This work is a first attempt to investigate polysaccharide content of Prasinococcus sp. in comparison with the model strain of Porphyridium cruentum, as a potential polysaccharide producer, under two different light intensities with two different sodium glyoxylate monohydrate concentrations in F/2 medium. The microalgae strains were cultured in 1000 mL glass bottles containing 900 mL of F/2 medium at the air flow rate of 1 vvm under the temperature of 22 +/- 2 degrees C at two different light intensities (10 mu E m(-2)s(-1) and 50 mu E m(-2)s(-1)) with two different concentrations of sodium glyoxylate monohydrate (control, 0.25, and 1.25 mM C2HNaO3 center dot H2O) for 14 days. The maximum specific growth rates of 0.236 day(-1) and 0.298 day(-1), which corresponded to the doubling times of 2.945 day and 2.325 day, were obtained in F/2 control medium and in the low level glyoxylate treatment (0.25 mM) under 50 mu E m(-2)s(-1) for Prasinococcus sp. and P. cruenturn, respectively. It is also ...
Light Reactions: Light-dependent reactions harness energy from the sun to produce chemical bonds, ATP, and NADPH. Plants have therefore evolved various protective and response mechanisms, which monitor the intensity, wavelength, duration and direction of light and mitigate the negative effects of light stress. The Light-dependent reaction Study Pack contains: Encyclopedia Articles (2) Photosynthesis, Light Reactions And 2,801 words, approx. Photosynthesis evolution. Visible light and ultraviolet light, the inherent parts of sunlight, may cause damage to the photosynthetic machinery and other cellular components. The protein complexes and the pigment molecules help in the production of NADPH and ATP. The chloroplasts are double-membraned cell organelles that are comprised of stacked disc-like structures known as thylakoids. ... 11/14/2013 12:39:25 am. The light-dependent reactions. As you might expect, the light dependent reactions depend on light; this is where the plant converts light energy to ...
The invention relates to a light guide panel capable of distributing light beams incident from a light source to an entire surface thereof. The light guide panel has at least two through holes formed in a path of the incident light beams, apart in a predetermined interval from a light incident surface. The through holes are formed perpendicular to the path of the incident light beams, and lined along the light incident surface of the light guide panel. The light guide panel according to the present invention can improve uniformity of incident light without increasing the number or size of the light source, thereby distributing the incident light in a wider angle and decreasing a light mixing region. The light guide panel is produced in a simple manufacturing process, reducing the manufacturing costs.
Summary As the ear has dual functions for audition and balance, the eye has a dual role in detecting light for a wide range of behavioral and physiological functions separate from sight [1-11]. These responses are driven primarily by stimulation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that are most sensitive to short-wavelength (∼480 nm) blue light and remain functional in the absence of rods and cones [8-10]. We examined the spectral sensitivity of non-image-forming responses in two profoundly blind subjects lacking functional rods and cones (one male, 56 yr old; one female, 87 yr old). In the male subject, we found that short-wavelength light preferentially suppressed melatonin, reset the circadian pacemaker, and directly enhanced alertness compared to 555 nm exposure, which is the peak sensitivity of the photopic visual system. In an action spectrum for pupillary constriction, the female subject exhibited a peak spectral sensitivity (λmax) of 480 nm, matching that of the pRGCs but ...
When chlorophyll a absorbs light energy, an electron gains energy and is excited. The excited electron is transferred to another molecule (called a primary electron acceptor). The chlorophyll molecule is oxidized (loss of electron) and has a positive charge. Photoactivation of chlorophyll a results in the splitting of water molecules and the transfer of energy to ATP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). The chemical reactions involved include: condensation reactions - responsible for water molecules splitting out, including phosphorylation (the addition of a phosphate group to an organic compound) oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions involving electron transfer Photosynthesis is a two stage process. 1. The Light dependent reactions, a light-dependent series of reactions which occur in the grana, and require the direct energy of light to make energy-carrier molecules that are used in the second process: light energy is trapped by chlorophyll to make ATP (ph. ...
The present invention provides an instrument adapted for alignment with a light beam, which instrument includes an instrument body having a point of entry of the light beam, a light conducting channel, and a sensing element carried by the instrument and being spaced from the point of entry of the light beam. The sensing element serves to provide indication of alignment or misalignment between the instrument and the light beam. The light beam travels inside the instrument along the light conducting channel extending from the point of entry to the sensing element. One or more light guiding devices are disposed inside the light conducting channel to increase precision of alignment between the instrument and the light beam. The light guiding device has a wall forming a guiding passage inside the guiding device. When disposed inside the instrument, the wall of the guiding device blocks non-aligned light beams from reaching the sensing element, while allowing the aligned light beams to propagate along a
Light exposure induces oxidative stress, which contributes to ocular diseases of aging. Blue light provides a model for light-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to mature adults, which undergo retinal degeneration when exposed to prolonged blue light, newly-eclosed flies are resistant to blue light-induced retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to characterize the gene expression programs induced by blue light in flies of different ages to identify neuroprotective pathways utilized by photoreceptors to cope with light-induced oxidative stress. To identify gene expression changes induced by blue light exposure, we profiled the nuclear transcriptome of Drosophila photoreceptors from one- and six-day-old flies exposed to blue light and compared these with dark controls. Flies were exposed to 3 h blue light, which increases levels of reactive oxygen species but does not cause retinal degeneration. We identified substantial gene
Plants employ a variety of mechanisms to maximize photosynthetic potential under changing environmental conditions. For example, most plants can biochemically adapt to excessive light by altering the size of light harvesting complexes, dissipating excess energy as heat, scavenging reactive oxygen, and rapidly repairing damaged reaction center proteins (Niyogi, 1999). Developmental changes that occur in response to different light conditions include variations in leaf thickness, density of mesophyll cells, and changes in the orientation of the leaf blade (Boardman, 1977). These responses have been associated with improved photosynthetic potential and/or protection from photodamage. However, their relative importance can be species specific, indicating that some of these responses represent unique adaptive strategies. Another perhaps more ubiquitous plant response to varying light conditions is light-induced chloroplast movement, which has been documented in a large number of species, including ...
We have demonstrated the function of EML1 and its participation in the recovery of sensitivity under continuous illumination in UV- and blue-sensitive zebrafish cones. Sensitivity recovery in the first tens of seconds after the onset of adapting light was first reported in ERG studies of the flicker response of several mammalian and nonmammalian species (Muller-Limmroth and Andree, 1953). Studies of flicker ERG in frog suggested that the sensitivity recovery originates in cones (Owen and Sillman, 1973; Haynes and Sillman, 1986), which was directly demonstrated in single cell studies of turtle cones under continuous illumination (Normann and Perlman, 1979; Burkhardt, 1994). In humans, the cone-driven b wave in the ERG (Gouras and MacKay, 1989) and cone-driven psychophysical perception (Stockman et al., 2006, 2007) also exhibit slow sensitivity recovery under continuous illumination. However, the rate of this sensitivity recovery is slower than that measured in the nonmammalian photoreceptors, ...
The presence of copper (Cu) contamination is known to cause relevant light-induced degradation (Cu-LID) effects in p-type silicon. Due to its high diffusivity, Cu is generally regarded as a relatively benign impurity, which can be readily relocated during device fabrication from the wafer bulk, i.e. the region affected by Cu-LID, to the surface phosphorus-doped emitter. This contribution examines in detail the impact of gettering by industrially relevant phosphorus layers on the strength of Cu-LID effects. We find that phosphorus gettering does not always prevent the occurrence of Cu-LID. Specifically, air-cooling after an isothermal anneal at 800°C results in only weak impurity segregation to the phosphorus-doped layer, which turns out to be insufficient for effectively mitigating Cu-LID effects. Furthermore, we show that the gettering efficiency can be enhanced through the addition of a slow cooling ramp (-4°C/min) between 800°C and 600°C, resulting in the nearly complete disappearance of ...
Introduction. Photosynthesis Coursework Introduction Background Information Glucose can be converted to sucrose and carried to other parts of the plant in phloem vessels. Glucose can also be converted into starch and stored Light Sometimes light is a limiting factor. A plant may have lots of water and carbon dioxide, but it will not photosynthesize very fast if there is not enough light; increasing the light intensity will make photosynthesis faster. Carbon dioxide Sometimes the level of carbon dioxide is limiting. There may be plenty of light but the plant cannot photosynthesize because it has run out of carbon dioxide. Temperature Temperature can be a limiting factor too. The rate of photosynthesis will be limited if it is too cold for the enzymes to work properly. ...read more. Middle. Diagram Preliminary method I was going to do a method which involved counting the bubbles at different light intensities. I chose not to do this method as it is and inaccurate method to show volume of O2 ...
A light emitting diode (LED) warning signal light, the warning signal light comprising a plurality of light sources constructed and arranged with a reflector or cullminator, the LED light source being in electrical communication with a controller and a power supply, battery, or other electrical source. The warning signal light provides various colored light signals for independent use or use by an emergency vehicle. These light signals may include a strobe light, revolving light, an alternating light, a flashing light, a modulated light, a pulsating light, an oscillating light or any combination thereof. Additionally, the warning signal light may be capable of displaying symbols, reverse characters, or arrows. The controller may further be adapted to regulate or modulate the power intensity exposed to the illuminated LEDs to create a variable intensity light signal.
A new technique that stimulates heart muscle cells with low-energy light raises the possibility of a future light-controlled pacemaker, researchers have indicated.
The current guidance in the Regulations and in the relevant Codes of Practice, BS 8300:2009 is that adequate visual contrast is provided if the Light Reflectance Values (LRV) of the contrasting areas differ by at least 30 points. The current British Standard for the measurement of LRV is BS8493:2008+A1:2010. Manufacturers are advised, for example, by the Guild of Architectural Ironmongery[1] to publish the LRV for their products. Designers are beginning to demand them. On signage with words or pictograms The Americans with Disabilities Act accessibility guidelines (ADAAG) recommend a light reflectance value of 70%, but this is not a strict requirement.[3] Several other color combinations in the 60-70% range also work well. Color contrast is determined by the formula [(B1 - B2) / B1] x 100, where B1 is the LRV of the lighter area, and B2 is the LRV of a darker area.[4][5] ...
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sle
what are the products of light dependent reactions - 28 images - review for quiz on photosynthesis worland, the two steps of photosynthesis from openstax college, ppt photosynthesis powerpoint presentation id 1090782, science is cool, unit 6 photosynthesis cellular respiration ppt
Photosynthetic acclimation The light harvesting complex is composed of trimeric and monomeric antenna proteins containing Chlorophyll a and b pigments and carotenoids. Its role is to capture the light energy and transfer it in the form of excitation to the chlorophyll of the reaction centers and to dissipate the excess of light energy when the light input overcomes the photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, constituting a large portion of the photosynthetic protein, the light harvesting complex play a role on the overall organisation of the thylakoid membrane. The goal of the research project is to investigate the role of the phosphorylation of each LHCII subunit in the photosynthetic acclimation to different light conditions. The project aims to answer the following questions: What are the specific roles of the different isoforms? Would a modified isoform lacking the N-terminal phosphorylation still allow acclimation to different light conditions? What is the contribution of the N-terminus and ...
The trial is designed to detect (1) change in spike frequency on EEG before and after exposure to low intensity green light, and (2) presence or absence of neurologic/systemic symptoms referable to exposure of the pre-selected duration, intensity, and band of green light.. Our primary aim is to determine whether prolonged exposure (120 minutes) to a narrow band of green light (520-540 nm) at low intensities (1-10 cd/m2) alters the pattern of electrical activity in the cortex of epilepsy patients.. The primary outcome measure for this aim will be the fraction of patients in which the number of epileptiform discharges (spikes or sharp waves) decrease, per recording, in response to green light exposure, as determined by spike frequency detected via scalp EEG before and after green light exposure.. The investigators anticipate that the primary outcome measures of safety and tolerability will not differ from the previously established measures of green light exposure for migraine (Noseda et al. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy. AU - Bargo, P. R.. AU - Prahl, S. A.. AU - Goodell, T. T.. AU - Sleven, R. A.. AU - Koval, G.. AU - Blair, G.. AU - Jacques, S. L.. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - Determination of tissue optical properties is fundamental for application of light in either therapeutical or diagnostics procedures. In the present work we implemented a spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance method where only two fibers (one source and one detector) spaced 2.5 mm apart are used for the determination of the optical properties. The method relies on the spectral characteristics of the tissue chromophores (water, dry tissue, and blood) and the assumption of a simple wavelength dependent expression for the determination of the reduced scattering coefficient. Because of the probe dimensions the method is suited for endoscopic ...
Dear users, I am looking for some references and literature about the rates of electron flow through photosystem II when algae adapted to different light intensities (low light[5 =B5E m-2 -1]; normal and high light [e.g. 200 =B5E m-2 s-1]). Perhaps anyone knows a reference with PI-curves (light saturation curves) at these light quantities. Thank you very much for your help. =46rank Uxerland ...
Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW and BW positively correlated with
Novel visible-light-responsive photocatalysts (CsBi2Nb5O16 and CsBiNb2O7) were prepared using a conventional solid-state reaction method. CsBiNb2O7 and CsBi2Nb5O16 belong to a layered perovskite structure and a defective pyrochlore structure, respectively. These prepared samples have photocatalytic properties to decompose 2-propanol under visible light irradiation.
A light clock measures time by having a light pulse source initiating a light pulse which travels a preset distance in an open or closed loop. A counter is increases incrementally upon detection of the light pulse by a light pulse detector. Each increment is a time interval, which is determined by the preset distance divided by the speed of the light pulse. If the loop is an open loop, another light pulse may be initiated upon detection of the previous light pulse. If the loop is a closed loop, no further light pulse initiation beyond the initial light pulse is required, but, when necessary, a light pulse amplifier is used to amplify the light pulse for the next cycle around the closed loop in the light pulse transmission device.
AKVIS LightShop Tutorial. Light Effects Elements. Sphere is a ball-shaped light element with a soft glowing halo surrounding it. LightShop adds amazing light effects to your pictures.
Plants do not only gain energy from light, they also use light as a source of information in order to adapt growth and development to environmental conditions. They have a range of photoreceptors to detect different aspects of their light environment, such as the light intensity and spectral composition, the direction of the light gradient, or temporal light patterns (Kami et al., 2010). Cryptochromes, phototropins, members of the ZEITLUPE (ZTL) family, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) monitor the blue (B) and UV-B range of the light spectrum, whereas phytochromes (PHYs) are essential for the perception of red (R) and far-red (FR) light (Kami et al., 2010; Heijde and Ulm, 2012). Phytochromes can exist in two different states, the inactive Pr form with maximal absorption in R light, and the active or Pfr form of phytochromes, which has an absorption peak in FR light. By absorption of light, these forms reversibly convert into each other, resulting in an equilibrium with a wavelength-specific ...
Your eyes are sensitive to a narrow band of frequencies referred to as the, visible light spectrum. Visible light-light capable of being seen by the human eye -consists of wavelengths of varying lengths.. Blue light has a very short wavelength and is detectable by the human eye. Not only does it provide basic illumination to our worlds, blue light also helps to increase feelings of well-being. But exposure to large amounts of blue light can be harmful to the eyes.. The plethora of electronic devices in use today, such as cell phones, tablets, and laptop computers, has drastically increased our exposure to blue light. Another source of blue light is energy efficient technology in the form of fluorescent light bulbs and LED lights. Research has determined that the lens inside the eye, and the pigment in the back of the eye, offer some protection against blue light. But this protective mechanism only lasts for short period of exposure to the intense blue light, and during daylight hours.. Perhaps ...
High energy visible light (HEV) refers to very specific range of wave lengths which collectively are known as blue light. Blue lights serve several important purposes for human beings but only a fraction of this HEV is necessary for color perception. Blue light (HEV) is being introduced into our lives at an increased rate every year and it can harm our eyes. The potential hazards may include diminished visual performance and contribution to aged related macular degeneration. Blue light can come from fluorescent light bulbs, LED television and digital devices which include hand held tablet computers, smart phones and modern computer screens. Blue light is the highest energy light visible to the human eye. It is the shortest wave light in the visible light spectrum. We now have treatments to minimize the harmful effects of blue light.. ...
The signal transduction machinery activated by PHY requires transcription factors such as PIF, HY5 and LAF1, which act in the de-etiolation process (Chattopadhyay et al., 1998; Ballesteros et al., 2001; Tepperman et al., 2001; Al-Sady et al., 2006). Recently, studies on phytochrome-regulated gene expression by means of microarray analyses showed that many other transcription factors are also early over-expressed through PHYA and PHYB (Quail, 2007).. It has been shown that PHYA, but not PHYB, plays a role in the transcriptional induction of phytoene synthase (psy) in Arabidopsis (von Lintig et al., 1997), by promoting the binding of HY5 to white, blue, red and far red light respon-sive elements (LREs) located in its promoter (Figure 2). LREs are described to be sufficient to confer responsiveness to light in promoters that are not induced normally by light (Roa-Rodríguez, 2003). The most common type of LREs that are present in genes activated by light are the ATCTA element, and the Gl (CACGAG) ...
Algal-derived compounds allow us to make assumptions about environmental conditions in the past. In order to better understand how organisms record environmental conditions, we grew microscopic marine algae at different light intensities, salinities, and alkalinities in a temperature-controlled environment. We determined how these environmental parameters affected specific algal-derived compounds, especially their relative deuterium content, which seems to be mainly affected by salinity ...
Photosynthesis is most efficient at light wavelengths between 400 and 500 nanometers and 600 to 700 nanometers. The green pigment, chlorophyll, restricts the efficiency of photosynthesis....
Blue light is part of the visible light spectrum, with wavelengths of about 415 nm to 495 nm. Blue light can be divided into two bands: blue-violet light (415-455 nm) and blue-turquoise light (465-495 nm).3 When light in the blueviolet range hits the eye, a process unique to this band of wavelength occurs. During the visual cycle, when opsin starts the process of phototransduction, certain intermediate products are produced that can also bind opsin and accept more photons within this range of wavelength, resulting in photoreversal that occurs faster than the normal visual cycle. This photoreversal enables the eye to absorb more blue light than any other kind of light.4. Photons of light are small units of energy, too much of which can result in uncoupling of cellular oxidative phosphorylation, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupt membranous structures of the photoreceptor outer segments and consequently damage delicate RPE cells. This damage causes incomplete phagocytosis ...
Membrane proteins are of significant importance, performing a variety of biological functions including pumps, channels, and receptors. Thus, membrane proteins represent attractive candidates as drug targets. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the most widely studied membrane protein, consists of seven transmembrane helical segments and functions which can work as a proton pump in Halobacterium Salinarium. In the present study, the reversible control of bR conformation with simple light illumination is examined, providing a protocol to probe membrane protein folding (a challenge even to this day due to the large, aggregation-prone hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins compared to soluble proteins). Two general methodologies are utilized to control membrane protein folding, including (1) saturation of the natural lipids with a photoresponsive surfactant resulting in partitioning of the protein into detergent-lipid mixed micelles in the unfolded state, and (2) the development of artificial bilayers ...
Membrane proteins are of significant importance, performing a variety of biological functions including pumps, channels, and receptors. Thus, membrane proteins represent attractive candidates as drug targets. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the most widely studied membrane protein, consists of seven transmembrane helical segments and functions which can work as a proton pump in Halobacterium Salinarium. In the present study, the reversible control of bR conformation with simple light illumination is examined, providing a protocol to probe membrane protein folding (a challenge even to this day due to the large, aggregation-prone hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins compared to soluble proteins). Two general methodologies are utilized to control membrane protein folding, including (1) saturation of the natural lipids with a photoresponsive surfactant resulting in partitioning of the protein into detergent-lipid mixed micelles in the unfolded state, and (2) the development of artificial bilayers ...
I have been studying research in the area of natural light and its interaction on the human brain. An important point to make is that appropriate exposure to natural light has positive effects on our circadian rhythm and in turn promotes many aspects of health.. We evolved from exposure to natural day lighting. The sun provides a specific wavelength (blue range) in the early morning that lasts until early afternoon. At that point a different light wavelength is produced (red to orange range). We recently discovered that the retina has a specific photoreceptor that detects light and sends it to a special part of the brain known as the suprachiasm, located near the hypothalamus. Once the suprachiasm is triggered, it sets off the hypothalamus, the master gland that in turn triggers the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands of the brain and body. The hormonal reaction to light is what causes and promotes the diverse actions of the body and health.. The blue range of light helps our bodies become ...
Fig. 1: Retinal degeneration: a new model of blue-light induced damage Light microscopy photographs (magnification x400). Trichrome Masson staining of sagittal section of retina 14 days after blue light exposure. Approximately four rows of photoreceptor nuclei remaining and inner and outer segments were disrupted (Iris Pharma, France).. Blue light may damage the retina in a number of ways involving different chromophores and cellular events; however, retinal damage by photo chemical mechanism is most likely to be of relevance in the development of AMD. Photochemical reactions occur in normal ambient conditions and involve a reaction between energetic photons and an absorbing molecule in the presence of oxygen leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are highly toxic to the retina.. Short-term exposure (up to about 12 hours) to relatively intense blue light, referred to as blue light hazard, can produce damage at the level of RPE in primates. [9] The dependence of this ...
Fig. 1: Retinal degeneration: a new model of blue-light induced damage Light microscopy photographs (magnification x400). Trichrome Masson staining of sagittal section of retina 14 days after blue light exposure. Approximately four rows of photoreceptor nuclei remaining and inner and outer segments were disrupted (Iris Pharma, France).. Blue light may damage the retina in a number of ways involving different chromophores and cellular events; however, retinal damage by photo chemical mechanism is most likely to be of relevance in the development of AMD. Photochemical reactions occur in normal ambient conditions and involve a reaction between energetic photons and an absorbing molecule in the presence of oxygen leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are highly toxic to the retina.. Short-term exposure (up to about 12 hours) to relatively intense blue light, referred to as blue light hazard, can produce damage at the level of RPE in primates. [9] The dependence of this ...
A high-density channels detecting device for detecting a sample is provided. The high density detecting-device has a light source for emitting a light beam, a collimator, a beam splitter, and a high-density channels imaging device. The collimator arranged on the beam path is used for collimating the emitted light beam. The beam splitter reflects the light beam incident from the collimator to the sample, and the light beam reflected by the sample passes through the beam splitter. The imaging device receives the light beam passing through the beam splitter, and has a light collector and a multi-channel kernel module for receiving the light beam from the light collector. By using the light collector, the light beam incident to the kernel module is parallel to the optical axis of the kernel module.
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A fluorimeter comprises an excitation optical system projecting the excitation light having a selected wavelength for a sample to said sample, a sample cell for accommodating the sample; fluorescent light sensors for sensing the fluorescent light emitted from the sample; a transmission light sensor for sensing the light transmitted through the sample; and an arithmetic divider which divides the output of the fluorescent light sensor by the output of the transmission light sensor, and provides a signal representing the intensity of the fluorescent light which is corrected against the variation of the excitation light intensity.
Mracek, Philipp; Pagano, Chrstina; Fröhlich, Nadine; Idda, M. Laura; Cuesta, Ines H.; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, F. Javier; Daniela Vallone, Daniela; Foulkes, Nicholas S ...
BACKGROUND Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation causes visible erythema, which has been linked with DNA damage. However, besides such direct photochemical conformation changes, UVB also induces many indirect photochemical effects in the skin. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is in this context one of the major pathways by which photo-oxidative stress disturbs cell signalling and promotes photocarcinogenesis and photoageing. So far we lack techniques for visualizing photo-oxidative stress in the skin. Furthermore, LPO has never been linked with individually acquired UVB doses measured by personal dosimetry. OBJECTIVES Measuring the skin reaction and photo-oxidative damage by LPO in vivo after UVB exposure in a pilot study surveyed by personal dosimetry in order to allow for a correlation analysis of acquired dose, skin reaction and amount of LPO. METHODS UVB exposure was measured with the opto-electronic X2000-1 (Gigahertz Optik, Puchheim, Germany) and the biological DLR Biofilm (German Aerospace Center DLR,
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A McCree study in 1972 studied the relative quantum yields of the photosynthetic spectrum and found that a mixture of light, with large quantities of green, produced the most photosynthetic output. However, later research found that photo pigments within the plant tissue absorb this green light and excite/de-excite out other photons such as red or blue. This means that a larger spectrum of light is used by plant, equating to the entire visible spectrum. Therefore, there is no such thing as waste light within the visible spectrum. However, the distribution of the delivered spectrum does heavily influence growth patterns.. Moreover, green light works in some plants to tell it that it is surrounded by other plants and needs a longer stem to break out, typically using the phytochrome mechanism, as does red and far-red light. Cryptochromes are also stimulated by green light to some degree, sometimes reversing blue light driven elongation inhibitory action (see article blue and red light). Due to ...
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Hazy weather significantly increase air pollution and affect light intensity which may also affect medicinal plants growth. Syringa oblata Lindl. (S. oblata), an effective anti-biofilm medicinal plants, is also vulnerable to changes in plant photoperiods and other abiotic stress responses. Rutin, one of the flavonoids, is the main bioactive ingredient in S. oblata that inhibits Streptococcus suis biofilm formation. Thus, the present study aims to explore the biosynthesis and molecular basis of flavonoids in S. oblata in response to different light intensity. In this study, it was shown that compared with natural (Z0) and 25% ~ 35% (Z2) light intensities, the rutin content of S. oblata under 50% ~ 60% (Z1) light intensity increased significantly. In addition, an integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome was performed using light intensity stress conditions from two kinds of light intensities which S. oblata was subjected to: Z0 and Z1. The results revealed that differential metabolites and
Capillary electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering studies of structure and binding characteristics of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes
Symsagittifera roscoffensis is a plathelminth living in symbiosis with the green algae Tetraselmis convolutae. Host and symbiont are a model system for the study of endosymbiosis, so far mainly focused on their biochemical interactions. S. roscoffensis is well known for its positive phototaxis that is hypothesized to optimize the symbionts light perception for photosynthesis. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis of phototaxis using light sources of different wavelength and brightness by videotracking. Furthermore, we compared the behavioral data with the electron transfer rate of the photosystem from cultured symbiotic cells. The symbiotic algae is adapted to low light conditions showing a positive electron transfer rate (ETR) already at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 0.112 µmol m−2 s−1 (mol photons per square meter and second), and S. roscoffensis showed a positive phototactic behaviour for light intensities up to 459.17 µmol m−2 s−1 which are not optimal ...
Essay On An Owl In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. 29/10/2010 Purdue OWL Engagement Welcome to effect of light intensity on photosynthesis experiment, the Purdue OWL This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue . (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Contributors:Elyssa Tardiff, Allen Brizee. Summary: This resource describes why outlines are useful, what types of outlines exist, suggestions for developing effective outlines, and how outlines can be used as an provident malaysia invention strategy for writing. On Photosynthesis. Four Main Components for. 0 , Arabic numerals , Decimal 1163 Words , 5 Pages. Snowy Owls Snowy Owls 2012 Com156 12/9/2012 A snowy owl will live out the entire course of its life in Pressure and Agressive, the . open artic in most cases, while others will migrate out of the arctic tundra. They will hunt, eat, mate, reproduce, and on photosynthesis experiment, die where they reside.. The largest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffraction rings obtained from a suspension of skeletal myofibrils by laser light illumination. Study of internal structure of sarcomeres. AU - Ishiwata, S.. AU - Okamura, N.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Diffraction rings corresponding to the first, second, and third order were obtained by laser light illumination from a suspension of rabbit glycerinated psoas myofibrils (diameter, 1-2 μm; average length of the straight region, 44 μm; average sarcomere length, 2.2-2.6 μm) of which the optical thickness was appropriately chosen. Dispersed myofibrils were nearly randomly oriented in two dimensions, so that the effects of muscle volume were minimized; these effects usually interfere significantly with a quantitative analysis of laser optical diffraction in the fiber system. The diameters of diffraction rings represented the average sarcomere length. By using this system, we confirmed the ability of the unit cell (sarcomere) structure model to explain the intensity change of ...
A portable, handheld artificial light detector distinguishes artificial light from sunlight and identifies low-frequency artificial light from high-frequency artificial light. Artificial light includes light from a lamp powered by an AC source. Low frequency light includes, for example, light produced by a magnetic luminaire ballast, while high frequency light includes light produced by an electronic luminaire ballast.
Studies have been conducted on the geographic variation of growth and survival among fish populations but little work has been done in this regard on the early larval stages of marine fish. We conducted experiments on larvae from 2 separate populations of Atlantic cod to determine their response to light. Preliminary experiments conducted in our laboratory suggested that the light intensity under which larvae were reared may affect the growth performance of Atlantic cod larvae from the Scotian Shelf (SS) and Northeast Grand Banks (NF) differently. We conducted experiments to test the hypothesis that light intensity differentially affects larvae from these 2 geographically distinct populations. Cod larvae from each population were reared under low (0.19 μE m-2 or 8.5 lx) and high (12.92 μE m-2 or 680 lx) light intensities. Results showed that NF larvae foraged, grew and survived better under high light than low light, while the SS larvae performed better under low light conditions. In nature, ...
Radiation degrades organic compounds. Visible light accelerates molecular movement (i.e., heat). Ultraviolet light, on the other hand, ionizes molecules, adding or removing electrons and thereby breaking molecular bonds.---- We might say that light shakes things up. In our case, the organic matter from harvested cannabis absorbs energy from light. This energy excites electrons and may directly alter the chemical structure of a sample, facilitating degradation.. [Graphic 3/ Source: Rice University, CC 4.0] If this sounds a little crazy, consider that museum exhibits often prohibit flash photography and control light schemes with the utmost precision. Per the National Gallery of Art, Damage occurs because light is radiant energy… Low light levels over a long period of time can cause equal or even greater degradation as intense light for a short period.. In cannabis, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) naturally degrades to cannabinol (CBN) over time. Light exposure supplies energy and speeds up ...
Daily exposure to bright light (phototherapy) may help balance certain brain chemicals and reset body rhythms. Usually, light therapy involves sitting in front of a high-intensity fluorescent light source that is meant to simulate daylight (2,500 to 10,000 lux, a unit of illumination) at a distance of 1 to 2 feet, for 1 to 2 hours each morning (generally less time with increasing lux values). For some people, 30 minutes to 2 hours of treatment with bright light may be as effective as antidepressant medication. You should sit in front of the box with your eyes open, but do not look directly into the light source.. Light sources include fluorescent light boxes, light visors, or light units worn on the head. White fluorescent light is safer than ultraviolet light. It may take 2 to 4 weeks before symptoms of SAD are relieved with light therapy. Talk to your doctor before choosing light therapy, as it is not appropriate for everyone. There are also certain side effects associated with this technique, ...
Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15), or bright light versus placebo (n=10). Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions). The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes
The views expressed in articles published on FIRES do not necessarily reflect those of IES or represent endorsement by the IES.. By Travis Longcore. From the position of wildlife, the best artificial light at night is no artificial light at night. Recognizing that this is not feasible while maintaining safety and achieving other goals, I have focused on evaluating spectrum as an approach to minimizing impacts to wildlife and, more broadly, to the night sky, ecosystems, and humans. The most useful information needed to compare the effects of one light source with another is the spectral power distribution (SPD) from ultraviolet to infrared. By comparing the visual systems or known behavioral responses of different groups and species of wildlife to those SPDs, we can first predict, then confirm through experiments in the laboratory and field, the extent to which one light affects species more or less than another at the same brightness as perceived by humans. My colleagues and I have tested this ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Biology, Physiology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics, BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, melatonin suppression, light, melanopsin, human, SHORT-WAVELENGTH LIGHT, RETINAL GANGLION-CELLS, CIRCADIAN RESPONSES, HIGH-SENSITIVITY, ACTION SPECTRUM, DIM LIGHT, NON-CONE, NON-ROD, MELANOPSIN, BRIGHT ...
Illuminators and systems are provided that permit the production of a beam of electromagnetic radiation having selected peak wavelength, bandwidth, intensity, pulse frequency and pulse duration for a variety of analytical and therapeutic applications. Multiple beam illuminators use filter elements arranged into filter arrays, having characteristic wavelength absorption properties. By providing a series of filter arrays formed into tracks having defined wavelength offsets, radiation passing through a portion of a track can be modified to include selected peak wavelength and bandwidth. Selection of peak wavelength(s) and bandwidth can be accomplished using mechanical interrupters, mechanical shutters, or electro-optical devices including liquid crystal device. Multiple output beams permit the coordinated illumination of a target, and sensors provide feedback regarding the effects of illumination on a target. Computer storage devices, programs, and controllers can provide easy selection of the
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Another light spectrum which is used and studied is blue light. Blue light has been shown to be effective for killingP.acnes but the red spectrum penetrates more deeply into tissue for enhanced results [2]. This means that red light can affect the sebum secretion of sebaceous glands and skin cell behaviour in a way that blue light can not. It also reduces inflammation more than blue light does while also minimising the acne-causing bacteria [2].. Using red light technology does not mean other treatments such as topical remedies cant be used. In fact, studies show that using the red light spectrum with topical treatments can actually help them to work better. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was combined with red light technology. This combination led to more than a 90% clearance of acne within one month [4]. When using the red light on its own there was still a 44% clearance within this time [4]. They found that any side effects from the red light technology were resolved within two hours whereas the ...
Purpose: : We have previously shown that simulations of the effect of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) with hyperopic and myopic defocus can cause compensatory ocular changes (Rucker and Wallman, 2009). Under severe astigmatic blur (Jackson Cross Cylinders, JCC), refractive compensation for imposed myopic or hyperopic defocus was unimpaired under white light but impaired under monochromatic light. We now investigate the time course of the effect of monochromatic light and JCC on choroidal responses to imposed defocus. Methods: : : Chicks wore lenses that presented astigmatic defocus (+5/-5 D crossed cylinders) together with +3 D of spherical defocus over one eye (Positive X-cyl lens) and astigmatic defocus (+4/-4 D crossed cylinders) together with -2 D over the other eye (Negative X-cyl lens) under red or green monochromatic light, or under white light. Other chicks wore lenses that imposed only spherical defocus (+3 D on one eye, -3.5 D on the other). We measured choroid thickness by ...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique in physics that can be used to determine the size distribution profile of small particles in suspension or polymers in solution. In the scope of DLS, temporal fluctuations are usually analyzed by means of the intensity or photon auto-correlation function (also known as photon correlation spectroscopy or quasi-elastic light scattering). In the time domain analysis, the autocorrelation function (ACF) usually decays starting from zero delay time, and faster dynamics due to smaller particles lead to faster decorrelation of scattered intensity trace. It has been shown that the intensity ACF is the Fourier transformation of the power spectrum, and therefore the DLS measurements can be equally well performed in the spectral domain. DLS can also be used to probe the behavior of complex fluids such as concentrated polymer solutions. A monochromatic light source, usually a laser, is shot through a polarizer and into a sample. The scattered light then goes ...
Saving Throw none; Spell Resistance no. DESCRIPTION. This spell causes an object to radiate darkness out to a 20-foot radius. This darkness causes the illumination level in the area to drop one step, from bright light to normal light, from normal light to dim light, or from dim light to darkness. This spell has no effect in an area that is already dark. Creatures with light vulnerability or sensitivity take no penalties in normal light. All creatures gain concealment (20% miss chance) in dim light. All creatures gain total concealment (50% miss chance) in darkness. Creatures with darkvision can see in an area of dim light or darkness without penalty. Nonmagical sources of light, such as torches and lanterns, do not increase the light level in an area of darkness. Magical light sources only increase the light level in an area if they are of a higher spell level than darkness. If darkness is cast on a small object that is then placed inside or under a lightproof covering, the spells effect is ...
The PGR5 (PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5) gene that is required for PSI cyclic electron transport in Arabidopsis was knocked down in rice (Oryza sativa). In three PGR5 knockdown (KD) lines, the PGR5 protein level was reduced to 5-8% of that in the wild type, resulting in a 50% reduction in PGRL1 (PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE 1) protein levels. In ruptured chloroplasts, ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction activity was partially impaired; the phenotype was mimicked by addition of antimycin A to wild-type chloroplasts. As occurred in the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant, non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence (NPQ) induction was impaired in the leaves, but the electron transport rate (ETR) was only mildly affected at high light intensity. The P700+ level was reduced even at low light intensity, suggesting that the PGR5 function was severely disturbed as in the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant and that the other alternative routes of electrons could not compensate the stromal redox balance. The ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
Light sensitivity, also known as photophobia, is a condition in which bright light - either natural sunlight or artificial light - can cause significant discomfort, pain and intolerance. People that experience light sensitivity will find themselves needing to close their eyes or squint when exposed to light and often experience headaches and nausea as well. In mild cases, the discomfort accompanies exposure to bright lights or harsh sunlight, but in severe cases even a small amount of light can cause pain and discomfort. Photophobia is more common in individuals with light eyes. This is because the greater amounts of pigment in darker eyes help to protect the eye from the harsh rays of light. The darker pigment of the iris and choroid absorbs the light, rather than reflecting the light and causing internal reflection or glare experienced by those with lighter eyes. People with albinism, which is a total lack of eye pigment, also experience significant light sensitivity for this reason. Acute ...
G-actin is globular in shape (Fig. 1a). Its molecular weight is about 42k daltons. G-actin polymerizes into F-actin under physiological salt concentrations (Fig. 1b). Based on observations by...
The composite data from eight subjects exposed to eight irradiances of narrowband blue LED light demonstrated increased melatonin suppression with increased exposure irradiance. Those data have a strong fit to a sigmoidal fluence-response curve. A comparison of mean melatonin suppression with 40 μW/cm2 from 4,000 K broadband white fluorescent light, currently used in most general lighting fixtures, suggests that narrow bandwidth blue LED light may be stronger than 4,000 K white fluorescent light for suppressing melatonin.. An initial action spectrum study on mice first identified peak sensitivity to light for circadian regulation in the short-wavelength portion of the spectrum, specifically at 480 nm (60). Later action spectra studies demonstrated that the blue-appearing portion (446-477 nm) was the most effective region of the spectrum for suppression of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland in humans (10, 57). Recent analytic action spectra have examined neuroendocrine, circadian, and ...
This study suggests that the circadian system in mice is responsive to long wavelength red light. The result is surprising because recent studies suggest that melanopsin, in combination with the classical rod and cone photoreceptors, account for the transduction of photic information to the circadian system. There are no studies of spectral sensitivity of the Aschoff effect in mice. However, the spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors mediating circadian phase-shifts in mice is vanishingly small at wavelengths above 600 nm [7-9]. In most organisms, circadian period under LL is a function of both intrinsic period and photic inputs. The Aschoff effect is understood to result from the cumulative phase-shifting effect of LL on the pacemaker [5, 13, 15]. Thus an effect of red light on circadian period is unexpected.. One possible explanation is that there is another photopigment present in mammals that is sensitive to far-red light and affects period rather than phase. It cannot be excluded that ...
Red infrared light therapy uses visible red light wavelengths from 630-660 nanometres (nm) and infrared light wavelengths at around 880nm to penetrate deep into the layers of the skin, increasing cellular energy and jump-starting the production of collagen and elastin to help make skin firm and supple.. The layers of the skin have a high content of blood and water, which makes it easy for the skin to absorb the light, these substances literally drink it up. Most researchers agree that light therapy increases production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the battery life of cells. It also targets the water layers in elastin - the protein responsible for skin elasticity - gradually restoring its elastic function and reducing the appearance of facial wrinkles.. Red light also boosts blood circulation, which effectively transports oxygen and nutrients to the skin (hello glow!), and its a great healing treatment for rosacea and eczema too. ...
The particle sizing capabilities of light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) and the spatial localization of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are brought together in a new modality known as scattering-mode spectroscopic OCT. An analysis is presented of the spectral dependence of the light collected in spectroscopic OCT for samples comprised of spherical particles. Many factors are considered including the effects of scatterer size, interference between the fields scattered from closely adjacent scatterers, and the numerical aperture of the OCT system. The modulation of the spectrum of the incident light by scattering of a plane wave from a single sphere is a good indicator of particle size and composition. However, it is shown in this work that the sharp focusing of fields causes the spectral signature to shift and the presence of multiple scatterers has dramatic modulation effects on the spectra. Approaches for accurately matching physical structure with the observed signals under various ...
Introduction. BIOLOGY October 2003 HOW DOES LIGHT AFFECT THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS GURDEEP SIAN INTRODUCTION Photosynthesis is the process that produces food in plants. The food it produces is glucose. In order for photosynthesis take place you need a green plant sunlight and water. The carbon dioxide enters the leaf through the leaves, and the water goes through the roots of the plant. The water and carbon dioxide is mixed in the chloroplast, which is where the light is trapped. The mixture of carbon dioxide and water make the substance glucose which is sugar. The mixture of the two also gives off oxygen. Green plants use the light energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water to make food. Light energy is converted into chemical energy and is stored in the food. The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. The three features that leaves have to make photosynthesis an efficient process are thinness, flatness and a large surface area to catch ...
Self-assembly is a vital part of the of the RNA virus life cycle. The assembly of viral coat proteins around viral RNA occurs both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that viral capsid assembly may be driven by a minimization of free energy. To better understand this process, we modify the interactions between coat proteins and between the coat proteins and RNA of MS2 bacteriophage in vitro by varying the ionic strength and pH, and we study the assembly using dynamic and static light scattering. From dynamic light scattering we determine the assembly yield and the size distribution of assembled products. From static light scattering, we measure the kinetics of assembly in bulk. By comparing the results from these two different techniques to each other and to results from gel electrophoresis, we infer features of the assembly pathway. ...
High temperature and high light intensity is a common environment posing a great risk to organisms. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of sub-high temperature and high light stress (HH, 35°C, 1000 μmol∙m-2∙s-1) and recovery on the photosynthetic mechanism, photoinhibiton of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), and reactive oxygen (ROS) metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco activity, maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm), efficient quantum yield and electron transport of PSII [Y(II) and ETR(II)] and PSI [Y(I) and ETR(I)] decreased significantly whereas yield of non-regulated and regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO) and Y(NPQ)] increased sharply. The donor side limitation of PSI [Y(ND)] increased but the acceptor side limitation of PSI [Y(NA)] decreased. Content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased while activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase
China Blue/Red/Green/Yellow Light for Skin Care LED Phototherapy PDT Machine, Find details about China PDT, LED Light from Blue/Red/Green/Yellow Light for Skin Care LED Phototherapy PDT Machine - Shanghai Apolo Medical Technology Co., Ltd.
Light pollution limits the visibility of milky way to the unaided eye, the visiblity of nebulae and galaxies seen in telescopes, and raises the noise on CCD astrophotographs. Only the observation of planets and double stars is unaffected. Low light pollution conditions, or dark skies, is one of the most important properties of a good astronmical observing site. This map is a small exerpt (366mi east-to-west, by 346mi north-to-south) from the Light Pollution Atlas 2006 by David Lorenz. David recalculated the The World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness with newer data. The central cross marks the location of the Mount Hamilton clear sky chart. Tiny crosses mark other charts. This map assumes an observer at sea level. A real observer should see a slightly darker sky.. ...
Light pollution limits the visibility of milky way to the unaided eye, the visiblity of nebulae and galaxies seen in telescopes, and raises the noise on CCD astrophotographs. Only the observation of planets and double stars is unaffected. Low light pollution conditions, or dark skies, is one of the most important properties of a good astronmical observing site. This map is a small exerpt (377mi east-to-west, by 346mi north-to-south) from the Light Pollution Atlas 2006 by David Lorenz. David recalculated the The World Atlas of the Artificial Night Sky Brightness with newer data. The central cross marks the location of the Anderson Mesa Station clear sky chart. Tiny crosses mark other charts. This map assumes an observer at sea level. A real observer should see a slightly darker sky.. ...
The effects of birefringence on the light distribution in the focal region of a high-NA optical system are investigated with use of the Debye approach to vector diffraction theory. The attention is limited to uniaxially birefringent media with symmetry axis along the optical axis of the imaging system. The radially (p) and tangentially (s) polarized fields in the exit pupil produce spots in the focal region that are defocused with respect to each other. For small birefringence values the relative defocus causes a distortion and broadening of the spot; for larger values the two spots separate completely. As a corollary to the theory it is shown that there is a tangential tornadolike flow of energy in the focal region when the polarization in the entrance pupil is elliptical.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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At first, we hoped to use the α-helical domain of an allosteric protein to couple the light receptor and repressor, a strategy that has been successfully utilised previously in the blue light sensor fusion.. However, this method would have likely required the usage of Statistical Coupling Analysis to measure how much the amino acid distribution at some position i changes upon a perturbation of the amino acid distribution at another position j. It was thought that such analysis would be beyond the time constraints imposed upon the project, and thus this strategy was abandoned in favour of the strategy described below.. Our next design involved the fusion of PhoR and CcaS to create a green light sensor, by replacing the downstream portion of the CcaS with the downstream portion of PhoR based on the fact that both contain the same domains HisKA and HATPase-C (Figure 2). PhoR phosphorylates the response regulator PhoB, which then will binds to conserved DNA sequences called phoboxes and interacts ...
At first, we hoped to use the α-helical domain of an allosteric protein to couple the light receptor and repressor, a strategy that has been successfully utilised previously in the blue light sensor fusion.. However, this method would have likely required the usage of Statistical Coupling Analysis to measure how much the amino acid distribution at some position i changes upon a perturbation of the amino acid distribution at another position j. It was thought that such analysis would be beyond the time constraints imposed upon the project, and thus this strategy was abandoned in favour of the strategy described below.. Our next design involved the fusion of PhoR and CcaS to create a green light sensor, by replacing the downstream portion of the CcaS with the downstream portion of PhoR based on the fact that both contain the same domains HisKA and HATPase-C. PhoR phosphorylates the response regulator PhoB, which then will binds to conserved DNA sequences called phoboxes and interacts with the ...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique that is used to measure the size of particles, generally particles that are in the sub-micron region. The technique is also referred to as photon correlation spectroscopy and quasi-elastic light scattering.
Rudbeckia or Black Eyed Susans are North American natives and have been garden classics for over 100 years. Theyre the Maryland state flower and will provide long lasting color for years to come. They will bloom for weeks and they make great cut-flowers. Add some big, bold color to your garden this year and plant some Rudbeckia. | Light Requirements: Half Sun / Half Shade; Flower Color: Yellow; Soil Type: Drought/Dry Soil
Region + Elevation + Light Requirements + Plant Type + Petal Color + Petal Number + Plant Height, Data Base and Interactive Encyclopedia of the Chilean Plants, provided by Chileflora.com, a supplier of native Chilean seeds and seedlings and organizer of plant-watching tours.
Region + Elevation + Light Requirements + Plant Type + Petal Color + Petal Number + Plant Height, Data Base and Interactive Encyclopedia of the Chilean Plants, provided by Chileflora.com, a supplier of native Chilean seeds and seedlings and organizer of plant-watching tours.
Want quick, easy-to-grow color in your meadow or garden? Annual Wildflowers are the perfect choice, whether youre adding more color to an existing Wildflower Meadow or planting an interim garden for the year, we have dozens of varieties to choose from. | Light Requirements: Full Sun; Ideal Region: Hot Desert; Soil Type: Drought/Dry Soil, Well-Drained Soil, Sandy Soil
Crop canopies create environments of highly fluctuating light intensities. In such environments, photoprotective mechanisms and their relaxation kinetics have been hypothesized to limit photosynthetic efficiency and therefore crop yield potential. Here, we show that overexpression of the Arabidopsis thylakoid K+ /H+ antiporter KEA3 accelerates the relaxation of photoprotective energy-dependent quenching after transitions from high to low light in Arabidopsis and tobacco. This, in turn, enhances PSII quantum efficiency in both organisms, supporting that in wild-type plants, residual light energy quenching following a high- to low-light transition represents a limitation to photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light. This finding underscores the potential of accelerating quenching relaxation as a building block for improving photosynthetic efficiency in the field. Additionally, by overexpressing natural KEA3 variants with modification to the C-terminus, we show that KEA3 activity is regulated ...