The genus Leucojum was erected by Carl Linnaeus in 1753,[1] initially for two species, Leucojum vernum and L. autumnale.[6] In 1759, he added the species L. aestivum.[7] In 1807, Richard Anthony Salisbury illustrated two species in The Paradisus Londinensis. He initially used the name Leucojum autumnale for the plant illustrated in plate 21, but when discussing Leucojum pulchellum (now included in L. aestivum), illustrated in plate 74, Salisbury noted the differences between the two species, and considered them sufficient to move Leucojum autumnale into a new genus, Acis.[8][9] Although some botanists accepted the split between Leucojum and Acis, including Robert Sweet in 1829,[10] most did not; for example, Brian Mathew in 1987 placed all the species in Leucojum.[11] Acis was reinstated in 2004, after it was determined on morphological and molecular grounds that the broadly defined genus Leucojum was paraphyletic, with Acis and a more narrowly defined Leucojum being related as shown the ...
Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for its antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties; in addition it has been used to cure liver cancer in particular. In this current study, β-ecdysterone (1) and three pennogenin steroidal saponins (2-4) were isolated from the EtOH extract of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and then tested for their antitumor and antifungal activities. Spectroscopic data was used to confirm their structures. Their antitumor properties were determined by using an MTT assay in addition to ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining techniques. Compounds 2, 3 and 4 exhibited significant anti-proliferation activities against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values of 13.5 μM, 9.7 μM and 11.6 μM respectively, obtained following 48 h treatment. Furthermore, we found these pennogenin steroidal saponins could induce HepG2 cells apoptosis at a concentration of 20 μM after 48 h treatment. Compounds 2, 3 and 4 were confirmed to exhibit moderate
Erythronium grandiflorum, AVALANCHE LILY, 100 SEEDS Yellow Glacier Lily Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh Other names: dogtooth violet, avalanche lily, fawn lily, snow lily, trout lily Distribution Moist, shaded to open sites, sagebrush slopes to montane forest, sometimes to near treeline, in w. and s.c. parts of MT. Also from s. B.C., WA and OR to WY and CO. HARDY TO AT LEAST ZONE 5 Height: 6-14 in.Conditions: Sun - Partial Shade, moist well-drained soilHardiness Zone: 3-9 GERMINATION INSTRUCTIONS: SEED REQUIRES 4 WEEKS OF COLD, MOIST
Extracts of leaves and stems of Chlorophytum borivilianum San and Fern (aerial parts) were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of plant secondary metabolites and in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroidal nucleus, saponins and tannins in both parts. The methanolic extract of leaf and stems part were investigated in vitro antimicrobial activity using agar disc diffusion technique. Six clinical strains of human pathogenic microorganisms, comprising 3 Gram positive, 1 Gram negative and 2 fungi were utilized in the studies. The leaf extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum displayed overwhelming concentration dependent antimicrobial properties, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, far above that of ampicillin used in the study at a concentration of 1.0 g/ml. The extract was less sensitive to the 2 Gram negative bacteria in the assay. In ...
Ruscaceae was a debatable family that was split from Liliaceae. According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II system, Ruscaceae could be made into its own natural family or be included into the Asparagaceae. AGP III and IV stopped using optional placement and include the members of Ruscaceae as subfamily Nolinoideae in Asparagaceae. We have the genera Convallaria, Disporopsis, Eriospermum, Maianthemum, Polygonatum, Smilacina represented on the wiki. ...
1. Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 231. 1814. Glacier-lily Bulbs slender, 30-50 mm. Leaves 5-20 cm; blade green, lanceolate, ± glaucous, base gradually narrowed to petiole, margins ± wavy. Scape 5-30 cm. Inflorescences usually 1-flowered, sometimes up to 5-flowered. Flowers: tepals recurved, bright yellow with (in live specimens) narrow paler zone at base, or white to creamy white with yellow base, narrowly ovate, 20-35 mm, length at least 4 times width, inner usually auriculate at base; stamens 11-18 mm; filaments white, ± slender, linear, less than 0.8 mm wide; anthers cream, yellow, red, or purplish red; pollen yellow or red; style white, 10-15 mm; stigma unlobed or with slender, recurved lobes (1-)2-4 mm. Capsules oblong to narrowly obovoid, 2-5 cm. 2n = 24.. Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora): w North America.. This beautiful species is often very abundant in mountain meadows of western North America, especially in the Rocky Mountains, where it may form spectacular ...
Erythronium dens-canis is a member of the lily family, with small corms that produce very dainty, nodding, lily-shaped flowers on 6 inch long stems. Spring
The Plants Database includes the following 24 species of Erythronium . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles ...
Erythronium pluriflorum, a monocot, is a perennial herb (bulb) that is native to California and is endemic (limited) to California. ...
Affinity purified Hippeastrum hybrid lectin (HHL) is consists of four subunits of identical size. It binds only to (α-1,3) and (α-1,6) linked mannosyl units of α-mannose residues. HHL reacts not only with terminal but also with internal α-D-mannosyl residues. Lectin appears to possess extended binding sites complementa
The Liliaceae, or the lily faimily, is a faimily o monocotyledons in the order Liliales. Plants in this faimily hae linear leafs, maistly wi parallel veins but wi several hae net venation (e.g., Cardiocrinum, Clintonia, Medeola, Prosartes, Scoliopus, Tricyrtis), an flouers arranged in threes. Several hae bulbs, while ithers hae rhizomes. Shade-dwellin genera uisually hae braid, net-veined leafs, fleshy fruits wi animal-dispersed seeds, rhizomes, an smaa, inconspicuous flouers; genera native tae sunny habitats uisually hae narra, parallel-veined leafs, capsular fruits wi wind-dispersed seeds, bulbs, an lairge, visually conspicuous flouers. ...
The distribution of Bulbine glauca is in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and possibly into Queensland. Its distribution is mostly associated with elevated areas, cliffs, crevices and summits, and along the Great Diving Range in Victoria and New South Wales. Bulbine glauca is easy to propagate in rich, well-drained soil in an area that is regularly watered, through either self-seeding or dividing older plants. The seedlings that come up in spring are able to be transplanted, and will still flower that summer. Seedlings do not tend to come up in the areas that are not regularly watered, so there is very little chance of it becoming weedy. During the hot months, watering 2 to 3 times a week is required, but allowed to dry off after. Mature plants are occasionally susceptible to rot of the roots, but this only affects one plant and doe not spread, so the affected plant can be removed. Bulbine glauca is also susceptible to slugs, snails and kangaroos. Bulbine glauca is horticulturally desirable ...
(25S)-5beta-Spirostan-3beta-yl beta-D-glucoside | C33H54O8 | CID 440454 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The best North American modern firsthand account is as usual that by Samuel Thayer in his wonderful book Natures Garden. He notes that the species he uses most is woodlander Erythronium americanum, not documented as edible (only medicinal) by Moerman. He rates the early spring bulbs highly, tasting " like sweet corn or snow peas..crunchy, sweet and tender raw"…but he notes that they are small and it takes a lot of effort to pick a decent amount (he also notes that E. grandiflorum bulbs, a species that grows in alpine meadows, are bigger). Various early foraging authors in the 50s and 60s, including Euell Gibbons, note that the leaves, flower stalks, buds and flowers of americanum are eaten raw and cooked. Thayer is not fond of the leaves or flowers, however, saying that they are "best before unfurled…bitter aftertaste…worse after cooking", but he comments that others enjoy the taste. I havent noticed any bitterness the times Ive tried different species. Gibbons also mentions that white ...
Received 2 September 2008; revised 25 November 2008; accepted 1 February 2009. In vitro growth and shoot proliferation in Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. were studied in a controlled CO2 environment. The cultures were grown on BA supplemented MS medium with or without 3% sucrose. A range of CO2 concentrations (0.0, 0.6, 10.0 and 40.0 g m-3) was controlled in small chambers by using solutions of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, KHCO3 and K2CO3. In order to maintain a CO2-free environment, a saturated solution of KOH was kept in the chambers. It was observed that the growing shoot cultures required either sucrose in the medium as a carbon source or an environment with controlled CO2 concentration. Complete absence of a carbon source caused severe yellowing of shoots and death within 15 d. The growth of shoot cultures at 40.0 g m-3 CO2 was comparable to the growth obtained with 3.0% sucrose in the medium. With both CO2 and sucrose being available, the best response was obtained at 40.0 g m-3 CO2 in the ...
Find authentic information for Safed Musli (Chlorophytum Borivilianum) Powder (White Musli) including its potential benefits, uses, dosage & side effects.
Leucojum aestivum, commonly called summer snowflake, blooms in mid-spring (late April), not in summer. It blooms several weeks after spring snowflake (Leucojum vernum) and usually goes dormant by summer. Dark grassy green leaves to 12" long and 1" wide form an upright, vase-shaped clump of foliage. Typically 2-5 (less frequently to 8) white, nodding, bell-shaped flowers appear at the top of naked hollow flower scapes (to 12-15" tall) in spring. Each flower has three similar looking sepals and petals (tepals) that are spotted at the tip with green ...
Bjorå, Charlotte Sletten; Elden, Marte; Nordal, Inger; Brysting, Anne Krag; Awas, Tesfaye; Sebsebe, Demissew & Bendiksby, Mika (2017). Speciation in the genera Anthericum and Chlorophytum (Asparagaceae) in Ethiopia - a molecular phylogenetic approach. Phytotaxa. ISSN 1179-3155. 297(2), s 139- 156 . doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.297.2.2 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv. Vis sammendrag Sister group relations of Ethiopian species of Anthericum and Chlorophytum and variation patterns in the C. gallabatense and C. comosum complexes are studied using molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphometrics, and scanning electron microscopy of seed surfaces. Our results indicate that molecular data largely support previous morphological conclusions, and that speciation has occurred in Ethiopia at least three times in Anthericum and repeatedly within different subclades of Chlorophytum. Areas particularly rich in endemic species are the lowland area around Bale Mountains in SE Ethiopia and in the Beninshangul Gumuz regional ...
H. johnsonii makes a large bulb which blooms 3 or 4 tubular flowers of brilliant scarlet, streaked with white on 2 foot stems. Hippeastrum is a native of t
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally ...
Family - Liliaceae Stems - Aerial stems to +40cm tall, erect, herbaceous, glabrous, fistulose, from a bulb, green. Leaves - Basal, linear, flat, to +40cm long, equaling or exceeding the aerial stems, glabrous, dark green. Inflorescence - Terminal clusters of 2-7 flowers. Clusters subtended by and partially surrounded by a green bract. The bract to 5cm long, glabrous. Pedicels to +6cm long. Flowers pendant. Flowers - Tepals 6, white with a green spot at the apex, glabrous, to 2cm long, -1cm broad, oblong-elliptic. Stamens 6. Style 1, exceeding the stamens. Ovary inferior, 3-locular, with many ovules. ...
Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist, 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, US ...
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Flora of North America Association, New York, NY, US and Oxford, UK ...
Herbs with bulbous or tuberous stems, parallel-veined, sessile leaves, flowers perfect, regular, generally largo and richly colored, perianth 6 (rarely 4)-parted, uniformly colored, free from the ovar...
Note: Diptera larvae may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Pupation never in a cocoon. All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video). The pupa is formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, ...
A comprehensive reference on major vegetable crops The first complete resource for plant breeders that includes the most recent molecular techniques
ലിലിയേൽസ് നിരയിൽപ്പെട്ട ഒരു സസ്യകുടുംബമാണ് ലിലിയേസീ (Liliaceae). ബഹുവർഷകുറ്റിച്ചെടികളായ ഇവ ഏകബീജപത്ര സസ്യങ്ങളും 300 ജനുസുകളിലായി 4500 അറിയപ്പെടുന്ന സ്പീഷീസുകളും ഈ കുടുംബത്തിലുണ്ട്. ജനിതക സാമ്യതകളുണ്ടെങ്കിലും ഈ കുടുംബത്തിലെ സസ്യങ്ങൾ മോർഫോളജിക്കൽ പരമായി വൈവിധ്യപൂർണ്ണമായും കാണപ്പെടുന്നു. പൊതുവായ സവിശേഷതയായി ഇവയിൽ വലിയ പൂക്കൾ കാണപ്പെടുന്നു: പൂക്കളുടെ ഭാഗങ്ങൾ മൂന്നായി ...
We are experience and expert in plants & bulbs export from Thailand to worldwide for more than 7 years. You will be very sure that you will receive your plant confidently, and we will guarantee and insure the reach. For more information, email us or chat with LIVE HELP DESK at my MSN at [email protected] or [email protected]
We are experience and expert in plants & bulbs export from Thailand to worldwide for more than 7 years. You will be very sure that you will receive your plant confidently, and we will guarantee and insure the reach. For more information, email us or chat with LIVE HELP DESK at my MSN at [email protected] or [email protected]
CUMASEBA Family: Fabaceae Taxon: Swartzia polyphylla DC. Synonyms:Swartzia acuminata, Swartzia opacifolia, Swartzia platygyne, Swartzia urubuensis, Tounatea…
Care Instructions:. Light: full sun to part shade, flowers best in full sun. Water: drought tolerant once established, does not survive in wet sites. Soil: well-drained, low fertility, wide pH tolerance, no other special requirements. In north Florida, amaryllis is easy and reliable. Plants are long-lived and may develop into huge clumps. Bulbs can pull themselves down into loose, sandy soil. If they are too deep, the plants produce nice foliage but few flowers. When this occurs, the bulbs should be dug in late spring or summer and replanted so that the slender "neck" of the bulb is above the soil line. ...
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Erythronium citrinum S. Watson Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
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A diagnostic description of the family is given with special emphasis on the occurrence of succulence. This is followed by information on the ordinal placement, a selection of important literature,...
I have two questions if you look on:(http://www.geocities.com/samme...) there is picture and I want to know what the name of that plant is and then is you look at it there are brown spots on it and I need to know if that is normal or not mostly I need to know if its normal I think the plants family is Liliaceae and I think the genus is Haworthia ...
Fluorescent light microscopic image (left) and scanning electron micrograph detail (right) of Oziroë biflora (plant, Hyacinthaceae) chromosomes labeled for the 45SrDNA with ISH using AlexaFluor 488 fluoronanogold. The SEM image (detail of chromosome indicated in LM image, arrow) shows both chromosome topography (secondary electron signal, greyscale) and hybridized enhanced gold signals (superimposed back-scattered electron signals, yellow) identifying the peg-like terminal constriction and immediately bordering region as the nucleolus organizing region ...
An equal amount of powder of Eulophia hwo bulbs and the tuber of Chlorophytum dose are mixed together, and 1 tea- spoon of this mixture is taken orally with milk for 1 month to boost the bodyвs immune system and to treat rheumatism. 2004 1713 Uhr Seite 502 ппппппппAbb. Of this ta ke, 45 patients harbored an extramedullary hamartoma and 38 were affected by a tethered cord only. 5 3.
name conserved] Rain-lily, fairy-lily, zephyr-lily [Greek Zephyros, west wind, and anthos, flower] Raymond O. Flagg, Gerald L. Smith & Walter S. Flory† Atamosco Adanson 1763, name rejected; Cooperia Herbert. Herbs, perennial, scapose, from bulbs. Bulbs black or brown, tunicate, ovoid or globose, sometimes with long neck. Leaves sessile, erect or recumbent, with overlapping sheathing bases; blade linear, rarely exceeding 1 cm wide, smooth. Scape hollow. Inflorescence 1-flowered (rarely 2-flowered in Z. drummondii), spathaceous, otherwise ebracteate; spathe proximally tubular. Flowers erect to declinate, actinomorphic; perianth subrotate to funnelform to salverform, connate basally into tube, 2-16 cm; tepals subequal; stamens 6, of 2 different lengths, appearing equal or subequal (anthers in 2 overlapping sets of 3) to unequal (anthers of the sets not overlapping in Z. longifolia); filaments inserted just above perianth tube, erect, diverging except when shorter than tube, long-filiform to ...
Traci and Brodie Tigue. The Tigues world came crashing to a halt in September of 2015, when their four-month old son, Brodie, was diagnosed with a rare liver disease - Biliary Atresia. His only option for survival - a liver transplant.. After a whirlwind of events, Brodies mom, Traci, was a match to be a living organ donor, and she could donate a "SLIVER OF LIVER" to save him - giving him a second chance at life.. When Brodie was just five months and five days old, the family celebrated his "NEW LIVER BIRTHDAY." Their surgeries were textbook, with the brilliant Liver Transplant Team at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio.. The family is thrilled to report that Brodie is now two years post-transplant, and doing incredible. He is as adorable and ornery as they come, and he loves his new liver! His favorite things are Paw Patrol, tractors, lawn mowers, teasing his big sister Harper, and being on the move. Traci currently serves as a member of both the American Liver Foundation Heartland Division Board ...
The karyotype and the number of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome were studied. The results showed that the number of chromosome of Chlorophytum comosum is 2n = 2x = 28 = 4m + 14sm + 10st; the relative length of chromosome is 2n = 28 = 4L + 14M2 + 10M1. The total length of chromosome groups is 73.84μm, the total length of long arms is 53.59μm, and the AS.K% is 72.58%. The karyotype of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome belongs to3B type. The total volume of chromosome is 101.94μm3.
Detail záznamu - Analysis of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Zephyranthes robusta by GC-MS and Their Cholinesterase Activity - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
A new cardenolide tupichinolide (1) and a new steroidal saponin tupichinin A (2), together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis. Their structures were established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compound 1 was the first cardenolide isolated from Tupistra chinensis and exhibited potent cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Zephyrantes Carinata and Their Evaluation as Cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) Inhibitors. AU - Cortes, Natalie. AU - Sierra, Karina. AU - Tallini, Luciana. AU - Borges, Warley de S.. AU - de Andrade, Jean Paulo. AU - Bastida, Jaume. AU - Osorio, Edison. PY - 2019/8/12. Y1 - 2019/8/12. U2 - 10.3390/proceedings2019022066. DO - 10.3390/proceedings2019022066. M3 - Artículo. VL - 22. JO - Proceedings. JF - Proceedings. SN - 2504-3900. IS - 66. ER - ...
Chromosomal evolution, including numerical and structural changes, is a major force in plant diversification and speciation. This study addresses genomic changes associated with the extensive chromosomal variation of the Mediterranean Prospero autumnale complex (Hyacinthaceae), which includes four diploid cytotypes each with a unique combination of chromosome number (x = 5, 6, 7), rDNA loci and genome size....
Interests in the field of plant cell culture development, preferably from medicinal plants, induction of bioactive natural product biosynthesis, identification, isolation, purification. Developed radio- and enzymeimmunoassays for the quantitation of Galanthamine, an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid with potent reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity. Galanthamine HBr is commercially available as Nivalin®. Established immunoassays for quantitation of Colchicine, which is a water soluble alkaloid with cytotoxic activity, present in several species of Liliaceae. Isolated soil microorganisms capable of highly efficient regioselective demethylation at C-3 of the Colchicine structure - an important reaction toward semi-synthetical modification of the molecule, aimed to the synthesis of less toxic derivatives ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galanthamine. AU - Kato, Tomoaki. AU - Tanimoto, Hiroki. AU - Yamada, Hisako. AU - Chida, Noritaka. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The stereoselective total synthesis of (+)-galanthamine [(+)-1], an antipode of the natural product, and (-)-galanthamine [(-)-1] starting from D-glucose is described. The cyclohexene unit in (+)-1 was prepared in an optically active form from D-glucose using Ferriers carbocyclization reaction, and the benzylic quaternary carbon was stereoselectively generated via chirality transfer by Johnson-or Eschenmoser-Claisen rearrangement. The dibenzofuran skeleton was effectively constructed by the bromonium ion-mediated intramolecular dealkylating etherification. After the introduction of a carbon-carbon double bond, the Pictet-Spengler type cyclization, followed by reduction of an amide function afforded (+)-1. Starting from D-glucose, (-)-galanthamine [(-)-1] was also totally synthesized.. AB - The stereoselective ...
Liliales (older name: Lilia) is an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web system, within the lilioid monocots. This order of necessity includes the family Liliaceae. The APG III system (2009) places this order in the monocot clade. In APG III, the family Luzuriagaceae is combined with the family Alstroemeriaceae and the family Petermanniaceae is recognized. Both the Lililiales order and the Liliaceae family have had a widely disputed history, with the circumscription varying greatly from one taxonomist to another. Previous members of this order, which at one stage included most monocots with conspicuous tepals and lacking starch in the endosperm are now distributed over three orders, Liliales, Dioscoreales and Asparagales, using predominantly molecular phylogenetics. The newly delimited Liliales is monophyletic, with ten families. Well known plants from the order include Lilium (lily), tulip, the North American wildflower ...
Pancratieae are a small European tribe of subfamily Amaryllidoideae (family Amaryllidaceae), consisting of two genera including the type genus, Pancratium. The placement of Pancratieae within subfamily Amaryllidoideae is shown in the following cladogram: Two genera: Pancratium Vagaria Anal. Fam. Pl.: 58. 1829. Meerow et al 2006a. Meerow A. 1995. Towards a phylogeny of the Amaryllidaceae. In P. J. Rudall, P. J. Cribb, D. F. Cutler, and C. J. Humphries [eds.], Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution, 169-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Müller-Doblies, U.; Müller-Doblies, D. (1996). "Tribes and subtribes and some species combinations in Amaryllidaceae J St Hil R Dahlgren & al. 1985". Feddes Repertorium. 107 (5-6): S.c.1-S.c.9. Meerow A. and D. A. Snijman. 1998 Amaryllidaceae. In K. Kubitzki [ed.], Families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 3, 83-110. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Meerow, Alan W. Michael F. Fay, Charles L Guy, Qin-BaoLi, Faridah Q Zaman and Mark W. Chase. 1999 Systematics of ...
dependent on fire to flower. Like most members of the Amaryllidaceae, the seeds have a characteristic black or blue crust of the ... is the new name for two species of bulbs belonging in the Amaryllidaceae family. These plants were previously thought to be of the genus .... ...
Jim, I believe you are taking the proper approach. From my own work with hemerocallis i have found that dark tones are reliant on a few factors. 1) concentration of pigment(s) and 2) types of pigments. Basically, all plants are pigmented through a combination of water soluble anthocyanin pigements and fat soluble carotenes. The carotenes are all yellow to orange, verging on warm red. Anthocyanins are magenta to purple pigments that vary their tone according to the pH of the vacuole they inhabit. Interestingly, cyanidin (magenta) and delphinidin (blue-lavender), two of the most common anthocyanins, will produce an almost black colour in high enough concentrations at a relatively high pH. I do not know if both are present in Hippeastrum (Amaryllids), but the chances are very good. Interestingly, there is, also, a pH window whereby the pigments become colourless! Now, if these pigments are present over a yellow ground, the tone will lean to brown and appear dirty. This is due to the transparency of ...