How is strongly bound trimeric light-harvesting complex II abbreviated? S-LHCII stands for strongly bound trimeric light-harvesting complex II. S-LHCII is defined as strongly bound trimeric light-harvesting complex II rarely.
When the in vitro synthesized precursor of a light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein (LHCP) from Lemna gibba is imported into barley etiochloroplasts, it is processed to a single form. Both the processed form and the precursor are found in the thylakoid membranes, assembled into the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. Neither form can be detected in the stromal fraction. The relative amounts of precursor and processed forms observed in the thylakoids are dependent on the developmental stage of the plastids used for uptake. The precursor as well as the processed form can also be detected in thylakoids of greening maize plastids used in similar uptake experiments. This detection of a precursor in the thylakoids, which has not been previously reported, could be a result of using rapidly developing plastids and/or using an heterologous system. Our results demonstrate that the extent of processing of LHCP precursor is not a prerequisite for its inclusion in the complex. They are also ...
The precursor for a Lemna light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein (pLHCP) has been synthesized in vitro from a single member of the nuclear LHCP multigene family. We report the sequence of this gene. When incubated with Lemna chloroplasts, the pLHCP is imported and processed into several polypeptides, and the mature form is assembled into the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II). The accumulation of the processed LHCP is enhanced by the addition to the chloroplasts of a precursor and a co-factor for chlorophyll biosynthesis. Using a model for the arrangement of the mature polypeptide in the thylakoid membrane as a guide, we have created mutations that lie within the mature coding region. We have studied the processing, the integration into thylakoid membranes, and the assembly into light-harvesting complexes of six of these deletions. Four different mutant LHCPs are found as processed proteins in the thylakoid membrane, but only one appears to have an orientation in the membrane ...
The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex, a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography. Within the complex, three membrane-spanning α helices and 15 chlorophyll molecules are resolved. There is an intramolecular diad relating two of the α helices and some of the chlorophylls. The spacing of the chlorophylls suggests energy transfer by delocalized exciton coupling and Förster mechanisms.
The chlorophyll-binding subunits of photosystems I and II are internal antenna light-harvesting proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis. The antenna proteins that exist in phycobilisomes in cyanobacteria and light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes in green plants act as peripheral antenna systems, enabling more efficient absorption of light energy ...
Photosystem II (PSII), in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, possesses an extensive system of membrane-associated light-harvesting antenna complexes that increase its spectral and spatial cross section of absorbed solar energy, ensuring its efficient operation, even in low light (reviewed in Dekker and Boekema, 2005). PSII is organized within the stacked grana regions of the thylakoid membranes as a dimer composed of two copies each of the reaction center core proteins D1 and D2 and the core antenna chlorophyll a binding proteins CP43 and CP47 (Peter and Thornber, 1991a). This PSII core dimer is further supplemented by a peripheral antenna system of chlorophyll a/b binding light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The LHCs are divided into two classes: the monomeric minor antenna complexes, CP29, CP26, and CP24, and the trimeric major antenna complexes, LHCII (Peter and Thornber, 1991b). Each PSII core dimer is bound by two copies each of the minor antenna complexes CP29 and CP26 and an LHCII ...
Article Grana-Localized Proteins, RIQ1 and RIQ2, Affect the Organization of Light-Harvesting Complex II and Grana Stacking in Arabidopsis. Abstract Grana are stacked thylakoid membrane structures in land plants that contain photosystem II (PSII) and...
We focus on problems with elucidation of site energies (E-0(n)) for photosynthetic complexes (PSCs) in order to raise some genuine concern regarding the conflicting estimations propagating in the literature. As an example, we provide a stern assessment of the site energies extracted from fits to optical spectra of the widely studied CP47 antenna complex of photosystem II from spinach, though many general comments apply to other PSCs as well. Correct values of E-0(n) for chlorophyll (Chl) a in CP47 are essential for understanding its excitonic structure, population dynamics, and excitation energy pathway(s). To demonstrate this, we present a case study where simultaneous fits of multiple spectra (absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and nonresonant hole-burned spectra) show that several sets of parameters can fit the spectra very well. Importantly, we show that variable emission maxima (690-695 nm) and sample-dependent bleaching in nonresonant hole-burning spectra reported in literature ...
A thorough theoretical understanding of photosynthetic light-harvesting systems is critical to our ability to mimic their unparalleled energy transduction efficiency in synthetic contexts. Here, we present a workflow for calculating optical absorption spectra of chromophore monomers and dimers within the Franck-Condon approximation, using classical molecular dynamics simulations, and time-dependent density functional theory. We apply our approach to Sulforhodamine B (SRB) and AlexaFluor488 chromophore monomers and dimers and compare our results with complementary experimental absorption spectra. We discuss how conformation, the presence of counter-ions, solvation models, and choice of functional influence the predicted absorption spectra. We discuss progress towards identifying key factors in the high quantum efficiencies found exclusively in natural photosynthetic systems. This work is supported by the Department of Energy ...
The light harvesting complex LH2 is a chromoprotein that is an ideal system for studying protein dynamics via the spectral fluctuations of the emission of its intrinsic chromophores. We have immobilized these complexes in a polymer film and studied the fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity from individual complexes over 9 orders of magnitude in time. Combining time-tagged detection of single photons with a change-point analysis has allowed the unambigeous identification of the various intensity levels due to the huge statistical basis of the data set. We propose that the observed intensity level fluctuations reflect conformational changes of the protein backbone that might be a precursor of the mechanism from which nonphotochemical quenching of higher plants has evolved ...
An antenna system for a portable transceiver device comprises an antenna structure for transmitting and receiving RF signals. The antenna structure includes multiple feeding ports having a common structure fully coupling multiple antennas together. This antenna structure is made of a conductor that can be surface mounted over a nonplanar surface. When the conductor is mounted on a nonplanar surface, the antenna structure extends in three dimensional space around the portable communications device.
Plöchinger, Magdalena; Torabi, Salar; Rantala, Marjaana; Tikkanen, Mikko; Suorsa, Marjaana; Jensen, Poul-Erik; Aro, Eva Mari; Meurer, Jörg (2016): The Low Molecular Weight Protein PsaI Stabilizes the Light-Harvesting Complex II Docking Site of Photosystem I-1. In: Plant Physiology, Vol. 172, No. 1: pp. 450-463 ...
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MILLITECH PROPOSES TO DESIGN A COMPACT OFFSET CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA SYSTEM TO BE USED AT A WAVELENGTH OF 8 MM FOR CLOUD RESEARCH. THE SYSTEM WILL BE DESIGNED TO GIVE THE LOWSIDELOBE LEVELS CHARACTERISTIC OF AN OFFSET REFLECTOR WHILE GIVING POLARIZATION ISOLATION BETTER THAN 20 DB. THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN HIGH POLARIZATION ISOLATION AND COMPACT SIZE WILL BE RESOLVED BY USING A GAUSSIAN OPTICS LENS ANTEN .... ...
MILLITECH PROPOSES TO DESIGN A COMPACT OFFSET CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA SYSTEM TO BE USED AT A WAVELENGTH OF 8 MM FOR CLOUD RESEARCH. THE SYSTEM WILL BE DESIGNED TO GIVE THE LOWSIDELOBE LEVELS CHARACTERISTIC OF AN OFFSET REFLECTOR WHILE GIVING POLARIZATION ISOLATION BETTER THAN 20 DB. THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN HIGH POLARIZATION ISOLATION AND COMPACT SIZE WILL BE RESOLVED BY USING A GAUSSIAN OPTICS LENS ANTEN .... ...
The chlorophyll-binding subunits of photosystems I and II are internal antenna light-harvesting proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis. The antenna proteins that exist in phycobilisomes in cyanobacteria and light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes in green plants act as peripheral antenna systems, enabling more efficient absorption of light energy ...
We searched for new components that are involved in the positive regulation of nuclear gene expression by light by extending a screen for Arabidopsis cue (chlorophyll a/b-binding [CAB] protein-underexpressed) mutants (H.-M. Li, K. Culligan, R.A. Dixon, J. Chory [1995] Plant Cell 7: 1599-1610). cue mutants display reduced expression of the CAB3 gene, which encodes light-harvesting chlorophyll protein, the main chloroplast antenna. The new mutants can be divided into (a) phytochrome-deficient mutants (hy1 and phyB), (b) virescent or delayed-greening mutants (cue3, cue6, and cue8), and (c) uniformly pale mutants (cue4 and cue9). For each of the mutants, the reduction in CAB expression correlates with the visible phenotype, defective chloroplast development, and reduced abundance of the light-harvesting chlorophyll protein. Levels of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) were reduced to varying degrees in etiolated mutant seedlings. In the dark, whereas the virescent mutants displayed reduced CAB ...
Photosynthesis in higher plants relies upon collection of light by chlorophyll molecules associated with light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. The two most abundant of these are Lhcb1 and Lhcb2, which make up light harvesting complex (LHC) II trimers. They are also involved in facilitating state transitions, a process during which energy balancing between photosystem (PS) II and I is achieved. Overexcitation of PSII reduces the plastoquinone pool which activates STN7, a kinase, that phosphorylates a threonine residue on Lhcb1 and Lhcb2. In order to studythe kinetics of this we developed antibodies capable of recognizingphosphorylated forms of each of these proteins. This showed that Lhcb2 is more rapidly phosphorylated than Lhcb1, that there are no differences in the migration of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 and that the majority of phosphorylated LHCII (P-Lhcb1 and PLhcb2) are associated with super- and megacomplexes. Furthermore, a state ...
Previous work using reconstituted membranes has shown that energy transfer can be observed in mixed assemblies of LH2 and RCLH1 complexes,36-38 but controlling the relative stoichiometries and two-dimensional organization of energy donor/acceptor photosynthetic complexes on a nanometer scale, and the locations where excitation energy can migrate between them, presents new challenges. For some time, it has been possible to construct nanoarrays of single types of photosynthetic complex, starting with the light-harvesting LH2 complex of Rba. sphaeroides,18,19,21 and later the RCLH1 complex20 and the LHCII complex of plants.22 In each case the function of the complex, in terms of fluorescence emission, was retained; for LHCII it was possible to directly image the ability of immobilized molecules of LHCII to switch between fluorescent and quenched states. For LH2, there were indications of long-range excitation energy transfer; 80 nm-wide nanolines of LH2 complexes exhibited energy propagation on ...
Enhancement of the nonresonant second order molecular hyperpolarizabilities {gamma} were observed in stacked macrocyclic molecular systems, previously in a {micro}-oxo silicon phthalocyanine (SiPcO) monomer, dimer and trimer series, and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, the |{gamma}| for each macrocycle was enhanced in naturally occurring stacked macrocyclic molecular systems in the bacterial photosynthetic LH proteins where BChla`s are arranged in tilted face-to-face arrays. In addition, the {gamma} enhancement is more significant in B875 of LH1 than in B850 in LH2. Theoretical modeling of the nonresonant {gamma} enhancement using simplified molecular orbitals for model SiPcO indicated that the energy level of the two photon state is crucial to the {gamma} enhancement when a two photon process is involved, whereas the charge transfer between the monomers is largely responsible when one photon
Photosynthesis: How Proteins Control Excitation Energy Transfer: 10.4018/978-1-60566-076-9.ch034: This chapter introduces the theory of optical spectra and excitation energy transfer of light harvesting complexes in photosynthesis. The light energy
en] Photosynthetic activities were analyzed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondrial mutants affected in different complexes (I, III, IV, I + III, and I + IV) of the respiratory chain. Oxygen evolution curves showed a positive relationship between the apparent yield of photosynthetic linear electron transport and the number of active proton-pumping sites in mitochondria. Although no significant alterations of the quantitative relationships between major photosynthetic complexes were found in the mutants, 77 K fluorescence spectra showed a preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) compared with wild type, which was indicative of a shift toward state 2. This effect was correlated with high levels of phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II polypeptides, indicating the preferential association of light-harvesting complex II with PSI. The transition to state 1 occurred in untreated wild-type cells exposed to PSI light or in 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-treated cells exposed ...
Photosystem I light harvesting complex gene 5; The light-harvesting complex (LHC) functions as a light receptor, it captures and delivers excitation energy to photosystems with which it is closely associated (PubMed-15563470, PubMed-21806943). Seems involved in the function of the photosystem I in low light conditions, when other LHCA proteins are less abundant (PubMed-15356385). Required, together with LHCA6, for the formation of a full-size NAD(P)H dehydrogenase- photosystem I supercomplex (NDH-PSI) that triggers cyclic and chlororespiratory electron transport in chloroplast thylakoi [...] (256 aa ...
i) Photosynthetic organisms are exquisitely arranged so as to capture incident sunlight with high efficacy, and transmit the transient excitation energy to a reaction centre where chemical reactions are initiated. The energy-transfer mechanism is often described by semi-classical models that invoke hopping of the wave-packet along discrete energy levels and over considerable distances set in 3-dimensional space. These energy levels combine to form a large peripheral light-harvesting antenna coupled to individual reaction centres. Many attempts have been made to duplicate the essential features of the natural process, ignoring elaborate events such as self-repair and quantum coherence, and great progress has been made in understanding the basic energy-transfer steps. Mostly, these bio-inspired molecular systems have been studied as standalone entities in 2-dimensions, with little consideration given to longer-range energy transfer between moieties embedded in a solid matrix. We have built and ...
In plants the light harvesting complex around the photosystems contain chlorophyll a and b pigment molecules. both Chlorophyll and b helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy. Chlorophyll b is degraded into chlorophyll a and ultimately into phenophytins and pheophorbides ...
Title: Reversible Changes in the Structural Features of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex 2 by Removal and Reconstitution of B800 Bacteriochlorophyll a ...
An extendable and retractable antenna installed on a body housing of a portable radio apparatus includes a helical antenna having an antenna cap protruding from a top portion of the body housing, a helical winding disposed within the antenna cap, a rod antenna extending through the antenna cap, and a feeder disposed at a bottom portion of the helical antenna. The helical antenna is operated when the antenna is retracted. The rod antenna is insulated from the helical antenna when retracted, and passes through the helical antenna to protrude from the body housing when extended. The feeder operates the rod antenna when the rod antenna is extended and operates the helical antenna when the rod antenna is retracted.
Hordeum vulgare CAB-3 protein: from barley; chlorophyl a-b-binding protein of the light-harvesting complex II; amino acid sequence given in first source
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 6q53.1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX II (B800-850) FROM Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila
A method of beam selection in a smart antenna system is provided. The method includes receiving a plurality of uplink beams by a plurality of receivers, each corresponding with one of the plurality of uplink beams. Each uplink beam includes signals transmitted by a mobile station. The method further includes analyzing each of the plurality of uplink beams and selecting an uplink beam from the plurality of uplink beams based at least in part on the analysis of the uplink beams. The method further includes switching to the selected beam in real time to allow the signals communicated in the selected beam to be communicated to a base station transceiver.
Chlorophyll A vs B Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B are two types of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the substance that is present in the leaves of plants and is
Notes. If an MCD calculation is run, the transition densities obtained in the TDDFT calculation are saved to TAPE21. For large molecules this can result in a very large TAPE21 file.. An MCD calculation relies on the excitation energies and, in particular, the transition densities that result from the preceding TDDFT calculation. If the results of the TDDFT calculation are poor then it is likely that the results of the MCD calculation will be poor. It therefore should be kept in mind that most TDDFT calculations will make use of the Davidson method for finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the TDDFT equation. The Davidson approach involves some approximations that can lead to some variation in results with the applied parameters. The most important example of this is the fact that the results vary depending on how many eigenvalue/eigenvector pairs are calculated, ie how many transitions are selected through the LOWEST keyword. The variation is small for the eigenvalues (excitation energies) ...
Roberta Croce is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: In Vitro Reconstitution of Light-harvesting Complexes of Plants and Green Algae
Did you know greed food has chlorophyll as a part of its genetic makeup or constituents? Do you know the difference between chlorophyll and blood?. Chlorophyll has magnesium and red blood cells have iron in the center of the molecule, holding it together. The name of the mechanism holding it all together is called a chelate. What is very interesting, is the fact red blood cells carry oxygen. I have to believe from my experience, it is possible knowing the body is a self-healing mechanism that people eat greens have less of a bleeding issue and more than likely have better quality blood. I am making the assumption because green food assists the liver in proper function. Optimal liver health promotes clearing of estrogen; excessive estrogen is a leading cause of heavy menses and bleeding.. Are you now seeing why all the talk about whole food versus process, dead food is significantly critical? Have you ever heard of succotash? Some of you may have never heard of it, or others may remember the ...
When a paper shows that a control plant and a treated one have different content of chlorophyll a, b and the sum of both, what does that means? I mean, what is the physiological explanation for those differences? What kind of info can I get if I know, for example, that two plants have different amount of chlorophyll b? Thanks!!. ...
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A member of the Legion of Substitute Heroes. Ral Benem is the real name of Chlorophyll Kid. As an child, Ral fell into a vat of plant-growing solution. ...
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Photosystem II of higher plants is a multisubunit transmembrane complex composed of a core moiety and an extensive peripheral antenna system. The number of antenna polypeptides per core complex is modulated following environmental conditions in order to optimize photosynthetic performance. In this study, we used a barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant, viridis zb63, which lacks photosystem I, to mimic extreme and chronic overexcitation of photosystem II. The mutation was shown to reduce the photosystem II antenna to a minimal size of about 100 chlorophylls per photosystem II reaction centre, which was not further reducible. The minimal photosystem II unit was analysed by biochemical methods and by electron microscopy, and found to consist of a dimeric photosystem II reaction centre core surrounded by monomeric Lhcb4 (chlorophyll protein 29), Lhcb5 (chlorophyll protein 26) and trimeric light-harvesting complex II antenna proteins. This minimal photosystem II unit forms arrays in vivo, possibly to ...
Chlorophyll-binding proteins (CBPs) constitute a large family of proteins with diverse functions in both light-harvesting and photoprotection. The evolution of CBPs has been debated, especially with respect to the origin of the LI818 subfamily, members of which function in non-photochemical quenching and have been found in chlorophyll a/c-containing algae and several organisms of the green lineage, but not in red algae so far. The recent publication of the Ectocarpus siliculosus genome represents an opportunity to expand on previous work carried out on the origin and function of CBPs. The Ectocarpus genome codes for 53 CBPs falling into all major families except the exclusively green family of chlorophyll a/b binding proteins. Most stress-induced CBPs belong to the LI818 family. However, we highlight a few stress-induced CBPs from Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Chondrus crispus that belong to different sub-families and are promising targets for future functional studies. Three-dimensional modeling of two
Photosynthetic reaction centre proteins are main protein components of photosynthetic reaction centres of bacteria and plants. The photosynthetic apparatus in non-oxygenic bacteria consists of light-harvesting protein-pigment complexes LH1 and LH2, which use carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll as primary donors. LH1 acts as the energy collection hub, temporarily storing it before its transfer to the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC). Electrons are transferred from the primary donor via an intermediate acceptor (bacteriophaeophytin) to the primary acceptor (quinine Qa), and finally to the secondary acceptor (quinone Qb), resulting in the formation of ubiquinol QbH2. RC uses the excitation energy to shuffle electrons across the membrane, transferring them via ubiquinol to the cytochrome bc1 complex in order to establish a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthetase to form ATP. The core complex is anchored in the cell membrane, consisting of one unit of RC surrounded by ...
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The xanthophyll cycle involves the enzymatic removal of epoxy groups from xanthophylls (e.g. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diadinoxanthin) to create so-called de-epoxidised xanthophylls (e.g. diatoxanthin, zeaxanthin). These enzymatic cycles were found to play a key role in stimulating energy dissipation within light-harvesting antenna proteins by non-photochemical quenching- a mechanism to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the photosynthetic reaction centers. Non-photochemical quenching is one of the main ways of protecting against photoinhibition.[3] In higher plants, there are three carotenoid pigments that are active in the xanthophyll cycle: violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin. During light stress, violaxanthin is converted to zeaxanthin via the intermediate antheraxanthin, which plays a direct photoprotective role acting as a lipid-protective anti-oxidant and by stimulating non-photochemical quenching within light-harvesting proteins. This conversion of violaxanthin to ...
The evolutionary origin of photosynthetic reaction centers has long remained elusive. Here, we use sequence and structural analysis to demonstrate an evolutionary link between the cytochrome b subunit of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and the core polypeptides of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center. In particular, we have identified an area of significant sequence similarity between a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain of cytochrome b, which contains binding sites for two hemes, and a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain in the photosynthetic reaction center core subunits, which contains binding sites for cofactors such as (bacterio)chlorophylls, (bacterio)pheophytin and a non-heme iron. Three of the four heme ligands in cytochrome b are found to be conserved with the cofactor ligands in the reaction center polypeptides. Since cytochrome b and reaction center polypeptides both bind tetrapyrroles and quinones for electron transfer, the observed sequence, functional and ...
The evolutionary origin of photosynthetic reaction centers has long remained elusive. Here, we use sequence and structural analysis to demonstrate an evolutionary link between the cytochrome b subunit of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and the core polypeptides of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center. In particular, we have identified an area of significant sequence similarity between a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain of cytochrome b, which contains binding sites for two hemes, and a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain in the photosynthetic reaction center core subunits, which contains binding sites for cofactors such as (bacterio)chlorophylls, (bacterio)pheophytin and a non-heme iron. Three of the four heme ligands in cytochrome b are found to be conserved with the cofactor ligands in the reaction center polypeptides. Since cytochrome b and reaction center polypeptides both bind tetrapyrroles and quinones for electron transfer, the observed sequence, functional and ...
The study of the photosynthetic processes has always had a particular relevance in spectroscopy because of its possible applications in light harvesting and energy storage. Since the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes have this functional role in nature, many of studies have been focused on understanding photophysical processes occurring in these systems. Our work aims to study the spectroscopic properties of the best known pigment involved in the photosynthesis, Chlorophyll a, and their changes with different solvents. The study of the pigment was conducted by linear spectroscopic studies for water-solvent mixtures, while by the nonlinear technique 2D spectroscopy was applied for pure solvent. The theory and technique of 2D spectroscopy is described. The properties of solvents strongly influence the environment felt by the molecule and its capability of aggregate formation. The solvent properties that were found to be most relevant for our study were viscosity, H-bonding formation and ...
From Dynamic Equilibrium to Photoinitiated Processes: Tracking Condensed Phase Dynamics. Abstract. Many important processes in chemistry and biology occur in the solution phase, including protein conformation changes, energy transfer processes, and proton and electron transfer reactions. Understanding condensed phase dynamics is essential for describing and predicting these processes, which is why it is a prevailing topic throughout the scientific community. In this talk I will discuss two different research topics that explore different processes in condensed phase systems. The first focuses on understanding ultrafast photoinitiated processes of photosystem I, a light harvesting complex that catalyzes oxygenic photosynthesis. Here two- dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) gives remarkable insight into the very first steps of light harvesting in photosynthesis. The second explores dynamic equilibrium in a fluxional metal-carbonyl complex. Here two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy ...
Health benefits of liquid chlorophyll at skeleton. Chlorophyll encouraged to our website, on this moment Im going to teach you about Chlorophyll.. And today, this is actually the very first image, chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll supplements, chlorophyll water, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll definition, chlorophyll function, chlorophyll in algae, chlorophyll a structure, chlorophyllin :. ...