This report by Pace and colleagues provides new insights into the influence of sex (and sex hormones) on leukotriene synthesis and its inhibition. While the potential of these results to be of clinical relevance is exciting, additional preclinical and clinical studies are needed to define the true clinical impact, which is likely to be complex. For example, Pace et al. focus primarily on inflammatory processes and leukocytes that predominantly generate LTB4. Although a number of inflammatory diseases, including scleroderma lung disease (13), inflammatory bowel disease (6), sickle cell disease (14), and cardiovascular disease (15), are reported to be associated with increased LTB4 levels, there are few, if any, examples in which treatment of these diseases with leukotriene synthesis inhibitors has shown benefit. The diseases in which there is the most information relevant to leukotriene biology are asthma, AERD, and allergic rhinitis, to which cysteinyl leukotrienes are known to contribute. For ...
It is clear that leukotrienes mediate inflammatory response; new aspects of leukotriene function have recently been described. In this study, we demonstrate that leukotrienes are key chemical mediators in the control of parasite burdens in mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. High leukotriene levels were detected in the lungs and small intestines of Swiss mice. In infected Swiss mice treated with MK886, a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor, numbers of adult worms, and eggs/g/feces were greater than in infected-only animals. The MK886 treatment inhibited leukotriene B-4 production in the lungs and small intestines, albeit on different postinfection days. Similarly, parasite burdens and eggs/g/feces were greater in 5-lipoxygenase(-/-) mice than in wild-type animals. These observation were confirmed by histopathological study of the duodena. We subsequently observed significant lower numbers of eosinophils; and mononuclear cells in the blood, peritoneal cavity fluid, and bronchoalveolar ...
There has been a considerable increase in our understanding of the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in asthma over the last decade. Arachidonic acid provides a source for both leukotrienes and prostanoids which have a diverse range of properties that are important in regulating the airway inflammatory response. It is clear that cysteinyl leukotrienes are important pro-inflammatory mediators in asthma which act to enhance bronchoconstriction. This has led to the development of a number of agents which either target the enzymes involved in leukotriene synthesis or are antagonists at specific leukotriene receptors. The development of these agents has allowed the role of leukotrienes in different variants of asthma to be studied. The other arm of arachidonic acid metabolism is the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Cyclo-oxygenase exists in two forms-a constitutive form, COX-1, responsible for the production of housekeeping prostaglandins, and an inducible form, COX-2, which is involved in inflammatory ...
Purpose: : Gender related prevalence of specific ocular disease such as Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca is well appreciated. Emerging evidence places early response lipid autacoids as central mediators of corneal inflammation and angiogenesis. If gender affects lipid autacoid circuits in the eye has not been determined and was the aim of the current study. Methods: : Acute self-resolving inflammation was induced in age matched male and female Balb/c mice by epithelial abrasion. Re-epithelialization was monitored by fluorescein staining and quantified by image analysis. Formation of key lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase derived lipid autacoids in the cornea was analyzed by LC/MS/MS-based lipidomics. Resident and regenerated corneal epithelium was collected and expression of lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases and selected receptors was analyzed by Real-Time-PCR. Results: : Males had a faster rate of wound healing up to 48 hrs post injury compared to female mice. Lipidomic analyses demonstrated a marked ...
Cysteinyl leukotrienes production in interactions between activated platelet and PMN leukocytes... Leukocytes contain phospholipase A3and 5-lipoxygenase. Thus they can generate LTA4.In contrast, other blood cell, such as erythrocytes and platelets or vascular endothelial cells contain LTA4hydrolase or LTC4synthase, but they lack 5-lipoxygenase and cannot generate their own LTA4. Activated platelet may receive LTA4 from PMN leukocyte ,using transcellular biosynthesis, and produce LTC4.4 LTC4and its metabolites LTD4,LTE4, are potent mediators of vasoconstriction and increase vascular permeability.. ...
Leukotrienes, the biologically active metabolites of arachidonic acid, have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory responses, including asthma, arthritis and psoriasis. Recently a compound, MK-886, has been described that blocks the synthesis of leukotrienes in intact activated leukocytes, but has little or no effect on enzymes involved in leukotriene synthesis, including 5-lipoxygenase, in cell-free systems. A membrane protein with a high affinity for MK-886 and possibly representing the cellular target for MK-886 has been isolated from rat and human leukocytes. Here, we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding the MK-886-binding protein. We also demonstrate that the expression of both the MK-886-binding protein and 5-lipoxygenase is necessary for leukotriene synthesis in intact cells. Because the MK-886-binding protein seems to play a part in activating this enzyme in cells, it is termed the five-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., plasma) to determine a group of biologically active substances mostly found in leukocytes (i.e., leukotrienes) that cause bronchial and other smooth muscle contractions. Leukotrienes are identified by letters from A to E, followed by numbers that identify the quantity of double bounds in the molecule. Some leukotrienes (e.g., LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) are considered mediators of bronchial constriction and allergic reactions (e.g., allergic rhinitis, asthma). Reagents for leukotriene determination are mostly used in provocation tests (e.g., determination of LTC4 in nasal secretions after inhaling allergens); these reagents may also be used for monitoring severity and improvements in asthma attacks (e.g., LTE4 in urine) and to determine LTC4 release for venom (e.g., hymenoptera venom) allergy diagnosis.. Entry Terms : "IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Allergy, Leukotriene ...
Non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the stereo-specific peroxidation of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids generating a spectrum of bioactive lipid mediators. Mainly converts arachidonic acid to (12R)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/(12R)-HPETE and minor stereoisomers. In the skin, acts upstream of ALOXE3 on the lineolate moiety of esterified omega-hydroxyacyl-sphingosine (EOS) ceramides to produce an epoxy-ketone derivative, a crucial step in the conjugation of omega-hydroxyceramide to membrane proteins. Therefore plays a crucial role in the synthesis of corneocytes lipid envelope and the establishment of the skin barrier to water loss. May also play a role in the regulation of the expression of airway mucins ...
A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute has identified an enzyme that produces a class of inflammatory lipid molecules in the brain. Abnormally high levels of these molecules appear to cause a rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder, and that disorder now may be treatable if researchers can develop suitable drug candidates that inhibit this enzyme.
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EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN, CORTICOSTEROIDS AND INHIBITORS OF PROSTAGLANDINS AND LEUKOTRIENES ON THE PLASMA-CONCENTRATIONS OF HAPTOGLOBIN AND FIBRINOGEN IN ...
Leukotrienes are chemicals that are naturally made by your body. Leukotrienes are increased in the bodies of adults and children with asthma and allergies and cause some of the symptoms of these diseases. Leukotrienes are increased in the bodies of adults who have common colds and are believed to cause some of the symptoms of the common cold. It is not known if increases in leukotrienes are related to the symptoms of the common cold in children. There are also genes that may control levels of leukotrienes and other chemicals in your body during the common cold. If you enroll your child in this study, he/she will be tested for allergies and for genes that may control the levels of leukotrienes and other chemicals.. STUDY DESIGN:. There will be 40 subjects enrolled into the study between the ages of 6 to , 14 years of age. However, approximately 80 participants may have to sign the consent form and undergo screening activities in order enroll these 40 subjects. The study will last approximately 1 ...
Title: Imbalance Between Leukotriene Synthesis and Catabolism Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Allergic Diseases. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 4. Author(s): Masafumi Zaitsu. Affiliation:Department of Pediatrics,Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga City 849-8501, Saga, Japan.. Keywords:Dipeptidases, gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase, stem cell factor, lipopolysaccharide, 5-lipoxygenase. Abstract: Recently, there has been great progress in elucidating the biochemistry of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The abnormal production of leukotrienes (LTs), due to the unbalanced-regulation of synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes, is probably induced by many bioactive substances, including Th2 cell-derived cytokines. Imbalances in these processes may play an important role in allergic reactions and other inflammatory diseases, thus making them potentially prime therapeutic targets for these diseases. Further studies on the regulation of LT-synthesis and catabolism are therefore required to ...
The field of eicosanoid metabolism and function continues to grow. Synthesis of the prostaglandins from essential fatty acids was first described by Bergstrom and Sarnuelsson in 1964. The thromboxanes were discovered in 1975, the prostacyclins, by Moncada and Vane, in 1976, and the leukotrienes by Samuelsson in 1979. A new class of biologically active arachidonic acid metabolites named lipoxins was announced by Bengt Samuelsson in May 1984. Since that time major advances have been made in the molecular biology of the eicosanoids including the cloning of prostaglandin synthases and 5, 12, and 15-lipoxygenases from several different species, including man. This volume, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Lipoxins, and P AF: Their Mechanism of Action, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications contains most of the papers presented in the plenary sessions of the Xlth International Washington Spring Symposium on Health Sciences. The book is divided into six parts, each covering a different aspect of this
Eoxins are proposed to be a family of proinflammatory eicosanoids (signaling compounds that regulate inflammatory and immune responses). They are produced by human eosinophils (a class of white blood cells), mast cells, the L1236 Reed-Sternberg cell line derived from Hodgkins Lymphoma, and certain other tissues tissue. These cells produce the eoxins by initially metabolizing arachidonic acid, an omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acid, via any enzyme possessing 15-lipoxygenase activity. The product of this initial metabolic step, 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, is then converted to a series of eoxins by the same enzymes that metabolize the 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid metabolism, i.e. 5-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid to a series of leukotrienes. That is, the eoxins are 14,15-disubstituted analogs of the 5,6-disubstituted leukotrienes. A closely related set of 15-lipoxygenase metabolites are derived from anandamide (i.e. arachidonic acid containing ethanolamine esterified to its ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections cause widespread death and disease in the human population. The long-range goal of our program is to define the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of an efficient protective antiviral immune response. An antiviral immune response is comprised of innate and adaptive components. In the absence of an effective innate antiviral response the efficacy of the subsequent adaptive response is blunted. A major component of the innate inflammatory immune response is the release of bioactive arachidonic acids metabolites mediators, including leukotrienes. Leukotrienes can mediate both the local inflammatory response that can slow virus replication, and the migration of antigen presenting cells that are vital for the initiation of a productive adaptive antiviral response. Knowledge of the processes involved in successful generation of a protective antiviral immune response is incomplete with an understanding of the role of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corticosteroids enhance CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic inflammation by upregulating leukotriene B4 receptor 1. AU - Ohnishi, Hiroshi. AU - Miyahara, Nobuaki. AU - Dakhama, Azzeddine. AU - Takeda, Katsuyuki. AU - Mathis, Steven. AU - Haribabu, Bodduluri. AU - Gelfand, Erwin W.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Background: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent inflammatory lipid mediator that binds to LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). Ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 plays an important role in the recruitment of effector memory CD8+ T cells into the airways of sensitized and challenged mice. Objectives: The effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) on BLT1-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells and effector memory CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic inflammation were determined. Methods: Effector memory CD8+ T cells were generated from ovalbumin257-264-primed mononuclear cells from OT-1 mice in the presence of IL-2. In some cultures DEX ...
My research concerns the adaptation of the human uterus to pregnancy and the prevention of prematurity. Preterm labour is the major cause of perinatal mortality and neurological disability in the surviving infants, but it is difficult to predict and manage. Current medication for preterm labour is inefficient or has serious maternal or fetal side effects. I have focused on the study of the neurohypophyseal hormone oxytocin and inflammatory lipid mediators including prostaglandins in the control of uterine activity. Moreover, in order to predict preterm labour and identify women at risk, I am studying potential biomarkers among proteins, peptides and other molecules released from the feto-placental unit into the maternal circulation. We have established novel functional methods in uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) combining contractility measurements with identification of specific phosphorylated residues in key contractile proteins. My research will lead to better understanding of the mechanism ...
Prostaglandins - biologically active substances produced in cells from arachidonic and some other unsaturated fatty acids (thomayerova) contained in the phospholipids of membranes. Depending on the pathways of enzymatic biotransformation arachidonic acid can be formed not only GHG (including prostacyclin and thromboxane of the corresponding synthase), and leukotrienes (products of oxidation of 5-lipooksigenaznomu mechanism).. The peculiarities of the chemical structure of PG is divided into groups, with Latin indices A, b, E, F, etc., and subgroup, denoted by Arabic numerals (PGE1, PGE2, etc.), according to the number of double bonds in the molecule ...
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The contributions of histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and thromboxane A,SUB,2,/SUB, (TXA,SUB,2,/SUB,) to the asthmatic responses and the magnitudes of blood and lung eosinophilia at acute and chronic stages of our asthmatic model were comparatively determined. Guinea pigs were alternately sensitized/challenged by inhalation with ovalbumin+Al(OH),SUB,3,/SUB, and ovalbumin, once every 2 weeks. Effects of mepyramine, pranlukast (a CysLT antagonist) and seratrodast (a TXA,SUB,2,/SUB, antagonist) on the early (EAR) and/or the late asthmatic response (LAR) were assessed at the second and fourth antigen challenges. The second challenge caused EAR but not LAR. Although the EAR was decreased at the fourth challenge, a substantial LAR was seen. Both mepyramine and seratrodast inhibited the EAR at the second challenge by approximately 50%. However, at the fourth challenge, these drugs did not inhibit the EAR. The LAR at the fourth challenge was attenuated by pranlukast and seratrodast by 45% and ...
LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are leukotrienes (cys-LTs) derived from arachidonic acid as a result of immune or inflammatory stimuli. The above mentioned…
The trial achieved its primary efficacy endpoint of demonstrating a reduction in one or more of these key biomarkers. The results showed that at all dose levels DG031 suppressed production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the product of the branch of the leukotriene pathway that deCODEs genetics research has linked to increased risk of heart attack. At the highest dose level, DG031 reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), higher levels of which have been linked to increased risk of heart attack. These effects were dose-dependent. The study also demonstrated that at the highest dose, DG031 lowered levels of sICAM-I, a critical molecule in the activation of inflammatory cells and cell infiltration. There were no serious drug-related adverse events reported in this study, and DG031 was found to be well tolerated.. "Our population genetics work pointed us to the role of the leukotriene pathway and LTB4 in driving the inflammatory process underlying heart attack. DG031 is designed to inhibit the FLAP, or ...
Enzymatic and free radical oxidation are common oxidative modification of existing molecules. Lipids are primary targets of this modification because they are the primary repository of oxidizable double bonds. Oxygenated lipids are collectively known as oxylipins. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, represent one of the most biologically important group of oxylipins in mammals. They are biologically active lipids that have been implicated in various pathological processes, such as inflammation and cancer. The synthesis of oxygenated eicosanoids is the result of the coordinated action of several enzymatic activities, from phospholipase A2 that releases the polyunsaturated fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, to primary oxidative enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, to isomerases, synthases and hydrolases that carry out the final synthesis of the biologically active metabolites. The production of arachidonic acid-derived prostanoids and leukotrienes occurs in single
Nora Barrett, M.D. is studying a family of inflammatory molecules produced in abundance in the lungs when a person has an asthma attack. These molecules, called cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), are extremely potent in causing the airway constriction and breathlessness that occurs in asthma attacks.
Au cours de lannee 1991, des epreintes de Loutre ont ete recherchees a chaque saison en differents points du bassin du Chavanon… Expand ...
We investigated the interaction of human PMNs with human vascular tissue to determine the extent to which cellular activation state was involved in PMN-induced vascular responsiveness. We determined that both unactivated and activated PMNs induced a cell number-dependent vasocontraction in HUV, the nature of which was dependent on the activation state of the cells. The vasoconstrictor response observed for unactivated PMNs was endothelium-independent, was due to soluble factor(s) in the cell supernatant and was partially blocked by an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. For the activated PMNs, the response was endothelium-dependent, was not due to a soluble factor and was linearly related to their activation state.. One of the most interesting findings of this study was that both unactivated and activated PMNs contracted HUV but that their respective responses were quite different in nature. Treatment of HUV with unactivated PMNs had no significant effect on the response to serotonin, which ...
Synonyms for Cysteinyl in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cysteinyl. 2 words related to cysteine: amino acid, aminoalkanoic acid. What are synonyms for Cysteinyl?
During the inflammation which promotes atherosclerosis, a group of important mediators, called leukotrienes, is formed from lipids. The blockade of leukotriene-induced effects could lead to novel concepts of treatment against cardiovascular diseases. Publications [pubmed:16293697] [pubmed:19136615] [pubmed:19783781] [pubmed:19164806] [pubmed:17379835] Contact [contact-card:magbac] Magnus Bäck
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Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1, also termed CYSLTR1, is a receptor for cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) (see leukotrienes#Cysteinyl leukotrienes). CYSLTR1, by binding these cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs; viz, LTC4, LTD4, and to a much lesser extent, LTE4) contributes to mediating various allergic and hypersensitivity reactions in humans as well as models of the reactions in other animals. The human CysLTR1 gene maps to the X chromosome at position Xq13-Xq21, contains three exons with the entire open reading frame located in exon 3, and codes for a protein composed of 337 amino acids. The CYSLTR1 gene promoter region is distanced from 665 to 30 bp upstream of its transcription start site. CYSLTR1 mRNA is expressed in lung smooth muscle, lung macrophages, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, platelets, T cells, B lymphocytes, pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+), mast cells, pancreas, small intestine, prostate, interstitial cells of the nasal mucosa, airway smooth muscle cells, bronchial ...
Looking for online definition of leukotriene modifiers in the Medical Dictionary? leukotriene modifiers explanation free. What is leukotriene modifiers? Meaning of leukotriene modifiers medical term. What does leukotriene modifiers mean?
CysLTs are inflammatory lipid mediators implicated in multiple diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, atopic dermatitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (a model of multiple sclerosis). The identification of CysLT receptors, generation of CysLT receptor-deficient mice, and development of specific antagonists have expanded the scope of functions of these mediators in disease. In particular, signaling via these receptors is implicated in many components of these diseases, such as bronchoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, recruitment of effector cells, mucus and cytokine secretion, and fibrosis (127-133). In this section, we discuss the functional relevance of CysLT receptors to various diseases as determined by animal experiments.. Bronchoconstriction. LTC4 and LTD4 are equipotent in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, while LTD4 is more effective in peripheral airways (134). For example, the potency of LTD4 in the guinea pig lung ...
CysLTs are inflammatory lipid mediators implicated in multiple diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, atopic dermatitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (a model of multiple sclerosis). The identification of CysLT receptors, generation of CysLT receptor-deficient mice, and development of specific antagonists have expanded the scope of functions of these mediators in disease. In particular, signaling via these receptors is implicated in many components of these diseases, such as bronchoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, recruitment of effector cells, mucus and cytokine secretion, and fibrosis (127-133). In this section, we discuss the functional relevance of CysLT receptors to various diseases as determined by animal experiments.. Bronchoconstriction. LTC4 and LTD4 are equipotent in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, while LTD4 is more effective in peripheral airways (134). For example, the potency of LTD4 in the guinea pig lung ...
© 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Background Prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2 ) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are lipid mediators derived from mast cells, which activate T H 2 cells. The combination of PGD 2 and cysLTs (notably cysteinyl leukotriene E 4 [LTE 4 ]) enhances T H 2 cytokine production. However, the synergistic interaction of cysLTs with PGD 2 in promoting T H 2 cell activation is still poorly understood. The receptors for these mediators are drug targets in the treatment of allergic diseases, and hence understanding their interaction is likely to have clinical implications. Objective We aimed to comprehensively define the roles of PGD 2 , LTE 4 , and their combination in activating human T H 2 cells and how such activation might allow the T H 2 cells to engage downstream effectors, such as neutrophils, which contribute to the pathology of allergic responses. Methods The effects of PGD 2 , LTE 4 , and their combination on human T H 2 cell gene expression were
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are formed by the action of 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein on arachidonic acid released from cell membrane phospholipids by the enzyme phospholipase A. This produces leukotriene (LT) A, which is hydrolyzed in neutrophils and monocytes to form LTB and conjugated to glutathione in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and structural cells such as epithelial cells by the enzyme LTC synthase to form LTC, and then enzymatically converted to LTD and LTE. The cysLTs LTC, LTD, and LTE likely contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis through their effects on microvascular leakage, epithelial cell activation, elevated mucus secretion, and mucosal inflammation., , , , The cysLTs exert their actions on target cells through specific receptors. So far, 2 G-protein-coupled receptors for the cysLTs, termed cysLT type 1 receptor (cysLT) and cysLT type 2 receptor (cysLT), have been cloned., Both receptors bind to LTC, LTD, and LTE with affinity order LTD ≫ ...
It is not within the scope of this Review to give a comprehensive description of all pathologies potentially involving leukotrienes. Here, I would like to mention four disease areas that are currently attracting considerable attention. Firstly, leukotrienes are strongly implicated in immunometabolic disorders ranging from obesity to type 2 diabetes. It has been demonstrated that enzymes and receptors of the 5-LOX pathway are upregulated in adipose tissue and that mouse and human adipocytes can secrete leukotrienes (97, 98). Importantly, LTB4 appears to play a critical role in adipose tissue inflammation, and a FLAP antagonist reduced 5-LOX products and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue in mice with dietary obesity (97). In addition, pharmacological or genetic ablation of the 5-LOX pathway in WT mice on a high-fat diet resulted in a reduction of adipose tissue macrophage and insulin resistance (98). Recent data demonstrate a similar role for LTB4 in promoting liver steatosis and insulin ...
Adipose Biology and Obesity Linked Insulin Resistance: A major research study in the laboratory focuses on the metabolic relationships between obesity and insulin action. This laboratory specifically examines cytoplasmic fatty acid binding proteins and their role(s) in mediating fatty acid metabolism in adipocytes and macrophages, particularly leukotriene synthesis. Using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and molecular methodologies, the laboratory studies the synthesis of inflammatory lipids in macrophages and other cells. Importantly, animal models either null or transgenic for fatty acid binding proteins reveal that intracellular lipid metabolism control the synthesis and secretion of adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines) linked to glucose and lipid metabolism in muscle and liver. Using a drug discovery approach, small molecule inhibitors of FABPs have been identified that exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages. Such studies provide a framework for the analysis of ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the redox state of a cell have been implicated in several signal transduction cascades including those that regulate cell proliferation. Specifically, signaling by several growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), produces a transient increase in ROS. One effect of increases in ROS is the inactivation of tyrosine phosphatases. Pani et al. found that the redox status of cells in culture was different in sparse and dense cultures (sparse cultures have more ROS than dense cultures) and that this difference correlated with whether the cells exhibited contact inhibition. Dense cultures had lower levels of the active [guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound] form of the small GTPase Rac-1. Treatment of sparse cultures with drugs to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis decreased the levels of ROS to those measured in dense cultures, suggesting that Rac-1 may stimulate leukotriene biosynthesis as a mechanism to increase ROS in sparsely cultured cells. The authors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and regulation of leukotriene-synthesis enzymes in rat liver cells. AU - Shimada, Kazuo. AU - Navarro, Javier. AU - Goeger, Douglas E.. AU - Mustafa, Shamimunisa B.. AU - Weigel, Paul H.. AU - Weinman, Steven A.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The liver plays a major role in metabolism and elimination of leukotrienes (LT). It produces cysteinyl leukotrienes (cLT), and cLT have been implicated in hepatocellular toxicity in several models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)associated liver injury. However, the liver cell types responsible for cLT production are poorly defined, and the expression of the LT-synthesis enzymes, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and LTC4 synthase (LTC4- S), in liver cells has never been demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of rat liver cells to produce cLT by determining whether hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoidal endothelial cells express mRNA and enzyme activities of the LT-synthesis enzymes and whether expression is altered ...
This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The encoded protein is a receptor for cysteinyl leukotrienes, and is involved in mediating bronchoconstriction via activation of a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Activation of the encoded receptor results in contraction and proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle cells, eosinophil migration, and damage to the mucus layer in the lung. Upregulation of this gene is associated with asthma and dysregulation may also be implicated in cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013] ...
Accolate: Zafirlukast belongs to a group of medications known as leukotriene receptor antagonists. It works by blocking chemicals produced by the body called leukotrienes. Leukotrienes cause the lining of the breathing passages of the lung to swell.
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Leukotrienes (LT) C4, D4, and E4are major contributors to the pathobiology of human bronchial asthma. Therefore, it is likely that compounds that antagonize the action or inhibit the formation of...
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Actual Singulair side effects submitted by users. Singulair is a leukotriene (loo-koe-TRY-een) inhibitor. Leukotrienes are chemicals your body rele...
Actual Singulair side effects submitted by users. Singulair is a leukotriene (loo-koe-TRY-een) inhibitor. Leukotrienes are chemicals your body rele...
Zileuton is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. It is indicated for the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma in adults and children 12 years of age and older.
Medicine Leukotrienes play an role in inflammation and its sequelae: pain, swelling, bone resorption. their history, structure, synthesis, metabolism, biological effects, inhibitors, antagonists, and their role in pathogenesis of pulpal and periapical disease.
Leukotrienes (LTs) exist as two distinct classes, hydroxyacids (such as LTB4), and cysteinyl leukotrienes (such as LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4). Leukotriene receptors have been classified into BLT and CysLT types to signify this basic level of selectivity, but there is also heterogeneity within both classes. Thus, there are two subtypes of both BLT, termed BLT1 and BLT2, and CysLT, termed CysLT1 and CysLT2. There may also be further subdivision of CysLT receptors, but this remains to be confirmed. The classification into types and subtypes of LT receptor was based initially on functional data, using the natural agonists and a wide range of antagonists. While LTB4 may be regarded as a selective agonist at BLT receptors, and cysteinyl LTs are selective agonists at CysLT receptors, no subtype-selective agonist has been reported for BLT1 or either CysLT receptor. Furthermore, despite the availability of a plethora of antagonists at both BLT receptors and CysLT1 receptors, no selective antagonist has yet ...