.[4][5] Other lipopeptides are toll-like receptor agonists.[3] Lipoproteins are self-assembling molecules that are able to form structures.[6] Certain lipopeptides can have strong antifungal and hemolytic activities.[7] It has been demonstrated that their activity is generally linked to interactions with the plasma membrane,[8] and sterol components of the plasma membrane could play a major role in this interaction.[9][10] It is a general trend that adding a lipid group of a certain length (typically C10-C12) to a lipopeptide will increase its bactericidal activity.[11] Lipopeptides with a higher amount of carbon atoms, for example 14 or 16, in its lipid tail will typically have antibacterial activity as well as anti-fugal activity.[11] ...
In human neutrophils, the synthetic lipopeptide, N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3- bis(palmitoyloxy-(2RS)-propyl]-(R)-cysteinyl-(S)-seryl-(S)-lysyl-( S)-lysyl-(S) -lysyl-(S)-lysine [Pam3CysSer(Lys)4], activates NADPH-oxidase catalyzed superoxide (O2-) formation through pertussis-toxin-sensitive and pertussis-toxin-insensitive mechanisms (Seifert, R., Schultz, G., Richter-Freund, M., Metzger, J., Wiesmüller, K.-H., Jung, G., Bessler, W. G. & Hauschildt, S. (1990) Biochem. J. 267, 795-802). We studied the effects of lipopeptides on differentiation of HL-60 leukemic cells. Pam3CysSer(Lys)4 enhanced phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced O2- formation (presumably through the expression of components of NADPH oxidase) in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect at 100 ng/ml and a maximum at 1 microgram/ml. The effect of the lipopeptide was evident after 24 h and reached a plateau after 48 h. (2S,6S)-2-Palmitoylamino-6,7- bis(palmitoyloxy)heptanoyl-(S)-seryl-(S)-lysyl-(S)-lysyl-(S) ...
Current therapies to treat asthma and other airway diseases primarily include anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. Anti-inflammatory agents target trafficking and resident immunocytes and structural cells, while bronchodilators act to prevent or reverse shortening of airway smooth muscle (ASM), the pivotal tissue regulating bronchomotor tone. Advances in our understanding of the biology of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and biased agonism offers unique opportunities to modulate GPCR function that include the use of pepducins and allosteric modulators. Recent evidence suggests that small molecule inhibitors of Gα q as well as pepducins targeting G q -coupled receptors can broadly inhibit contractile agonist-induced ASM function. Given these advances, new therapeutic approaches can be leveraged to diminish the global rise in morbidity and mortality associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Surfactin has been known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in surfactin-induced apoptosis remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying network of signaling events in surfactin-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In this study, surfactin caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the surfactin-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and catalase, suggesting involvement of ROS generation in surfactin-induced cell death. Surfactin induced a sustained activation of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, but not p38. Moreover, surfactin-induced cell death was reversed by PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK1/2) and SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK), but not by SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38). However, the phosphorylation of JNK rather than ERK1/2 activation by surfactin was blocked by NAC/catalase. These results suggest that the action of ...
Priming for virus-specific CD8+ but not CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes with synthetic lipopeptide is influenced by acylation units and liposome encapsulation.
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It was revealed that Bacillus sp. strains C6 and Lg37s had the highest antifungal activity among the fie tested strains. Based on the molecular genetic methods, it was shown that the expression of genes of lipopeptide antibiotics, related to the fengycin family, occurred in all these strains. At the same time, gene expression of cyclolipopeptide iturin was found in the Bacillus sp. strains C6 and Lg37s. It was determined that Bacillus sp. C6 strain had the highest level of expression of the fengycin operon`s genes, whereas the lowest level was observed in Bacillus sp. C10 strain. By means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the presence of ...
We hypothesized that chemoprophylaxis with the echinocandin micafungin would be an effective agent for antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We therefore conducted a randomized, double-blind, multi-institutional, comparative …
We will see a wide range of sea birds and marine mammals, many of which occur nowhere else on Earth. At that time of year redpolls often form flocks of â ¦ Although it is a softbill, the hedge sparrow can live entirely on seed in an aviary, but they eat mostly insects in the wild. Royalty-Free Stock Photo. The female alone constructs the nest and also incubates the eggs, though both â ¦ Dawson, D.G. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. 7. The bird gallery links to in-depth descriptions of most New Zealand birds. Sago - - - House Sparrow, Hedge Sparrow, Pinches. They are now quite common throughout the offshore islands and the mainland of both islands, living in hedges, farmland, â ¦ Dunnock Hedge Sparrow in New Zealand. Description. * This map is intended as a guide. Once very common birds, both species have suffered significant declines in recent decades and as such, both appear on the UK Red List of Birds of Conservation Concern. Find ...
Now that is a lot of hard work, especially if you are planting a long hedge and usually it is just not necessary.. All you need to do is make a slit in the ground with your spade and push the roots into the earth. Firm the turf back in place with your feet and plant the next one about 60cm/two feet away. Despite all the advice to the contrary there is no need for a double row. Young Hornbeam plants establish quickly and will produce a good hedge in just a few years. As the trees grow they will naturally shade out any grass and plants growing close by without you having to resort to chemicals.. Let your hedge grow to the required height … somewhere around five or six feet /1.5m - 1.8m is perfect for most gardens. Trim the hedge once each year in mid to late summer - July or August ...
Systemic risk is commonly used to describe the possibility of a series of correlated defaults among financial institutions---typically banks---that occur over a short period of time, often caused by a single major event. However, since the collapse of Long Term Capital Management in 1998, it has become clear that hedge funds are also involved in systemic risk exposures. The hedge-fund industry has a symbiotic relationship with the banking sector, and many banks now operate proprietary trading units that are organized much like hedge funds. As a result, the risk exposures of the hedge-fund industry may have a material impact on the banking sector, resulting in new sources of systemic risks. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the potential impact of hedge funds on systemic risk by developing a number of new risk measures for hedge funds and applying them to individual and aggregate hedge-fund returns data. These measures include: illiquidity risk exposure, nonlinear factor models for hedge-fund ...
Despite the fact that anti-microbial agents are the primary treatment for many infections, they are used improperly, and usually excessively in the majority of countries in the world. This increases the drug resistant bacteria and treatment in hospitals or at home becomes difficult.. Australia and other countries around the world, specializing in animal husbandry, make significant efforts in legislative restrictions for antibiotics use in animals. The list includes such antibiotics, as cephalosporins, broad-spectrum penicillins, lincosamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides.. Since the number of drug resistant bacteria is increasing steadily, the disturbing fact is that no prototypes of new drugs appear lately. Over the past 30 years, only two new classes of antibiotics were discovered - cyclic lipopeptides and oxazolidinones.. Innovative strategies and new technologies are required to address the lack of a new generation of antibiotics. They must resist the emergence of ...
Three cyclic lipopeptides, including one known (1) and two new (2 and 3) compounds, that possess the rare enamide linkage group were discovered from Streptomyces sp. KCB14A132, an actinobacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from Jeung Island, Korea. The NMR and MS-based characterization showed that they differed in the amino acid residues in the peptide backbone. Application of Marfeys ...
Three cyclic lipopeptides, including one known (1) and two new (2 and 3) compounds, that possess the rare enamide linkage group were discovered from Streptomyces sp. KCB14A132, an actinobacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from Jeung Island, Korea. The NMR and MS-based characterization showed that they differed in the amino acid residues in the peptide backbone. Application of Marfeys ...
SummaryInvasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children and premature neonates. The new class of echinocandin lipopeptides offers alternative options for treatment and prevention through a distinct mechanism of action, broad spectrum antifungal ac
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In this article we are going to use hedge fund sentiment as a tool and determine whether Barrick Gold Corporation (NYSE:GOLD) is a good investment right now. We like to analyze hedge fund sentiment before conducting days of in-depth research. We do so because hedge funds and other elite investors have numerous Ivy League graduates, […]
Most investors tend to think that hedge funds and other asset managers are worthless, as they cannot beat even simple index fund portfolios. In fact, most people expect hedge funds to compete with and outperform the bull market that we have witnessed in recent years. However, hedge funds are generally partially hedged and aim at […]
Cao, Xiao-Hong et al. Evaluation of a lipopeptide biosurfactant from Bacillus natto TK-1 as a potential source of anti-adhesive, antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Braz. J. Microbiol., June 2009, vol.40, no.2, p.373-379. ISSN 1517- ...
Buy Hedge Shear with Wooden Handle No. MMI-78 - Gardening Tool and 6000+ more gardening products online. ✓ Get 1 Free Product Today ✓ All India Delivery ✓ Lowest prices. (MRP Inclusive of all taxes) Shipping Rs 79 for entire order Dispatch in 5-8 days Country of origin: India Todays Offer 20% Cashback Rs 250 Surprise Gift above 500 Plant flower n growth booster on all orders Images are for reference purposes only. Actual product may vary in shape or appearance based on climate, age, height, etc. The product is replaceable but not returnable. DescriptionThese specially designed tools are perfect to maintain a healthy and attractive garden. Garden tool is any tool made to make gardening easy, may it be hand tool or power tool. Get the real experience of gardening with right tool in your hand.Shears can be used to cut long grass and small plant hedges. This tool is also used for shaping shrubs and bushes.Metal parts of this tool are coated for protection from rust and handle of this tool is
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A pruning lapse leaves bigger gaps. Dont be fooled into leaving your hedge to grow to the height you want it before cutting it back. Start pruning it back in the first month or two, and repeat a light pruning every few months during the growing season. It may take longer to reach the height youre wanting, but with regular pruning, the plants send out more lateral branches, and will fill the gaps in-between much better. The last thing you want is to have a fully grown hedge with big gaps at the bottom, that you can do nothing about ...
Global hedge fund assets crossed the $3 trillion (€2.2 trillion) mark in May for the first time on record, according to the May 2014 hedge fund asset flows report from eVestment.
id:4747,bid:15986,uid:0,title:High tech,username:hyjinxannie,rating:5,pros:state of the art equipment,cons:pricey,description:Dr. Hedges is a great orthopedic surgeon...he mentored under the famous Dr. Jack Laurie!!! I go there for all my ortho needs for my dogs. Their prices are over-the-top but it is worth it!! I wouldnt go there for general care (like shots, deworming,etc) as they are way overpriced. But for that special problem...they are tops!! And Dr. Hedges is #1 in my book!!,date_added:1201622008,date_modified:null,is_external:1,external_site_name:zootoo,external_site_url:null,external_user_profile:null,status:1},{id:4746,bid:15986,uid:0,title:lots of wonderful expeirences,username:PixiesRevenge,rating:5,pros:wonderful expeirences,cons:none,description:We go to this vet a lot and we always have a wonderful expeirence. they are always open and we love going ...
The latest hedge fund news with assets flow updates, hedge funds performances, commentary and discounts for top alternative investments events in the industry.
The latest hedge fund news with assets flow updates, hedge funds performances, commentary and discounts for top alternative investments events in the industry.
Thirty-eight firms participated in the Hedge Fund Administrator Survey with the five largest accounting for 67.32% of total administered hedge fund assets
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See what stocks top hedge funds are investing in. Coverage of SEC filings (13D, 13G, 13F, Form 4), hedge fund letters & buyside conferences
See what stocks top hedge funds are investing in. Coverage of SEC filings (13D, 13G, 13F, Form 4), hedge fund letters & buyside conferences
Hedge funds by Stanley Druckenmiller and George Soros would rather push out outside investors than adhere to new rules. Will more hedge funds follow?
Daptomycin: a novel lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens Andres Beiras-Fernandez1,*, Ferdinand Vogt1,*, Ralf Sodian1, Florian Weis21Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany *Andres Beiras-Fernandez and Ferdinand Vogt contributed equally to this paperAbstract: The aim of this review is to summarize the historical background of drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens as well as to describe in detail the novel lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects are reviewed and the current clinical use of daptomycin is presented. Daptomycin seems to be a reliable drug in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, infective right-sided endocarditis, and bacteremia caused by Gram-positive agents. Its unique mechanism of action and its low resistance
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of a mutant amino acid-activating domain of surfactin synthetase bearing a serine-to-alanine substitution at the site of carboxylthioester formation. AU - Vollenbroich, Dirk. AU - Kluge, Britta. AU - DSouza, Cletus. AU - Zuber, Peter. AU - Vater, Joachim. PY - 1993/7/5. Y1 - 1993/7/5. N2 - The reactive serine of the TGGHSL thioester binding motif of the first amino acid-activating domain of surfactin synthetase was replaced by alanine using site-directed mutagenesis. The multienzyme from cells of the resulting mutant lost its ability for thioester formation with l-Glu and was therefore inactive in surfactin production. The thiolation reactions catalyzed by the other amino acid-activating domains of surfactin synthetase were not affected by the mutation. The results show that l-Glu is acativated at the first domain of surfactin synthetase, and give further evidence that a serine residue is essential for substrate amino acid activation at the reaction centers of peptide ...
Bacillus subtilis cyclic lipopeptides are known to have various antimicrobial effects including different types of interactions with the cell membranes of plant pathogenic fungi. The various spectra of activities of the three main lipopeptide families (fengycins, iturins, and surfactins) seem to be linked to their respective mechanisms of action on the fungal biomembrane. Few studies have shown the combined effect of more than one family of lipopeptides on fungal plant pathogens. In an effort to understand the effect of producing multiple lipopeptide families, sensitivity and membrane permeability of spores from four fungal plant pathogens (. Alternaria solani, Fusarium sambucinum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Verticillium dahliae) were assayed in response to lipopeptides, both individually and as combined treatments. Results showed that inhibition of spores was highly variable depending on the tested fungus-lipopeptide treatment. Results also showed that inhibition of the spores was closely ...
|p| Infections caused by non-albicans Candida spp. are an important medical problem in people from risk groups, e.g. hematooncological patients. The aim of this paper was to analyse the in vitro activity of micafungin against 30 clinical isolates of non-albicans Candida spp. (C. glabrata, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. inconspicua, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei) by way of the E-test procedure, allowing determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Data presented in this paper indicate that most of the studied clinical isolates - 27 (90%) showed sensitivity to micafungin, with MIC values ranging from 0.004 to 2 mg/l, while 3 (10%) isolates, including 2 isolates of C. tropicalis and 1 isolate of C. famata, were resistant to micafungin, with MIC values > 32 mg/l. The MIC|sub|50|/sub| and MIC|sub|90|/sub| values of micafungin, defined as MIC inhibited growth of 50% or 90% of the isolates studied, were 0.008 mg/l or 2 mg/l, respectively. In the case of C. glabrata isolates, MICs
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In the lagoon of Moorea in French Polynesia, we have identified a relatively simple tropical marine ecosystem consisting of two primary producers (two filamentous cyanobacteria, Lyngbya majuscula and Anabaena cf. torulosa), three herbivorous molluscs (Stylocheilus striatus, S. longicauda and Bulla orientalis), a carnivorous nudibranch (Gymnodoris ceylonica) and a carnivorous crab (Thalamita coerulipes). L. majuscula and A. cf torulosa, that bloom ephemerally across wide sandy areas and even on corals, are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, mainly cyclic lipopeptides, which may either be toxic or act as feeding deterrents to potential consumers. However, these compounds do not prevent the sea hare S. striatus, feeding on cyanobacteria. S. striatus, considered as L. majuscula specialist, is known to sequester and transform some secondary metabolites produced by L. majuscula,. However we found also S. striatus feeding on A. cf torulosa and in this case it was less susceptible to predation by the
A sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10 was screened and evaluated for the production of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by conventional screening method
A rapid method for characterization and online detection of surfactin isomers was developed based on HPLC-MSn (n = 1, 2, 3) analyses, and many surfactin isomers were detected and characterized from the bioactive fraction of the mangrove bacterium Bacillus sp. Inhibitory activities of surfactin isomers on the overproduction of nitric oxide and the release of TNF-a and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages were systematically investigated. It was revealed that the surfactin isomers showed strong inhibitory properties on the overproduction of nitric oxide and the release of IL-6 on LPS-induced murine macrophage cell RAW264.7 with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the existence of the free carboxyl group in the structure of surfactin isomers was crucial. These findings will be very helpful for the development of this novel kind of natural product as new anti-inflammatory agents.
Phytopathogenic fungi affecting crop and post-harvested vegetables are a major threat to food production and food storage. To face these drawbacks, producers have become increasingly dependent on agrochemicals. However, intensive use of these compounds has led to the emergence of pathogen resistance and severe negative environmental impacts. There are also a number of plant diseases for which chemical solutions are ineffective or non-existent as well as an increasing demand by consumers for pesticide-free food. Thus, biological control through the use of natural antagonistic microorganisms has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for more rational and safe crop management. The genome of the plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 was sample sequenced. Several gene clusters involved in the synthesis of biocontrol agents were detected. Four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A and fengycin as well as the iron-siderophore
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper investigates the variance minimizing currency forward hedge of an exporting firm that is exposed to different sources of risk. In an empirical study, we quantify the corresponding hedge ratios of a typical German firm for different hedge horizons. Based on cointegrated vector autoregressive models of prices, interest rates and exchange rates, we show that hedge ratios decrease substantially with the hedge horizon for different currencies, reaching values of one half or less for a ten-years horizon. Our findings can partly explain underhedging of long-term exchange rate exposures and have important implications for the design of risk management strategies.
Stephen Cochrane graduated with an MSci in Chemistry from Queens University Belfast in 2010. He then moved to the University of Alberta in Canada to undertake a PhD in organic chemistry with Professor John Vederas. His research focused on structural and mechanistic studies on antimicrobial lipopeptides, namely the tridecaptins, which show strong activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In 2016 he was awarded a Sir Henry Wellcome Postdoctoral Fellowship to study the transport of lipid-linked carbohydrates across bacterial cell membranes at the University of Oxford with Professor Benjamin Davis. During this time he also worked on the synthesis of new tunicamycin analogues with reduced cytotoxicity. In 2017 Stephen was appointed as a Lecturer in Organic Chemistry at Queens University Belfast. Outside of work Stephen is kept busy by his family and enjoys running, reading, triple IPAs, single malt whiskey and the odd video game. Curriculum Vitae. ...
Ultrashort Cationic Lipopeptides and Lipopeptoids Selectively Induce Cytokine Production in Macrophages. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
described library of lipopeptides to address the structural diversity and variability of short peptide sequences. The lipopeptide building blocks were designed to form micelles on which surface the headgroups/amino acids are displayed in such manner that they are mimicking a random peptide sequence. Thus, a variety of amino acids were incorporated into the building blocks. It was desirable to keep the length of the peptide to a minimum to avoid eliciting unwanted immune response. We focused on the development of chemical bonds linking the head groups to the lipidic tails. Lipopetides 1a-d were synthesized with natural peptide bonds exhibiting a considerable degree of flexibility, while lipopeptide 2a-c were synthesized with N-methylated dilipidic residue to study its influence on peptide conformation and biological activity. The mixtures of synthesized compounds were able to form nanoparticles. However, an extensive aggregation was also observed. The tendency to form large aggregates can be ...
Several novel type of lipopeptides were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to stimulate non-specific resistance against Leishmania donovaniinfection. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from...
The HLA 66 is a new professional lightweight cordless long-reach hedge trimmer in the AP system product range. An evolution of the HLA 65 with better balance for less fatigue during operation, a new ergonomic control handle with the self resetting Ergo lever for left and right handers all packaged in a new stylish design. A loop handle for use on the tops of hedges, a catcher plate and base protector are all available as accessories. Perfect for the majority of tall and wide hedges at 205 cm long with a 50cm/20 double side, double edge blade and adjustable working angle head from -45° to +70°. The head will also fold flat for easy transport at just 132 cm total length. Perfect for small garden maintenance businesses, grounds keepers, gardeners and landscapers for trimming of tall hedges, side and top growth with catcher plate. The HLA 66 provides constant work output, good balance, excellent cutting performance and use in the rain and wet conditions is possible.. Bar length: 50 cm / ...
This 100 Hedge Trimming Logbook will suffice to hold your Hedge care thoughts, information and records for an entire year, the size is 6 x 9 inches This Hedge Care Logbook will bring you great happiness and allow you to plan for happiness, sucess, positivity and to learn to love writing down your Plants ...
Like mutual funds, hedge funds pool investors money and invest those funds in financial instruments in an effort to make a positive return. Many hedge funds seek to profit in all kinds of markets by pursuing leveraging and other speculative investment practices that may increase the risk of investment loss.. Unlike mutual funds, however, hedge funds are not required to register with the SEC. Hedge funds typically issue securities in private offerings that are not registered with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933. In addition, hedge funds are not required to make periodic reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. But hedge funds are subject to the same prohibitions against fraud as are other market participants, and their managers have the same fiduciary duties as other investment advisers.. What are funds of hedge funds?. A fund of hedge funds is an investment company that invests in hedge funds -- rather than investing in individual securities. Some funds of hedge funds ...
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Hi, I was thinking of planting a privet hedge this autumn for privacy . My back garden is very long and narrow. On one side the neighbours overlook us even with a boundary wall. The wall has a pathway along it with my narrow garden to the side. I was thinking of planting a privet hedge along here so i can make use of my garden without being overlooked? Would privet be a good option? I was also considering putting up some mesh and climbers as the garden is very narrow. How much can you trim privet. Could it be kept at a spread of 2 foot? I could possibly still plant some climbers in pots and put trellis against wall too in addition to the hedge. I was also considering bamboo put im not sure ...
Hi, I was thinking of planting a privet hedge this autumn for privacy . My back garden is very long and narrow. On one side the neighbours overlook us even with a boundary wall. The wall has a pathway along it with my narrow garden to the side. I was thinking of planting a privet hedge along here so i can make use of my garden without being overlooked? Would privet be a good option? I was also considering putting up some mesh and climbers as the garden is very narrow. How much can you trim privet. Could it be kept at a spread of 2 foot? I could possibly still plant some climbers in pots and put trellis against wall too in addition to the hedge. I was also considering bamboo put im not sure ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Style drift analysis of hedge funds: With a K-means clustering algorithm. AU - Xu, Lin. AU - Henker, Thomas. AU - Henker, Julia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - It is well established in the literature that mutual fund managers are susceptible to style drift. However, less is understood regarding the existence of the style behaviours in a closely linked alternative investment vehicle class - hedge funds. We investigate the existence of style drift within the hedge fund industry and examine the relationship between style drift and both stages of the funds lives and the past returns. There are two key contributions made in this study. Firstly, we consider fund risk return profiles directly, rather than classifying funds by their self-described strategies. Secondly, we implement a K-Means clustering algorithm with correlation distance to classify strategy groups, unlike other studies which clustered on qualitative fund attributes.We report a number of interesting empirical findings. ...
With a neglected or overgrown hedge, renewal pruning can be effective. Renewal pruning should be done in late winter or early spring before it leafs out for the year. To renew, cut it down very short, close to the ground. The new growth is then trimmed often, every time it grows about 6 inches it is sheared or trimmed off again. The more often it is cut, the better. This forces lots of branching at the base of the hedge. Eventually as it grows taller it is trained at an angle -- narrow top, wide base -- to keep it leafy at the bottom. (The hedge grows back quite fast because it already has a big, established root system ...
The Dark Hedges has a ghost story associated with a character referred to only as the Gray Lady. At twilight she said to float in and out of the hedges, moving quickly almost as fast as the cars. Shes seen as a shadow - or as a transparent figure - visible to passers-by. She vanishes once the traveler has passed the last beech tree. Some say shes a spirit from a nearby abandoned graveyard, unrestful now that shes fallen into the ranks of the unremembered dead. Some say on Halloween night other spirits from that same grave yard join her on her at the Dark Hedges. Me? My money is on it being Cross Peggy Stuart, daughter of James Stuart (the builder of the house and the one who planted the trees). Her name appears in several genealogy lists as Margaret Cross Peggy Stuart. No explanation. Just the nick-name. Thats reason enough for me. Theres the obvious unanswered question that todays living want to know. Why were you called Cross Peggy?. ...
One oligonucleotide-based approach that appear very promising for the treatment of different genetic disorders are based on so-called splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs) that are exploited to manipulate splicing patterns. In order to increase the bioavailability, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have readily been covalently conjugated to SCOs to facilitate cellular internalization. While being a successful strategy for the delivery of uncharged oligonucleotides (ONs), it is extremely difficult to generate covalent conjugates between commonly used negatively charged ON analogs and cationic CPPs. Furthermore, high concentrations of ONs in the micromolar range are often needed to obtain biological responses, most likely as a result of endosomal entrapment of material. Therefore, exploring other vectorization methods using CPPs with endosomolytic properties are highly desired.A method of using stearyl modified CPP (i.e., TP10) analogs, named PepFect3 and PepFect4, are being described for the
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A Q&A with Chris Hedges on his latest book Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt. The following is a recent interview conducted with Chris Hedges surrounding his latest book Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt:
To ensure that your Thuja hedge stays dense, it is important to take care of it. Thuja hedges can actually be pruned throughout the year - at frost-free temperatures. Nevertheless, January is well suited to cut back the plant, since it reduces its growth in the end of January. In February the plant grows more slowly which affects the healing process in a positive way. Do not choose a too sunny day. Best time is late afternoon. This way, the freshly cut wounds do not get burned and dry well ...
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View a large selection of hedges utilized widely in landscapes & yards to create a unique live fence for you! Browse viburnum, boxwood, & privacy hedges!
View a large selection of hedges utilized widely in landscapes & yards to create a unique live fence for you! Browse viburnum, boxwood, & privacy hedges!
Novel membrane-forming amphiphilic lipopeptides comprising one or more peptide moieties containing 2-50 aminoacyl residues and one or more hydrocarbon chains containing 5-50 carbon atoms. Such lipopeptides may be used in the formation of stabilized gas microbubble dispersions suitable for use as diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents, for example as ultrasound contrast agents.
Our EcovaPure™ HDLp is isolated from egg yolk. HDL removes harmful cholesterol from the arteries and improves the lipid profile of the blood supporting a healthy heart and circulatory system.
Micafungin Acid Sodium Salt ;. Micafungin Sodium ;. FK463 (Sodium Salt) ;. CAS # 208538-73-2 ;. C56H70N9NaO23S ;. Exact Mass: 1291.4203 ;. ...
Drug Store News breaks down the changes in consumer desires that retailers need to meet; names Dennis Wiesner the DSN 2017 Pharmacy Innovator of the Year; assesses the retail pharmacy opportunity for wearables; looks at how virtual makeovers are disrupting beauty; examines the bottled water category and much more! Read more.... ...
Due to inconsistencies between the drug labels on DailyMed and the pill images provided by RxImage, we no longer display the RxImage pill images associated with drug labels. We anticipate reposting the images once we are able identify and filter out images that do not match the information provided in the drug labels. ...
When microbes were first recognized as the cause of infectious diseases, it was immediately clear that multicellular organisms must be capable of recognizing them when infected and, hence, capable of recognizing molecules unique to microbes. A large body of literature, spanning most of the last century, attests to the search for the key molecules and their receptors. More than 100 years ago, Richard Pfeiffer, a student of Robert Koch, coined the term endotoxin to describe a substance produced by Gram-negative bacteria that could provoke fever and shock in experimental animals. In the decades that followed, endotoxin was chemically characterized and identified as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by most Gram-negative bacteria. This lipopolysaccharide is an integral part of the gram-negative membrane and is released upon destruction of the bacterium. Other molecules (bacterial lipopeptides, flagellin, and unmethylated DNA) were shown in turn to provoke host responses that are normally ...
Root ball hedging is an alternative solution to instant hedging and cheaper. Shop small and large root ball hedge plants available Nov-Apr. Instantly Impressive by Impact Plants.
Does your 15-year-old landscape need to be freshened up? Take a good objective view of that dated landscape and lets see what we can do to give it a facelift, a little at a time.. Ho-hum hedges. Yews and boxwoods are common plants used for hedges or foundation plantings. These are usually the culprits when we discourage gum ball shrubs. Those are the green balls that many people leave for too long around the base of the house, shearing them every year with the hedge clippers and watching them get thinner and thinner in the center.. Might be time to hang up the hedge trimmers and plant some fresh shrubs. If those base plants are more than 10 years old, they have worn out their welcome. Dont just cut them down at the base. Find a way to dig them out or pull them out of the ground to get rid of the stump.. If you have a hedgerow that really never grew together, or has a few bare spots, you many not have pruned it right early in its life. So, once we get the new plants in there, we can start ...
We want to see GM emerge as a stronger and viable manufacturer, providing thousands of jobs and products that appeal to consumers around the world. While we have not seen the revised business plan being developed by the Company and the Auto Task Force (ATF), we commit to working constructively with all parties on a plan that sets GM on the right path forward towards a financially healthy, operationally sound competitor. We will present our ideas to the ATF this afternoon and look forward to an ongoing dialogue and an agreement that is fair and equitable to all parties. Time is of the essence, and we stand ready to engage with all the parties to get to a solution that works, Siegert said ...
Peter Pitcher : Change is the only constant. Vetiver hedges widen as the get older. Ideal width will vary with crop and management (eg need to access the bed) dependent. I have various width beds and find 1.5M at planting convenient for management (I prefer to not step on beds). They do narrow considerably with time however. Papaya beds probably 2M? Bananas probably 3M. I am noting very localized marked increase in waterholding capacity and increased water table (?) levels (compared to a bore I can visually inspect in the same area ...
It did not happen. The bitcoin hard fork scheduled for block number 494,784 that was agreed to at the Consensus meeting in May that was to be enacted in mid-November has been cancelled. Mike Belshe, CEO of BitGo, stated, we have not built sufficient consensus for a clean block size upgrade at this time. SegWit2X, as the upgrade was to be known, would have doubled the bitcoin block size from one megabyte to two and removed the signature data now processed with each transaction. With the greater capacity and decreased amount of necessary data, SegWit2X intended to multiply the speed at which transactions can be processed. Visas global network (known as VisaNet) processes about 1700 transactions per second. In its current form, Bitcoin technology can process seven. Faster transactional speed would make bitcoin into a more attractive alternative to fiat currency.. Demand has always existed for a way to exchange money and property securely and anonymously. In the United States, cash is handy for ...
Shrubs and other bushy plants growing as hedges can come under attack from a variety of insects and diseases that turn the plants leaves yellow. Additionally, cultural problems, meaning adverse factors in the plants growing conditions and treatment, can cause premature yellowing of shrubs.
China has given foreign hedge funds permission to use funds from Chinese residents in investments abroad. This reform, called the Qualified Domestic Limited Partner programme, is the latest and boldest in a series of reforms to open the capital account and integrate China into international markets. This reform will allow domestic capital to flow abroad, and will also provide