TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoregulatory activity in adult rat testicular interstitial fluid: relationship with intratesticular CD8+ lymphocytes following treatment with ethane dimethane sulfonate and testosterone implants. AU - Hedger, Mark. AU - Wang, Jian. AU - Lan, Hui Y. AU - Atkins, Robert C. AU - Wreford, Nigel G. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article. SP - 935. EP - 942. JO - Biology of Reproduction. JF - Biology of Reproduction. SN - 0006-3363. ER - ...
Patients with the testicular dysgenesis syndrome, that comprises a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as infertility, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testicular germ cell neoplasms, often develop alterations in the Leydig cell compartment. These alterations range from abnormal localization and clustering to hyperplasia or tumorous formation.. Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), although uncommon in the general population, are the most frequent non-germ cell testicular neoplasms, and their incidence has been reported increasingly growing, especially in infertile patients. Given that the focal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia are nowadays easily detectable at ultrasonography of the testis (US), as small non-palpable hypoechoic micro-nodules that can show internal vascularization, their finding create a diagnostic challenge versus low-stage malignant germ cell tumors.. Patients with testicular dysgenesis syndrome in general exhibit an elevation of ...
Patients with the testicular dysgenesis syndrome, that comprises a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as infertility, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testicular germ cell neoplasms, often develop alterations in the Leydig cell compartment. These alterations range from abnormal localization and clustering to hyperplasia or tumorous formation.. Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), although uncommon in the general population, are the most frequent non-germ cell testicular neoplasms, and their incidence has been reported increasingly growing, especially in infertile patients. Given that the focal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia are nowadays easily detectable at ultrasonography of the testis (US), as small non-palpable hypoechoic micro-nodules that can show internal vascularization, their finding create a diagnostic challenge versus low-stage malignant germ cell tumors.. Patients with testicular dysgenesis syndrome in general exhibit an elevation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific amino acids moderate the effects of Ni2+ on the testosterone production of mouse Leydig cells in vitro. AU - Forgács, Zsolt. AU - Némethy, Zsolt. AU - Révész, Csaba. AU - Lázár, Péter. PY - 2001/3/9. Y1 - 2001/3/9. N2 - The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of two nickel-binding amino acids, histidine (His) and cysteine (Cys), to prevent the inhibitory action of Ni2+ on testosterone (T) production by mouse primary Leydig cell culture. The maximal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated T response was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the culture media. Three types of experiments were performed. In a concentration-response study, Ni2+ (62.5 to 1000 μM) was added to the cells simultaneously with equimolar or twice the equimolar concentrations of His or Cys and the cultures were maintained for 48 h. Nickel-induced reduction in T production was completely prevented by equimolar concentrations of His at Ni2+ concentrations of 125, ...
Results of Western blot analysis carried out with an interstitial cell extract from male guinea pig and ovarian extract from immature female rats administered equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) provide supportive evidence to our earlier suggestion that an 8-kDa peptide is involved in acquisition of steroidogenic capacity by the rat Leydig cells. It was found that though the signal was observed in other tissues such as liver, kidney and lung which do not produce gonadal hormones, the peptide was modulated only by lutenizing hormone (LH) in the rat Leydig cells.. ...
The 1980s heralded the discovery and identification of extra-pituitary sources of the neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin in non-neural tissues of several animal species. The presence, location and biosynthesis of significant amounts of oxytocin in the ovarian corpus luteum was followed by the immunocytochemical demonstration of an oxytocin-like peptide in the testicular interstitial cells. Leydig cells, which comprise up to 80% of the testicular intertubular cell population, are known to synthesize testosterone in situ. Indirect evidence indicated that an oxytocin-like peptide was also present in Leydig cells.. The question arose whether this peptide was synthesized de novo by Leydig cells or was taken up and stored by the cells following biosynthesis at some other intra- and/or extra-gonadal source(s). Since luteinizing hormone (LH) and ascorbate are known to augment the production of oxytocin in ovarian granulosa cells, varying concentrations of these two stimulants were used to monitor the ...
The glycoprotein hormones (LH, hCG, FSH, and TSH) have a common 92-amino acid alpha-subunit which is noncovalently linked to a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Synthetic peptides of the alpha-subunit have been shown to inhibit binding of [125I]iodo-hCG to rat ovarian membrane and [125I]iodo-TSH to human thyroid membrane preparations. Synthetic overlapping peptides of the alpha-subunit of hCG were prepared by solid phase techniques and tested in a standard in vitro rat Leydig cell bioassay. Three regions in the alpha-subunit (alpha 1-15, alpha 30-45, and alpha 71-85) were found to stimulate testosterone production. All three regions correlate with inhibition of hCG binding to ovarian receptors, but subtle differences exist between the binding sites and effector sites. These data indicate that the glycoprotein alpha-subunit has intrinsic bioactivity.
Rivenson, A; Moroson, H; and Madden, R, "Receptors on rat lymphocytes for mouse leydig cells. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 364 ...
Coulson, M, Gibson, GG, Plant, N, Hammond, T and Graham, M (2002) The role of a liver-testis axis in the development of Leydig cell hyperplasia ...
Isolation, Purification, and Culture of Adult Leydig Cells For isolation and purification of adult Leydig cells we used a previously described method . In
We examined in detail the differentiation of Sertoli, fetal Leydig and germ cells in XX transgenic fetal gonads at 14.5 dpc. We first performed immunofluorescence for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell differentiation and a direct transcriptional target of SOX9 (De Santa Barbara et al., 1998), and for HSD3β, a steroidogenic enzyme expressed by fetal Leydig cells. The presence of cells expressing AMH or HSD3β confirmed that both Sertoli and fetal Leydig cells had formed in the sex-reversed XX Dmrt1 transgenic testes, as in wild-type XY testes but not XX ovaries (Fig. 2A-D). These results were confirmed by qRT-PCR (Fig. 2I,O).. We next assayed the expression of additional Sertoli and fetal Leydig cell marker genes using qRT-PCR. Genes involved in the differentiation of Sertoli (Sox8, Sox10, Ptgds and Dhh) and fetal Leydig (Star, Cyp11a1, Insl3 and Cyp17a1) cells were consistently upregulated in XX transgenic testes, as compared with wild-type ovaries (Fig. 2J-N,P; supplementary material Fig. S2A,B). ...
Pdgfr-alpha mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad.: During testis development, the rapid morphological changes ini
The studies proposed in this MERIT extension applicafion address the molecular mechanisms by which age-induced changes in the microenvironment of Leydig cells,...
Hops is best known for its use in beer. The majority of physicians and men overlook its potent chemicals and do not realize that beer itself can significantly alter the male androgen levels. German beer makers noticed long ago that the young women who picked hops in the fields commonly experienced early menstrual periods. Eventually, researchers discovered the reason - hops is perhaps one of the most powerfully estrogenic plants on Earth. Just 100 grams of hops (about 3.5 ounces) contains anywhere from thirty thousand to three hundred thousand IUs of estrogen, depending on the type of hops. Most of it is the very potent estrogen estradiol. Estradiol, as it is taken into the male body, causes a direct lowering of testosterone levels in the testes and an increase in SHBG levels, which then binds up even more free testosterone in the bloodstream. The estradiol in hops has also been found to directly interfere with the ability of the testes Leydig cells to produce testosterone. The presence of this ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shuqiang Liu, Dan Wang, Junwen Zhang, Dongzhi Zhang, Meng Gong, Chao Wang, Ning Wei, Wenhua Liu, Yongqi Wang, Chongxue Zhao, Yaxiong Cui, Defu Hu].
Insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a Leydig cell-specific hormone, is essential for testis descent during foetal life and bone metabolism in adults. Despite its essential roles in male reproductive and bone health, very little is known regarding its transcriptional regulation in Leydig cells. To date, few transcription factors have been shown to activate INSL3 promoter activity: the nuclear receptors AR, NUR77, COUP-TFII and SF1. To identify additional regulators, we have isolated and performed a detailed analysis of a 1.1 kb human INSL3 promoter fragment. Through 5 progressive deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, we have mapped a 10 bp element responsible for about 80% of INSL3 promoter activity in Leydig cells. This element is identical to the CPE element of the placental-specific glycoprotein-5 (PSG5) promoter that is recognized by the developmental regulator Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6). Using PCR and western blotting, we found that KLF6 is expressed in several Leydig and Sertoli cell lines. ...
205: The Neuroendocrine Leydig Cells and their Stem Cell Progenitors, the Pericytes (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology) by JP David at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 3642005128 - ISBN 13: 9783642005121 - Springer - 2009 - Softcover
The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test represents a key step in assessing Leydig cell function in prepubertal males, but differences in terms of hCG doses, number of injections, and sequence of blood drawing are published in the literature, showing poor standardization. The few available data in healthy boys are summarized here. A recombinant hCG (rhCG) formulation might permit overcoming some controversies as well as avoid the potential biological risk related to the injection of extractive hormones. Studies in humans are scarce, but they indicate that 250 µg rhCG in a single dose may represent a useful scheme for the dynamic evaluation of Leydig cell function in children as well as in adults ...
HCG or "human chorionic gonadotropin" is a drug that is used usually by women to induce ovulation. It signals the body to produce a cascade to produce eggs from the ovaries. In males this same drug can be used to signal the testes to produce testosterone by signaling the leydig cells to produce testosterone. HCG is highly effective since it has direct action on the testicles.. HOW IS HCG USED FOR STEROIDS. HCG comes in a dry powder that is in a vial. Bacteriostatic water is used to "reconstitute" the powder and then it is drawn out with an insulin needle. Yes, that means you need to "shoot" HCG in order to use it. Many people find this distasteful, but there is no other way to take HCG and have it be effective. The injections are typically done subcutaneous in the belly or in the fat of the arm.. The typical dose of HCG is about 1000iu per day but some take as high as 1500iu in a day. It is also done for five days on and two days off to avoid the "burn out" syndrome where the leydig cells lose ...
Foreword Alan Decherney; 1. Anatomy and embryology of the male reproductive tract and gonadal development Jane M. Lewis and William E. Kaplan; 2. Male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis Ettore Caroppo; 3. Leydig cell development and function Barry R. Zirkin, Vassilios Papadopoulos and Matthew P. Hardy; 4. Sertoli cell: morphology, function and regulation Joseph P. Alukal and Dolores J. Lamb; 5. Spermatogenesis in the adult Joseph P. Alukal, Dolores J. Lamb, Craig S. Niederberger and Antoine Makhlouf; 6. The epididymis and accessory sex organs Terry T. Turner; 7. An overview on the molecular mechanisms involved in human fertilization Monica H. Vazquez-Levin and Clara Isabel Marin-Briggiler; 8. New concepts in the genetics of male reproduction and infertility Paul J. Turek; 9. Erection, emission, and ejaculation: mechanisms of control Alexander Műller and John P. Mulhall; 10. Office evaluation of the subfertile male Mark Sigman, Larry I. Lipshultz and Stuart S. Howards; 11. Evaluation of sperm ...
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The origin, development, and characteristics of two types of testicular macrophage have been described. To elucidate the nature of these immune cells, the researchers used a novel cell tracing method. Their findings are of fundamental importance. They may help understand certain kinds of infertility in men and find new treatments for them. Read more ...
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Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ: available download organic structures design study and copolymer. Fuchs JR, Terada S, Ochoa ER, Vacanti JP, Fauza DO: s evaluation engineering: In utero theoretical bone in an maintenant monitoring. actual download organic without fluid data. Machluf M, Orsola A, Boorjian S, Kershen R, Atala A: Microencapsulation of Leydig Materials: A support for research modulation. Tai J, Johnson HW, Tze WJ: crucial download organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices of Leydig developments in presented s Sanctions. Dam JH, Teerds KJ, Rommerts FF: health and organisational value of dynamic images of joint Leydig donors. Tai IT, Sun AM: download organic structures of future universities: A useful s element for protein-2 osteosarcoma. Nomi M, Atala A, Coppi PD, Soker S: increases of class for subsea Australia. Otte, Hadi Hezaveh and Justin J. Waddington Rachel J ISBN: 9781118741108 with BooksBob. three-year and Total Prospects visibility. ISBN: ...
1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been shown to impede male reproductive function. However, its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, the effects of 1,3-DCP on progesterone production were investigated using the R2C Leydig cell model. 1,3-DCP significantly reduced cell viability from 7.48% to 97.4% at doses comprised between 0.5 an ...
Leydig cells synthesize and secrete testosterone, and are regulated by Sertoli cells. These two cell types may work together to regulate testicular androgen production. Studies have shown that Leydig cell androgen synthesis can be dramatically enhanced by Sertoli cells in the presence of melatonin, which can regulate the secretory function of Leydig and Sertoli cells. However, the molecular mechanism of melatonin-regulated Leydig cell androgen production via Sertoli cells remains unclear. Here, we found that 10^−7 M melatonin increased testosterone production in co-cultured Leydig and Sertoli cells isolated from sheep. Melatonin increased the expression of stem cell factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 and decreased estrogen synthesis in Sertoli cells. Melatonin promoted insulin-like growth factor-1 and decreased estrogen content via the membrane melatonin receptor 1. It also enhanced stem cell factor expression via the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha. Addition of ...
Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective GPER activation decreases proliferation and activates apoptosis in tumor Leydig cells. AU - Chimento, A.. AU - Casaburi, I.. AU - Bartucci, M.. AU - Patrizii, M.. AU - Dattilo, R.. AU - Avena, P.. AU - Andò, S.. AU - Pezzi, V.. AU - Sirianni, R.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - We have previously shown that estrogens binding to estrogen receptor (ER) a increase proliferation of Leydig tumor cells. Estrogens can also bind to G protein-coupled ER (GPER) and activation of this receptor can either increase or decrease cell proliferation of several tumor types. The aim of this study was to investigate GPER expression in R2C rat tumor Leydig cells, evaluate effects of its activation on Leydig tumor cell proliferation and define the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to its activation. R2C cells express GPER and its activation, using the specific ligand G-1, is associated with decreased cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis. Apoptosis after G-1 treatment was ...
Leydig cell adenoma Digital cases HPC:119 : Leydig cell tumor. JRC:18782 : Testis intestitial cell tumor Images Leydig cell tumor (...)
Inhibin, beta B, also known as INHBB, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INHBB gene. INHBB is a subunit of both activin and inhibin, two closely related glycoproteins with opposing biological effects. Inhibins are heterodimeric glycoproteins composed of an α subunit (INHA) and one of two homologous, but distinct, β subunits (βA or βB, this protein). mRNA for the two subunits has been demonstrated in the testes of adult rats. Inhibin can bind specifically to testicular interstitial cells throughout development and may be an important regulator of Leydig cell testosterone production or interstitial cell function. The inhibin beta B subunit joins the α subunit to form a pituitary FSH secretion inhibitor. Inhibin has been shown to regulate gonadal stromal cell proliferation negatively and to have tumour-suppressor activity. In addition, serum levels of inhibin have been shown to reflect the size of granulosa-cell tumors and can therefore be used as a marker for primary as well as ...
D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) and nitric oxide (NO) are two biologically active molecules playing important functions as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators of nerve impulse and as regulators of hormone production by endocrine organs. We studied the occurrence of D-Asp and NO as well as their effects on testosterone synthesis in the testis of boar. This model was chosen for our investigations because it contains more Leydig cells than other mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence applied to cryostat sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of D-Asp and of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the same Leydig cells. D-Asp and NOS often co-existed in the same Leydig cells and were found, separately, in many other testicular cytotypes. D-Asp level was dosed by an enzymatic method performed on boar testis extracts and was 40+/-3.6 nmol/g of fresh tissue. NO measurement was carried out using a biochemical method by NOS activity determination and expressed as quantity of nitrites produced: it ...
학술회의] 민철기, Hae-Kwon Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Yun-Jin Jung, Kyoo Wan Choi, Seung-Jae Lee, Sung Eun Lee, Hwa Lee Ryu, Ju-Hee Lee, Inhibitory action of mibefradil on steroidogenesis in mouse leydig cells: involvement of Ca+2 entry through T-type Ca+2 channels in steroidogenesis , ESHRE 21st Annual Meeting , Vol.21 , pp.121 -121 (Jun, 2005) ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Health Aspects of Cannabis Page 18. and live or killed gram negative bacteria. Infect. Immun. 17: 325 329, 1977.. 20. Braunstein, G.D., Buster, J.E., Soares, J.R., and Gross, S.J.: Pregnancy hormone concentrations in marijuana users. Life Sci. 33: 195 199, 1983.. 21. Burstein, S., Hunter, S.a., and Sedor, C.:Further studies in the inhibition of Leydig cell testosterone synthesis by delta 1 tetrahydrocannabinol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 29: 2152 2154, 1980.. 22. Campbell, A.M.G., Evans, M., Thompson, J.L.G., and Williams, M.R.: Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. Lancet 2: 1219 1224, 1971.. 23. Carlen, P.L., Wortzman, G., Holgate, R.C., Wilkerson, D.A., and Rankin, R.G.: Reversible cerebral atrophy in recently abstinent chronic alcoholics measured by computed tomography scans. Science (Wash. DC) 200: 1076-1078, 1978.. 24. Carlen, A.S., and Trupin, E.W.: The effect of long term chronic marijuana use on neuropsychological functioning. Int. J. Addict. 1275: 617-624, 1977.. 25. Carlini, E.A., and ...
The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) was shown to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH; lutropin) in causing desensitization of LH-mediated cyclic AMP production in tumour Leydig cells. However, there were differences between LH- and TPA-induced desensitization: (1) TPA induced a more rapid effect than LH; (2) adenosine did not inhibit TPA-induced desensitization, whereas it completely inhibited the LH-induced desensitization; (3) adenylate cyclase activity in plasma membranes from TPA-desensitized cells was not decreased, whereas similar preparations from LH-desensitized cells lost their response to LH and to LH plus guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate; TPA-, but not LH-, treated cells had a decreased capacity to respond to cholera toxin and forskolin. These results indicate that LH and phorbol esters induce desensitization of adenylate cyclase in rat tumour Leydig cells by different mechanisms. ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal neuropeptide regulator of pituitary ACTH secretion, is also produced at peripheral inflammatory sites, where it acts as a proinflammatory cytokine, and by the Leydig cell of the testis, where it exerts autocrine inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis. Because key ovarian functions, such as ovulation and luteolysis, represent aseptic inflammatory responses, and because the theca cell is the functional equivalent of the Leydig cell, we explored the CRH presence in the ovary, first, by specific CRH immunohistochemistry of adult cycling female Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. We detected cytoplasmic immunoreactive CRH (IrCRH) in theca and stromal cells and in cells within the corpora lutea, at all phases of the estrous cycle. Using a specific radioimmunoassay, we measured IrCRH in extracts of rat ovaries (0.042-0.126 pmol/g wet tissue). The mobility of the ovarian IrCRH molecule was similar to that of rat/human CRH by reverse phase HPLC. To ...
A section of the left testis shows a well circumscribed but unencapsulated nodule just outside the tunica albuginea composed of medium-sized oval to polygonal cells with abundant dense granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei, stippled chromatin and no mitoses. The cells are arranged in nests and cords. There are numerous congested capillaries within the nodule (some containing fibrin) and several compressed ducts around the periphery. The testis is atrophic with markedly decreased spermatogenesis, multifocal tubular and peritubular fibrosis, moderate interstitial edema, and very few interstitial Leydig cells. The right testis contains no lesions. An immunostain for vimentin was lightly and diffusely positive.. ...
Moving on to the realm of certainties, glands are the organs of our bodies that produce testosterone, more specifically, they synthesize testosterone from cholesterol but more on that later. In both men and women, adrenal glands manufacture testosterone in barely noticeable amounts. At the cellular levels, the main producer of testosterone are Leydig cells, named after the anatomist who discovered them in 1850. The testicles display a large number of Leydig cells, therefore they secrete a high amount of testosterone, while the ovaries have a much smaller amount of this type of cells in their make-up.. Upon actions from the hypothalamus (the part of the central nervous system whose primary function is to control the endocrine system) through the pituitary gland, testicles begin to secrete increasingly larger amounts of testosterone during puberty. The amount remains relatively high until the man reaches his late 20s. Around 30 years of age, human males start experiencing a decrease in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and functional analysis of the promoter region of the gene encoding mouse steroid 11β-hydroxylase. AU - Mouw, A. R.. AU - Rice, D. A.. AU - Meade, J. C.. AU - Chua, S. C.. AU - White, P. C.. AU - Schimmer, B. P.. AU - Parker, K. L.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - The mouse gene encoding adrenal steroid 11β-hydroxylase (11β-OHase) has been cloned and the nucleotide sequence of its 5 end has been determined. The coding regions sequenced are homologous (75%) to the sequence of bovine 11β-OHase cDNA. The 5-flanking region of the 11β-OHase gene contains a potential cAMP response element (TGACGTGA) located 56 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site (position -56) and two motifs at positions -249 and -148 which are similar to an element postulated to be required for the expression of 21-hydroxylase. Transfection of mouse Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells and MA-10 testicular Leydig cells with plasmids containing the 11β-OHase promoter linked to a ...
We have previously reported that genetically increased angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, or absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor, increase kidney damage in diabetic mice. We demonstrate here that this is part of a more general phenomenon - diabetes and, to a lesser degree, absence of the B2 receptor, independently but also largely additively when combined, enhance senescence-associated phenotypes in multiple tissues. Thus, at 12 months of age, indicators of senescence (alopecia, skin atrophy, kyphosis, osteoporosis, testicular atrophy, lipofuscin accumulation in renal proximal tubule and testicular Leydig cells, and apoptosis in the testis and intestine) are virtually absent in WT mice, detectable in B2 receptor-null mice, clearly apparent in mice diabetic because of a dominant mutation (Akita) in the Ins2 gene, and most obvious in Akita diabetic plus B2 receptor-null mice. Renal expression of several genes that encode proteins associated with senescence and/or apoptosis (TGF-β1, ...
WebMD does not present medical recommendation, analysis or remedy. LC transplantation is a perfect physiological and lengthy-performing system for the testosterone supply 16 Nevertheless, LCs account for less than ~ 2-four% of the total testicular cell population in grownup human testes 17 Furthermore, LCs are terminally differentiated cells with a restricted capacity to proliferate four , thereby limiting the efficacy of LC transplantation therapy.. Machluf, M., Orsola, A., Boorjian, S., Kershen, R. & Atala, A. Microencapsulation of leydig cells: a system for testosterone supplementation. Molenaar, R., de Rooij, D. G., Rommerts, F. F., Reuvers, P. J. & van der Molen, H. J. Specific destruction of leydig cells in mature rats after in vivo administration of ethane dimethyl sulfonate.. Most cancers is the uncontrolled development of irregular cells in the physique.These regular cells develop uncontrolled and even intrude in other surrounding tissues. After 30 day differentiation, the RT-PCR assay ...
Unfortuately I was not able to find a proper explanation of testosterone synthesis in the human body... anyone got an url for me? However, what I know
Peh, K.L., Gunasegaram, R., Loganath, A., Cheah, E., Ratnam, S.S. (1987). Testosterone synthesis by infiltrating ductal human breast carcinoma in vitro. Medical Science Research 15 (23) : 1467-1468. [email protected] Repository ...
Purpose: Varicocele, most treatable pathologic condition in male infertility, exerts unfavorable effects on testicular ultrastructure via various mechanisms. In this study we aimed to demonstrate adverse effects of varicocele on both testes. ...
Testosterone Levels Articles: Get information on Testosterone Levels. Read articles and learn about all the facts related to Testosterone Levels from our health website Onlymyhealth.com.
Have you already had your tablespoon of honey, Honey?" If thats what your girlfriend or wife asked you this morning, she is probably concerned about your testicular health... A group of Malaysian scientists has recently been able to show that 1.2g/kg/day (human equivalent: 0.2g/kg/day or about 1 tablespoon for an average adult man) of a off-the-shelf Malaysian Tulang honey protected the testis of rats, who had been exposed to cigarette some for 8 minutes three times per day, from damage and oxidative stress (Mohamed. 2011 ...
Abstract: The toxic effect of various environmental contaminants such as heavy metals or industrial chemicals such as alkylphenolson male reproductive systemwasfound. 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), one of the environmental contaminants used in the manufacture of plastics and other products, is released largely into the environment. The majority of studies on NP have focused on their endocrine disrupting and potential adverse effects on reproductive system. The target of our in vitro study was to determine the potential impact of 4-nonylphenol as an endocrine disruptor on the hormonal secretion and viability of mice Leydig cells. Cells were cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5; and 5.0 µg/mL of 4-nonylphenol for 44h and compared with the control. Cells destined for the determination of androstenedione production were cultured in the presence of cyclic AMP solution. Quantification of cAMP stimulated androstenedion production directly from aliquots of the medium was performed by enzyme linked ...
Unfortunately, while HCG increases Testosterone, it increases estrogen as well(12). As you probably know, estrogen acts directly on the Leydig cells to effect changes in the activities of enzymes important for testosterone synthesis (13) and may actually be considered an important part of that negative feedback loop I mentioned earlier. In addition, an increase in circulating levels of LH have been shown to induce down-regulation of LH-receptors in both rodent studies (14), as well as in human studies (15); since HCG mimics LH, you can expect it to do the same. This LH downregulation can cause an increase in steroidogenic cholesterol (the cholesterol earmarked by your body for conversion into testosterone). (16). Thus, after the initial HCG induced surge in testosterone is over, if you have used enough to downregulate your LH-receptors and increase estrogen too much, then more steroidogenic cholesterol is available. This is telling me that less is being converted to testosterone. In fact, rodent ...
When it comes to maximizing your strength and muscle building potential, then Zinc is of paramount importance in that respect. You see Zinc is nessesary for Vitamin A to be properly transported from the liver. Zinc is also responsible for protein synthesis, RNA, and DNA synthesis and is a primary potentiator for Testosterone production. Zinc inhibits levels of aromatase throughout the body so that natural Testosterone levels will remain high. Zinc also stimulates the Pituitary Gland to release Luteinizing Hormone which in turn causes the Testes to produce Testosterone. The best supplement we have found so far is from a Company called Natures Life which is Zinc Picolinate in a 30mg strength. The RDA is set at 15mg per day but for Weight and Strength Trainers using a high protein diet, a good start would be 30mg per day. Zinc is one of the most important Minerals nessesary for Bodybuilding fitness and health. Please remember to always consult with your Doctor before starting any new supplement ...
Summary of TRPV5 expression in human tissue. Kidney tubules, adrenal gland, macrophages of lung, stomach and cells in seminiferous ducts showed moderate to strong cytoplasmic and membranous positivity. Subset cell of gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, follicle cells, exocrine glandular cells, Leydig cells and salivary gland showed moderate cytoplasmic positivity. Remaining normal tissues were weakly stained or negative.