The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. MS2 is a member of a family of closely related bacterial viruses that includes bacteriophage f2, bacteriophage Qβ, R17, and GA. In 1961, MS2 was isolated by Alvin John Clark and recognized as an RNA-containing phage very similar to bacteriophage f2. In 1976, the MS2 genome was the first genome to be completely sequenced. This was accomplished by Walter Fiers and his team, building upon their earlier milestone in 1972 of the first gene to be completely sequenced, the MS2 coat protein. These sequences were determined at the RNA level, whereas the next landmark achievement, the sequence of the bacteriophage ΦX174 genome in 1977, was determined using DNA. The first effort at a statistical analysis of the MS2 genome was a search for patterns in the nucleotide sequence. Several non-coding sequences were identified, however at the ...
Cereal crops grown in the biosolids-amended soil can potentially become contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms during growth and at the time of harvesting. There is small but unquantified potential risk of transfer of enteric pathogens to humans and animals from contaminated plants and grains. This study examined decay of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and bacteriophage MS2 on the wheat phyllosphere and on stored grains. This was done to assess the health implications of cereal crops contaminated from land application of biosolids. E. coli, S. enterica and MS2 were inoculated onto the leaves, spikelets and grains of wheat. The change in the numbers of inoculated micro-organisms was determined over time to calculate the respective 90% reduction time (T90) in each of these environments. A rapid inactivation (T90 ,1-3 days) of E. coli and S. enterica and MS2 from the plant phyllosphere was observed, particularly from the spikelets. The decay rates were influenced by ...
Collision efficiencies of latex colloids with glass surfaces have been determined experimentally. An anomalous decrease of collision efficiencies with increasing electrolyte concentration at high ionic strengths was observed. The results provide indirect evidence for the presence of repulsive hydration forces.
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1U1Y: The crystal structure of a high affinity RNA stem-loop complexed with the bacteriophage MS2 capsid: further challenges in the modeling of ligand-RNA interactions.
The colorimetric method of estimating the rate of addition of hydrogen atoms to the oxides of molybdenum and tungsten is discussed in detail. It is also shown that alkyl radicals are efficiently removed by molybdenum oxide, and allowance is made for the effect of their presence on the blueing rate of the oxide surface. The method of evaluating collision efficiencies from the data obtained is indicated in full, and the construction and operation of a calculator to assist in the computation is described. ...
ID PEX34B preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 3200 BP. XX AC M18855; XX DT 15-MAR-1989 (Rel. 4, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Schistosoma plasmid vector pEx34b - incomplete, MS2 polyme. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RP 1-100 RC pEx34b from pPLc24 & pEx31 RA Klinkert M.Q., Ruppel A., Felleisen R., Link G., Beck W.D.; RT "Expression of diagnostic 31/32 kilodalton proteins of Schistosoma RT mansoni as fusions with bacteriophage MS2 polymerase"; RL Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 27:233-240(1988). XX RN [2] RC plasmid from pPLc24 & oligo RC pEx30 from plasmid & pBR322 RC pSV010 from pSV01 RC pEx31 from plasmid & pSV010 RC pEVP1 from pPLc24 & pFMDV88, FMDV RC pE52 from pFMDV88, FMDV RC pE34 from pE52 RC pEx31b from pEx31 RC pEProt* from pEx31b & pFMDV100, FMDV RC pE12, pE12VPg, pEVPg, pE20 from pEProt* RC pE56 from pPLc24 & pFMDV100, FMDV RC pE16 from pEx31b & FMDV RA Strebel K., Beck E., Strohmeier K., Schaller ...
Levivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Leviviridae. Enterobacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Enterobacteria phage MS2. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Leviviridae Genus: Levivirus Enterobacteria phage BZ13 Enterobacteria phage MS2 Viruses in Levivirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Spherical geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 26 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 4kb in length. The genome codes for 4 proteins. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by bacteria lysis. Enterobacteria serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Levivirus ...
Viral Biorealm Family}} ==Baltimore Classification== Leviviridae; Levivirus ==Higher Order Categories== Family: Leviviridae Genus: Levivirus Species: Enterobacteria phage BZ13, Enterobacteria phage MS2[4] ==Description and Significance== ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage Levivirus is one of two known genera of the family Leviviridae, with Allolevivirus being the other. It replicates in only three bacteria genera: Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Caulobacter. The virus attaches to the pili, sometimes the virion receptor site, and transiently exposes viral RNA while penetrating the cell [2]. The family Leviviridae is found to have one of the fastest known mutation rates, at 10-3 bp/replication, but also one of the smallest genomes at 4,268 nt which code for 4 protein subunits [3]. The distinguishing factor of levivirus is a cell-lysis protein coded within its genome, something that is absent in allelovirus. In 1976 the species Enterobacteria phage MS2 became the first organism ever to have ...
The detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses is based on isolation of viral RNA from the sample followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). To control the whole process of analysis and in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of results, process control viruses (PCV) are used. The present article describes the process of preparation and use of such PCV- MS2 phage-like particles (MS2 PLP) - in RT-qPCR detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses. The MS2 PLP were derived from bacteriophage MS2 carrying a unique and specific de novo-constructed RNA target sequence originating from the DNA of two extinct species. The amount of prepared MS2 particles was quantified using four independent methods - UV spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a specifically developed duplex RT-qPCR. To evaluate the usefulness of MS2 PLP in routine diagnostics different matrices known to harbor enteric RNA viruses (swab
The Ty3 retrotransposon assembles into 50-nm virus-like particles that occur in large intracellular clusters in the case of wild-type (wt) Ty3. Within these particles, maturation of the Gag3 and Gag3-Pol3 polyproteins by Ty3 protease produces the structural proteins capsid (CA), spacer, and nucleocapsid. Secondary and tertiary structure predictions showed that, like retroviral CA, Ty3 CA contains a large amount of helical structure arranged in amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal bundles. Twenty-six mutants in which alanines were substituted for native residues were used to study CA subdomain functions. Transposition was measured, and particle morphogenesis and localization were characterized by analysis of protein processing, cDNA production, genomic RNA protection, and sedimentation and by fluorescence and electron microscopy. These measures defined five groups of mutants. Proteins from each group could be sedimented in a large complex. Mutations in the amino-terminal domain reduced the ...
Conservation of information between prokaryotic and eukaryotic regulatory proteins and their cognate binding sites on DNA and RNA (operators and response elements) has been observed and is proposed as a basis for site-specific recognition. We present anal
... ,Human Pathogenic Viruses The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses (NCPV) preserves well characterised, authenticated human pathogenic viruses in a secure facility, and NCPV is able to supply the agents or nucleic acids derived from them, to the scientific community according to national and,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Viruses are very small biological constructs which contain either DNA or RNA. As they lack cellular machinery and rely on an infected cell to actually replicate their viral genomes, there is debate as to whether viruses should be considered "living." A virus consists of three main parts. 1) Genetic Material - This can be either DNA or RNA. Upon a viral infection, the virus inserts its genome into the host cell, where it is processed by various polymerases. 2) Protein capsid - this is a simple protein "shell" which envelops the genetic material and gives the virus structure. 3) Coat - there may exist certain proteins or lipids on the surface of the virus that identify the virus and aid in receptor binding to the cell surface. These surface modifications to the virus can induce an immune response in the host organism. The figure to the right is a schematic of a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria) inserting its DNA . Viral replication is essentially a positive feedback loop in which the ...
6. This process of picking up DNA from the environment is called ____________________.. 7. Did Griffiths experiment prove DNA was the genetic material?. 8. What 2 main things make up chromosomes?. 9. What did Hershey and Chase use in their experiments to prove DNA was the cells genetic material?. 10. Hershey and Chase radioactively tagged the viral DNA with _______________ and the protein capsid with ______________.. 11. Which radioactive substance was injected into and took over the host cells DNA?. 12. What scientists showed the amount of the 4 nitrogen bases present in DNA?. 13. Name the bases and their amounts found in somatic or body cells of humans.. 14. What bases are complementary (pair with each other) on DNA?. 15. What type of bonds join base pairs on DNA?. 16. Are these strong or weak bonds?. 17. What was Rosalind Franklins contribution to finding DNAs structure?. 18. Who built the first model of DNA and what did they use to help get the correct measurements for the ...
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I wanted to continue the thread which was started on the anabolics forum. Originally Posted by Scottyo How is your CNS feeling on the 3 full body
Just curious as to what some more experienced trad people recommend to purchase to start building up my rack. Like what size cams, nuts and hexs to get and m...
Monday morning was spent preparing a presentation for the advisors. In the meeting, we discussed the project so far, what existing parts in the registry we could use, and how we could model the system. On Tuesday morning, our very own supervisor, Chris Hirst, gave us a tutorial on how to use PlasmaDNA for In silico cloning. We then talked about the approximate time frames for standard assembly. Tuesday night was our first movie night! We were all in need of a break from work, so we ordered pizza, watched a film and chilled out. For the rest of the week, we set about putting together our DNA cassettes for synthesis, and we also defined the genes in the B. subtilis genome into which we would integrate the DNA cassettes. We also researched Dif sites, which would allow us to remove antibiotic resistance genes after the cassettes had integrated into the genome (see the Human Practices Report for more information on this). We also started modelling how fast our system would actually be, depending on ...
A significant number of RNA viruses assemble their protein containers and genomic material simultaneously. Here the implications of this protein-RNA co-assembly are investigated using an extended version of a model first proposed by Adam Zlotnick in 1994 (Zlotnick, 1994). The inspirations for this extended model are the cases of bacteriophage MS2 and the STMV virus, viruses that have been well characterised experimentally. Example pathways of RNA virus assembly have been enumerated and kinetic simulations have been run on these networks. The results show the most likely pathways of virus assembly and the concentrations of the intermediates. This work will also demonstrate how kinetic traps may be avoided when proteins are able to bind RNA during assembly. Additionally modelled are DNA cages, which are three-dimensional shapes made from double-helical DNA molecules. Such cages have been seen within viruses but may also be constructed artificially. This model has been used to produce energetically ...
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The morphologically unique virion of SEV1 contains a protein capsid with 16 regularly spaced ...
I work at the interface of discrete mathematics and molecular biology. For instance, most viruses code their genomes in RNA rather than DNA, which is then packaged into a protein capsid. Understanding how this happens is a fundamental biomedical problem with important therapeutic applications. The "branching" of these large RNA molecules (much like a tree in nature) is a critical characteristic that Ive studied using techniques from analytic, geometric, and probabilistic combinatorics. ...
The purposes of this study were to evaluate virus removal in treatment of water supplies by an in-line direct filtration pilot plant system and to suggest a system design to enhance virus removal. Isotherm and jar tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of pH, sodium ion concentration, and coagulants (alum and cationic polyelectrolytes Cat-Floc T, Nalco 8102, and 8103) on the bacteriophage MS2 contained in water. Isotherm studies were also conducted to assess the kinetic adsorption of MS2 to sand, anthracite, and garnet. Rapid sand, dual-media, and multi-media filters were tested in continuous in-line direct filtration operations. Approximately 95 percent reduction in virus concentration was observed at pH 9. Zero to 0.5 mg/1 of sodium ion present in water had no significant effect on the virus. Alum dosages below 20 mg/1 did not remove the
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of genes 6 and 10 of porcine rotavirus YM. When the amino acid sequences of VP6 and NS28, the protein products of genes 6 and 10 respectively, were compared with other published sequences it was evident that the proteins of human rotavirus Wa have the highest degree of identity with rotavirus YM. This is in contrast with the observation that when other proteins of these two strains have been compared they have been found to be among the most distantly related pairs of rotavirus strains. This observation is in accordance with the proposed receptor-ligand interaction between NS28 and VP6 during virus morphogenesis, and suggests a specificity in the interaction between these two proteins. In addition, when rotavirus YM VP6, which belongs to subgroup I, was compared with the VP6 proteins of rotavirus strains having different subgroup specificities, it was found to be more closely related to subgroup II rather than subgroup I proteins. This finding allowed us to
The consensus nucleotide sequence of a human rotavirus Wa strain, with only a partially known passage history, was determined with sequence-independent amplification and next generation 454 pyrosequencing. This rotavirus ...
Figure 8 shows the overall quaternary structure derived for the AMV particles. The VRU strain differs only slightly in amino acid sequence from that of AMV 425 (Fig. , 1979). Nevertheless, the VRU strain is also capable of forming the stacked lattice, reflecting the polymorphism of the assembled protein. The proposed hexagonal surface lattice possesses twofold symmetry axes andd quasi-three- and quasi-sixfold axes. Two types of dimer interactions are in evidence, one producing a flat face (a dihedral angle of 180° between trimers) while the other utilizes a dihedral angel of about 140°, similar to that observed between trimers of an icosahedron. However, there is no serological relationship between AMV and TSV or CVV or CLRV and the tryptic peptide maps of TSV and AMV protein show no similarity (van Vloten-Doting, 1975). Capsid proteins from the Bromo- and Cucumovirus groups will not activate Ilarvirus RNA. Recently, Roosien and van Vloten-Doting (1983) reported a coat protein mutant of AMV ...
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
Scientists from the University of New South Wales (#UNSW, UK) found that the special protein capsid envelope created by HIV at the time of entry into the human body uses a specific host cell molecule, inositol-hexakisphosphate, as a shield from immunity. The latter gives the capsid stability and allows unhindered to carry the genetic material of the virus to the nucleus of the cell. According to experts, this discovery can be the first step to changing the strategy of #HIV treatment. A new goal for antiviral therapy, scientists suggest to make the capsid itself.
Computer illustration of Rotavirus infecting GI tract tissue. This virus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children. It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis. Most children have been infected at least once by the age of 5, and develop immunity, reducing the incidence and severity of further infections. The virions consist of an unenveloped, three-layered icosahedral protein capsid, up to 76.5 nm in diameter, enclosing double helix molecules of RNA. - Stock Image C022/1714
Scientists at the US Department of Energys (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory constructed well-defined 3D superlattices of spheres and blocks using polyhedral nanoblocks of either cubes or octahedrons via shape-induced directional binding facilitated by pairing of complementary strands of DNA. This new strategy opens possibilities towards designing 3D nanostructured materials from functional nanocomponents.. Bonding directionality is determined by the coordination of anisotropic polyhedral blocks with isotropic spherical nanoparticles through attractive facets. This mutual attraction of heterogeneity is critical for suppression of phase separation, which is also achieved by strong DNA interactions via DNA complementary. The softness of DNA shell is also responsible for accommodating the difference in particle curvatures, and is crucial in promoting ordered phases. However, excessive softness may lead to unnecessary particle freedom that could interfere the formation of an ordered lattice. The ...
Fu sei-sette anni fa, vivevo in un distretto del governatorato di T., nella tenuta del possidente Belokùrov, un giovane che si alzava molto presto, portava la poddëvka1, la sera beveva birra e continuava a lamentarsi con me di non riuscire a trovare comprensione da nessuna parte in nessuno. Lui viveva nella dépendance in giardino, e io nella vecchia casa padronale, nellenorme sala con colonne, che non aveva mobili a eccezione del divano largo su cui dormivo e del tavolo su cui facevo i solitari. Qui sempre, anche col bel tempo, cera qualcosa che fischiava nelle vecchie stufe Amosov2, e durante i temporali tutta la casa tremava e, sembrava, cadeva a pezzi, e faceva un po paura, soprattutto di notte, quando tutte e dieci le grandi finestre venivano allimprovviso illuminate da un lampo.. Condannato dalla sorte al continuo ozio, non facevo decisamente nulla. Per ore intere guardavo dalle mie finestre il cielo, gli uccelli, i vialetti, leggevo tutto quello che mi portavano dalla posta, ...
The SRP9/14 heterodimer is the latest member of a growing family of small α/β RNA binding proteins examples of which are: the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain (Nagai et al., 1990; Oubridge et al., 1994); the double‐stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) (Farrandon et al., 1994; Bycroft et al., 1995; Kharrat et al., 1995); the K homology (KH) domain (Musco et al., 1996); the coat protein of bacteriophage MS2 (Valegård et al., 1990); the translational initiation factor IF3 (Biou et al., 1995); the S1 RNA binding domain (Bycroft et al., 1997); and many ribosomal proteins (Nagai, 1996). The RNP and KH domains, as well as several ribosomal proteins (Liljas and Garber, 1995), belong to the so‐called split α‐β‐α motif differing from the dsRBD, MS2 and SRP9/14 where the sheet is a β‐meander. In aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetases, a number of different tRNA anti‐codon binding modules have also been characterized (Cusack, 1995; Moras and Poterszman, 1996). Interestingly, RNA and DNA binding ...
1GAV: The crystal structure of bacteriophage GA and a comparison of bacteriophages belonging to the major groups of Escherichia coli leviviruses.
ADI has developed antibody ELISA kits to determine the efficacy of WNV vaccines. Antibody tests are available for the envelop and prM protein of the WNV. to Recombinant proteins and antibodies to WNV are also available to facilitate research on WNV vaccine. A novel recombinant WNV fusion protein (Capsid+prM+Envelop) protein has been cloned, expressed, and purified. This fusion protein invoked very string antibody response than achieved with the WNV whole virus or DNA vaccines. Recombinant WNV subunit-vaccine is being tested by ADI as a potential human vaccine candidate. More…. ...
Viral structure Virus: poison (Latin); infectious particles consisting of a nucleic acid in a protein coat Capsid; (viral envelopes); DNA or RNA Bacteriophages (phages)
Hourglass (17) Exstacy (17) Doppler Effect (21) Circuit Breaker (22) Just Hot (23) More Monkey Than Funkey (21) Red Column (15) Sands of Time (19 R) Gnasher (19) Question of Balance (21 ...
The hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) core (HBc) antigen (HBcAg) is an extremely immunogenic subviral particle. IgG could just end up being induced when hu-PBL from topics who had retrieved from or acquired a continuing chronic HBV an infection had been moved into NOD/SCID mice. Our data claim CC-5013 that humans likewise have a people of naive B cells that may bind HBcAg and it is subsequently activated to create HBcAg-binding IgM. The hepatitis B trojan (HBV) is one of the family members and may be the smallest DNA Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin D3 (phospho-Thr283). trojan known. It really is made up of an external envelope comprising three envelope protein (huge, middle, and little envelope protein) and an internal protein capsid which has the viral genome (22). The nucleocapsid of HBV is normally a 30- to 32-nm particle made up of multiple copies of an individual polypeptide (P21). The unchanged structure displays HBV primary (HBc) antigenicity. A nonparticulate type of HBc antigen (HBcAg), the ...
Why would they need lysogeny-or even, how could they lysogenize? I cant speak for them all, but MS2 is a (+)-stranded ssRNA phage. On infection, the RNA can be directly translated into proteins that replicate the phage RNA and direct the synthesis of any capsid proteins required to form new phage particles. The replicase enzyme makes copies of both plus and minus strands, though the latter are only used as a template to make more (+) strand for both translation and packaging into phage. To lysogenize, there needs to be a DNA phase to the replication cycle and there isnt any such phase for MS2 ...
Novavax is developing vaccines based on virus-like particle (VLP) technology developed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) in Worcester.
An orchid-growing friend of mine has successfully managed to cure a virussed strain of a particularly important orchid clone by using a mixture of human antiviral drugs. It was not easy or straightforward. His advice--seeds are almost always free of virus anyway, so dont be afraid to use virussed plants for breeding. Curing them is too much trouble. Lou ...
Tunes Often Heard - A good working list of tunes often heard in the Detroit area. Especially good for beginners who want to learn tunes that will likely be played at local sessions ...
MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*GP*AP*GP*GP*AP*U ONEP *AP*CP*CP*CP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*GP*AP*GP*GP*AP*U ONEP *AP*CP*CP*CP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3 ...
In 1976, the genome of the RNA virus Bacteriophage MS2 was the first complete genome to be determined, by Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium).[13] The idea for the shotgun technique came from the use of an algorithm that combined sequence information from many small fragments of DNA to reconstruct a genome. This technique was pioneered by Frederick Sanger to sequence the genome of the Phage Φ-X174, a virus (bacteriophage) that primarily infects bacteria that was the first fully sequenced genome (DNA-sequence) in 1977.[14] The technique was called shotgun sequencing because the genome was broken into millions of pieces as if it had been blasted with a shotgun. In order to scale up the method, both the sequencing and genome assembly had to be automated, as they were in the 1980s.. Those techniques were shown applicable to sequencing of the first free-living bacterial genome (1.8 million base pairs) of Haemophilus influenzae in 1995 [15] and the first animal ...
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Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. In the assembly of many phages a hollow protein capsid assembles first and is then filled with DNA by the action of a tiny "molecular motor" which is powered by chemical energy (ATP hydrolysis). We use optical tweezers to pull on a single DNA molecule as it is being packaged into a single phage capsid. This allows us to measure DNA translocation and the forces generated by the molecular motor in real time. ...
Abstract. Thermal shift assays measure the stability of macromolecules and macromolecular assemblies as a function of temperature. The Particle Stability Thermal Release Assay (PaSTRy) of picornaviruses is based on probes becoming strongly fluorescent upon binding to hydrophobic patches of the protein capsid (e.g., SYPRO Orange) or to the viral RNA genome (e.g., SYTO-82) that become exposed upon heating virus particles. PaSTRy has been exploited for studying the stability of viral mutants, viral uncoating, and the effect of capsid-stabilizing compounds. While the results were usually robust, the thermal shift assay with SYPRO Orange is sensitive to surfactants and EDTA and failed at least to correctly report the effect of excipients on an inactivated poliovirus 3 vaccine. Furthermore, interactions between the probe and capsid-binding antivirals as well as mutual competition for binding sites cannot be excluded. To overcome these caveats, we assessed differential scanning fluorimetry with a ...
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