Keratinocytes play an important role in skin irritation. In an attempt to investigate mechanistic bases of human skin irritation response, we recently identified the upregulation by skin irritants of adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) in reconstituted human epidermis. ADRP is a lipid-storage-droplet-associated protein, governing deposition and release of lipids from droplets. The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a human keratinocyte cell line (NCTC 2544), sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-induced ADRP expression, to identify the biochemical events that lead to ADRP expression, and to understand its function in sodium dodecyl sulfate cytotoxicity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced a concentration- and time-related production of ADRP that was associated with lipid droplet accumulation. Lipid accumulation following sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment was due to intracellular redistribution rather than lipid neosynthesis, as indicated by equivalent 14C-oleate and 14C-acetate incorporations. ...
High dietary protein can reduce fat deposition in animal subcutaneous adipose tissue, but little is known about the mechanism. Sixty Wujin pigs of about 15 kg weight were fed either high protein (HP: 18%) or low protein (LP: 14%) diets, and slaughtered at body weights of 30, 60 or 100 kg. Bloods were collected to measure serum parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled for determination of adipocyte size, protein content, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, and enzyme activities. HP significantly reduced adipocyte size, fat meat percentage and backfat thickness, but significantly increased daily gain, lean meat percentage and loin eye area at 60 and 100 kg. Serum free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations in the HP group were significantly higher than in the LP group. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary protein at any body weight. HP significantly reduced gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and
НИИ атеросклероза: научные исследования, публикации сотрудников института (abstracts, full-text.), дискуссионный клуб, посвященный вопросам механизмов атерогенеза.
β-Casomorphin increases fat deposition in broiler chickens by modulating expression of lipid metabolism genes - Volume 13 Issue 4 - W. H. Chang, A. J. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, S. Zhang, H. Y. Cai, G. H. Liu
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by excessive lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage exceeds intracellular needs and induces lipotoxic events, ultimately contributing to the development of insulin resistance. Lipid droplet (LD)-coating proteins may control proper lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2/adipose differentiation-related protein [ADRP]) is one of the most abundantly expressed LD-coating proteins in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of PLIN2 in myocellular lipid handling and insulin sensitivity by investigating the effects of in vitro PLIN2 knockdown and in vitro and in vivo overexpression. PLIN2 knockdown decreased LD formation and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage, marginally increased fatty-acid (FA) oxidation, and increased incorporation of palmitate into diacylglycerols and phospholipids. PLIN2 overexpression in vitro increased intramyocellular TAG storage paralleled with improved insulin sensitivity. In vivo ...
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animals liver. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. The majority of lipids found in the human body from ingesting food are Triglycerides. Since lipids are fats, lipid metabolism is often considered the digestion and absorption process of dietary fats. Lipid metabolism often begins with hydrolysis, which occurs when a chemical breaks down as a reaction to coming in contact with water. Lipid metabolism does exist in plants, though the processes differ in some ways when compared to animals. Digestion is the first step to lipid metabolism, and is the process of breaking the triglycerides down into smaller monoglyceride units with the help of lipase enzymes. Digestion of fats begin in the mouth through chemical digestion by lingual lipase. Lipids then ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is amplified/ over-expressed in cancers of diverse cellular origins. Altered cellular metabolism (including lipogenesis) is a hallmark of cancer development, and protein-protein associations between TPD52 and known regulators of lipid storage, and differential TPD52 expression in obese versus non-obese adipose tissue, suggest that TPD52 may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We found increased lipid droplet numbers in stably TPD52-expressing BALB/c 3T3 cell lines, compared with control and TPD52L1-expressing cell lines. TPD52-expressing 3T3 cells showed increased fatty acid storage in triglyceride (from both de novo synthesis and uptake), and formed greater numbers of lipid droplets upon oleic acid supplementation than control cells. TPD52 co-localised with Golgi but not ER markers, and also showed partial co-localisation with Adrp-coated lipid droplets, with a proportion of TPD52 being detected in the lipid droplet fraction. Direct interactions between ADRP and TPD52, ...
Several nutrition and food ingredients are supposed to have beneficial effects, but precise cell biological mechanism has not been elucidated. Among food ingredients, polyphenols such as soy bean isoflavon genistein and wine resveratrol have been reported to have effects on lipid metabolism and cardiovacular diseases (1). In order to elucidate the effect of genistein on obesity, we cultured adipocyte and observed of genisten to lipid accumulation in cells. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed by genistein when it was added at the time of differentiation but not when added after differentiation. Genistein is considered to suppress lipid accumulation by suppressing the differtiation of adipocytes.
Atherosclerosis is driven by lipid accumulation in the arterial wall that leads to narrowing the vessel lumen and increasing risk of thrombus formation. Deposition of lipids, mostly cholesteryl esters, in the arterial wall layer called intima, is one of the earliest manifestations of the disease. Intracellular accumulation of lipids takes place in so called foam cells that have their cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets that are visible microscopically. Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles serve as the primary source of lipids. Numerous attempts were made to establish a clear link between circulating LDL levels and atherosclerosis formation. In the experiments conducted on cultured cells, if was demonstrated that native LDL failed to induce intracellular lipid accumulation. At the same time, LDL chemically modified in vitro (acetylated, malondialdehyde-treated, oxidized with ions of transient metals, etc.) induced lipid deposition in cultured cells, i.e., was atherogenic. It was ...
Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein. In humans it is encoded by the ADFP gene. This protein surrounds the lipid droplet along with phospholipids and are involved in assisting the storage of neutral lipids within the lipid droplets. The adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) was first characterized as an mRNA molecule that express early in adipocyte differentiation. The full length cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and sequence analysis results in a protein with 425 amino acids that is unique and similar sequences had not previously been reported. In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 from base pair 19108391 to 19127606 (GRCh38.p7) (map). The proposed models for adipose differentiation related protein (perilipin 2) is maintained by ...
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) has been implicated in the regulation of endo-/exocytic pathways, cholesterol transport, and the formation of multifactorial signaling complexes in many different cell types. More recently, AnxA6 has also been linked to triglyceride storage in adipocytes. Here we investigated the potential role of AnxA6 in fatty acid (FA) induced lipid droplet (LD) formation in hepatocytes. AnxA6 was associated with LD from rat liver and HuH7 hepatocytes. In oleic acid (OA) -loaded HuH7 cells, substantial amounts of AnxA6 bound to LD in a Ca2+-independent manner. Remarkably, stable or transient AnxA6 overexpression in HuH7 cells led to elevated LD numbers/size and neutral lipid staining under control conditions as well as after OA loading compared to controls. In contrast, overexpression of AnxAl, AnxA2 and AnxA8 did not impact on OA-induced lipid accumulation. On the other hand, incubation of AnxA6-depleted HuH7 cells or primary hepatocytes from AnxA6 KO-mice with OA led to reduced FA ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multiligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell, CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides. EC-Cd36-KO mice had reduced uptake of radiolabeled long-chain FAs into heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue; these uptake studies were replicated using [11C]palmitate PET scans. High-fat diet-fed EC-CD36-deficient mice had improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Both EC and cardiomyocyte (CM) deletion of CD36 reduced heart lipid droplet accumulation after fasting, but CM deletion did not affect heart glucose or FA uptake. ...
For humans it is crucial to control lipid homeostasis to avoid development of metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia is a considerable risk factor for development of cardiovascular and liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Infection and inflammation induce the acute phase response (APR), leading to multiple alternations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, mediated by changed cytokine production, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Another cytokine IL-10 has anti-atheromatous and anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been postulated that IL-10 has gene therapeutic potential. However, the effect of IL-10 on liver and its metabolic functions are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether IL-10 could modulate lipid homeostasis in TNF-a- and IL-6-stimulated hepatocytes. We demonstrated that IL-6 increased expression of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid (FA) synthesis [SREBP1a, FAS], FA oxidation [PPARa, CPT1a, CPT2], FA ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
Since July 2001, JLR has published special Thematic Review Series - a series of articles on a hot lipid-related topic appearing in consecutive issues. Thematic Reviews are among the most widely read of all JLR articles.. For each of these series, an Associate Editor (sometimes in conjunction with a member of the JLR Editorial Board) will invite experts in that field to contribute reviews on a specific topic or theme. Many topics have been explored in JLR Thematic Review Series; sterol/lipid metabolism and transport, systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, membranes and polar lipid dynamics, and sphingolipids are just a few examples.. Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research articles ...
Abnormal lipid metabolism associated with various renal diseases has been known for a long time. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the characteristic features of nephotic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia is often observed in chronic renal failure (CRF). The role of lipid abnormalities in the pathogenesis of renal diseases has been variously discussed. However, direct evidence only recently became possible when more sophisticated analyses of renal histopathology as well as an application of molecular biology were introduced in the field of clinical nephrology. The recent identification of lipoprotein nephropathy (LPG), reported most often by Japanese authors since 1989, is particularly noteworthy. The detailed analysis of lipid profiles and renal histology has been instrumental in clarifying the relationship between lipids and the kidney not only in LPG but also in other disease entities such as familial-type dyslipidemias, CRF, focal glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy. Dyslipidemias ...
Lipid droplets are lipid stores inside cells that are surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer and are often found insidide adipocytes. Lipid droplets are able to store neutral lipids e.g. triaclycerides and cholesterol esters that are synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum. The lipids stored inside the droplets are neutral due to the fact they contain no hydrophilic head groups, instead all containing hydrophobic constituent molecules, that clump into droplets rather than bilayer (as would happen if they contained hydrophilic heads) [1]. ...
Effect of high vitamin A or tocopherol intake on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal absorption and secretion of lipids and bile acids in the chick.: The ef
Modulator of adipocyte lipid metabolism. Coats lipid storage droplets to protect them from breakdown by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Its absence may result in leanness (By similarity). Plays a role in unilocular lipid droplet formation by activating CIDEC. Their interaction promotes lipid droplet enlargement and directional net neutral lipid transfer. May modulate lipolysis and triglyceride levels.
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also controls cellular lipid metabolism but the underlining mechanism is poorly understood. We report here that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a novel effector of TNFα to facilitate its metabolic modulation in the skeletal muscle. Depletion of PIKE-A in C2C12 myotubes diminished the inhibitory activities of TNFα on mitochondrial respiration and lipid oxidation, whereas PIKE-A overexpression exacerbated these cellular responses. We also found that TNFα promoted the interaction between PIKE-A and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to suppress its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. As a result, animals with PIKE ablation in the skeletal muscle per se display an upregulation of AMPK phosphorylation and a higher preference to utilize lipid as the energy production substrate under high-fat diet feeding, which mitigates the development of diet-induced ...
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It is well known that metabolic responses to diet and drugs are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Still, a large part of differences in responses between individuals remains unexplained. To increase our understanding of individual differences, more and more attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota. Not only energy and glucose may be related to the microbiota, but also lipid metabolism. This is not surprising as lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and obesity are closely linked.. There is substantial evidence from in particular animal studies that the gut microbiota is related to lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, there is less evidence to what extent modulation of the gut microbiota changes lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans. ...
Increasing evidence suggests that the various components of açaí contribute to cardioprotection via mechanisms that affect cell membrane receptors, intracellular signaling pathway proteins, and the modulation of gene expression [37],. [38], [39], [40] and [41]. It has been demonstrated that flavonoids regulate the activity of the Alisertib nuclear receptor regulators of cellular lipid metabolism [42] and [43]. The present study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí pulp using a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. A 2% açaí pulp dose was chosen because of its relevance to human nutrition. This dosage mimics the addition of a portion of this fruit in food [44] and selleck compound has demonstrated effects in previous studies [10], [15] and [16]. Corroborating our previous results [15], açaí supplementation improved the lipid profile in the rat. Thus, we focused on characterizing the effects that açaí pulp supplementation in the diet would ...
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is central to human health. Disruption of lipid metabolic pathways can lead to a variety of diseases including diabetes an...
Introduction. Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 5) - Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). Anabolic metabolism is the building of larger molecules from smaller ones, for example building monosaccharides to form carbohydrates; fatty acids and glycerol to form lipids and amino acids to form proteins. They are generally condensation reactions, producing water as two molecules join together to make a larger molecule. All living cells must metabolise to produce vital energy that is required for active processes, this requires glucose. The normal glucose level is 90mg of glucose in 100cm3 of blood it is essential that this level remains and the body controls this in two ways, the breakdown of products to form glucose and synthesis of larger molecules from glucose in order that it be stored. Glycogenisis is the ...
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... Aging skin is increasingly susceptible to lipid depletion; the loss of natural compounds in skin s surface,
Dr. Chung is focusing on the biology of fat storage organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Many cancer cells are characterized by an increased number of LDs, and this accumulation has been proposed to be pathogenic. Key questions of LD biology remain unanswered, limiting the potential for therapeutic intervention. She will combine various imaging technologies and biochemical approaches to elucidate the molecular architecture of initial LD formation and its regulation.. ...
Lipids refer to organic biochemicals such as fats, oils, sterols, phospholipids, lipoproteins and waxy elements. Lipids store energy, are structural components of cell membranes and also help in the ...
Abstract:. Monolayer-integrated proteins (MIPs) could exist in any membrane of the cell, but available bioinformatics tools only identify transmembrane protein domains. To better understand the types of proteins that embed into a single leaflet of biological membranes we identified the lipid droplet (LD) monolayer-integrated proteome (MIP-ome). LDs are cytoplasmic organelles that have a reservoir of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane. Any protein embedded into the surface of the LD would be a MIP. Here we describe an approach that combines cutting edge proteomics with statistical modeling to identify a comprehensive set of LD-associated MIPs.. Suggested readings:. Kory, N., Farese, R.V., Walther, T.C. Targeting Fat: Mechanisms of Protein Localization to Lipid Droplets. Trends in Cell Biology, Vol. 26, Issue 7, p535-546, July 2016.. ...
br/,,big,,font color=#407F7F size=5,Welcome to the COVID-19 Pathway Collection,/font,,/big,,br/,,br/, ,p,This special subset of disease pathways is being highlighted during the current COVID-19 crisis. This content is released under a CC0 waiver to be freely used, reused and distributed. Let us know if you add a new pathway or want to recommend one for this collection.,/p, {{#section:Help:Authors,covid-help}} ,} {, style=margin: 10px; background-color:#AFDCDE ,width=100px; cell padding=50px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4846,250px,,SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Pathway}} Collaborative project for curation biological processes involved in the COVID-19 disease after SARS-Cov-2 infection. ,width=100px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4853,250px,,Coronavirus lipid metabolism}} Lipid metabolism alternations that are related to infection by the corona virus. ,width=100px,{{#pwImage:Pathway:WP4860,250px,,Hijack of Ubiquitination by SARS-CoV-2}} SARS-CoV-2 includes a novel Orf10 that interacts with muliple members of the ...
Clicking on a MS/MS value (nominal mass of precursor ion) displays the fragmentation spectrum, including structures of principal product ions ...
Clicking on a MS/MS value (nominal mass of precursor ion) displays the fragmentation spectrum, including structures of principal product ions ...
Leitung. Dr. Cristina Cadenas Garcia / Dr. Rosemarie Marchan. The CellTox group was established in January 2013 under the supervision of Cristina Cadenas and Rosemarie Marchan with the goal to better understand how cells respond to different types of stress. Both scientists are especially interested in cellular metabolism, with particular focus on lipid and choline metabolic pathways. A major goal of their work is therefore to elucidate how metabolism is altered in in response to cellular stressors as well as in disease.. Lipids are important membrane constituents, energy sources, and signalling molecules - all of which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and are thus relevant in the context of cellular damage. Initially, the CellTox group studied lipid metabolism in connection with cancer and cellular senescence, with the goal to better characterise genes regulating phospholipid and choline metabolic pathways. This led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized enzyme ...
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Transport of fatty acids within the cytosol of adipocytes and their subsequent assimilation into lipid droplets has been thoroughly investigated; however, the mechanism by which fatty acids are transported across the plasma membrane from the extracellular environment remains unclear. Since triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins represent an abundant source of fatty acids for adipocyte utilization, we have investigated the expression levels of cell surface lipoprotein receptors and their functional contributions toward intracellular lipid accumulation; these include very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). We found that expression of these three lipoprotein receptors increased 5-fold, 2-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively, during adipocyte differentiation. The major proteoglycans expressed by mature adipocytes are of high molecular weight (|500 kD) and contain both heparan and chondroitin sulfate moieties.
Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India) @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline [email protected]/tonne (60%) and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds ...
Dried blood spot (DBS) analysis is a convenient way to collect blood samples with several advantages over conventional blood collection methods. DBS has gained popularity in fields such as newborn screening, preclinical studies, and therapeutic drug monitoring [2, 4, 7, 8]. DBS coupled with LC-MS/MS system provides the capacity to analyze samples in a high throughput manner once coupled to robust analytical methods. Lipidomics analysis of whole blood, which is comprised of thousands of diverse lipid molecular species, is directly linked to an individuals physiological, nutritional and health status [14, 35]. In this study, we combined DBS collection with high-resolution MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics analysis to analyze the blood lipidome. We demonstrate in one DBS spot, several lipid classes and more than 1,200 lipid species were identified and quantified.. Direct infusion-based MS shotgun lipidomics provides comprehensive profiling and quantitation of lipid species from organic extracts of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model ...
We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism and organismal aging. To mechanistically understand this relationship, we utilize the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly).. Recent studies revealed a connection between the fruit fly gene snazurus (SNZ) and fly lifespan (Suh, PLOS One, 2008). Snazurus, the fly homolog of yeast protein Mdm1, is highly expressed in the fly fat body, the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue.. We are currently focused on understanding the role(s) of SNZ in fly metabolism and lifespan extension.. ...
Title: Epicardial and Intramyocardial Adipose Tissue: The Enemy within. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):A. R. Baker, S. J. Creely, P. G. McTernan and S. Kumar. Affiliation:Warwick Medical School,Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.. Keywords:Adipobiology, ectopic fat, fatty heart, adipocytes, PPAR-γ, therapeutics. Abstract: Both obesity and lipodystrophy are associated with an accumulation of lipid in tissues other than the classical adipose tissue depots. The consequences of this ectopic fat are not limited to the now well established insulin resistance but also a range of other organ specific sequelae. We discuss, with specific reference to the heart, the potential role of ectopic adipocyte proliferation as well as intracellular lipid accumulation. This is a relatively recently described phenomenon, but has attracted the attention of scientists because of the association with visceral obesity. A range of therapeutic agents have been shown to be effective in targeting ectopic fat with much evidence supporting ...
The presentations reflected the early development of LipidomicNet, the European Union Framework VII project focused on the structure of lipid droplets and their function in human health and disease that kicked off just last year. Lipid droplet formation is a hallmark of "energy-overload" metabolic diseases that are a major heath concern. One goal of LipidomicNet is to integrate lipid structure profiles with proteome and transcriptome analysis to reveal the interrelationship between gene expression and lipid droplet formation.. The project also manages the LipidomicNetWiki (www.lipidomicnet.org), in close collaboration with LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) and Lipid Bank-Japan. One hope is that those investigators who "bump" into lipid metabolism in their work will take advantage of the LipidomicsWiki to help sort out the cellular responses to metabolic stress.. All members of the Lipidomics Expertise Platform are allowed to edit and add content to LipidomicNet-Wiki, so I ...
Regulation Of Lipid Utilisation In Skeletal Muscle During Exercise In Humans bog: Titel: Regulation Of Lipid Utilisation In Skeletal Muscle During Exerc...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CGI-58 facilitates the mobilization of cytoplasmic triglyceride for lipoprotein secretion in hepatoma cells. AU - Brown, J. Mark. AU - Chung, Soonkyu. AU - Das, Akash. AU - Shelness, Gregory S.. AU - Rudel, Lawrence L.. AU - Yu, Liqing. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family of proteins. Mutations in the human CGI-58 gene are associated with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in which excessive triglyceride (TG) accumulation occurs in multiple tissues. In this study, we investigated the role of CGI-58 in cellular lipid metabolism in several cell models and discovered a role for CGI-58 in promoting the packaging of cytoplasmic TG into secreted lipoprotein particles in hepatoma cells. Using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that CGI-58 facilitates the depletion of cellular TG stores without altering cellular cholesterol or ...
Lipid-based diseases are a growing and expensive challenge to health care systems. As a population ages, chronic conditions associated with aging such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders take increasing tolls in terms of morbidity and mortality. Oxidation of lipids and lipid metabolites has been linked to disorders of aging like osteoporosis and vascular calcification. Additionally, research is now trying to explain how dysregulations in lipid metabolism may underlie diseases such as Alzheimers, cancer, and asthma. Lipid synthesis pathways, such as the methyl-Derythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, are being investigated as potential targets for antibacterial therapies and drug targets. As changes in lipid profiles can mark developmental stages or more ominously, pathological states, there is great potential for the use of lipids as biomarkers. Experimental quantification of the levels of lipids and lipid metabolites is ...
All-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) is a promising agent in the prevention/treatment of breast-cancer. There is growing evidence that reprogramming of cellular lipid metabolism contributes to malignant transformation and progression. Lipid metabolism is implicated in cell differentiation and metastatic colonization and it is involved in the mechanisms of sensitivity/resistance to different anti-tumor agents. The role played by lipids in the anti-tumor activity of ATRA has never been studied. We used 16 breast cancer cell-lines whose degree of sensitivity to the anti-proliferative action of ATRA is known. We implemented a non-oriented mass-spectrometry based approach to define the lipidomic profiles of each cell-line grown under basal conditions and following treatment with ATRA. To complement the lipidomic data, untreated and retinoid treated cell-lines were also subjected to RNA-sequencing to define the perturbations afforded by ATRA on the whole-genome gene-expression profiles. The number and functional