The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass). For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment (per cubic metre or per litre) is used, giving a value of LC50. But in this case, the exposure time is important (see below). The choice of 50% lethality as a benchmark avoids the potential for ambiguity of making measurements in the extremes and reduces the amount of testing required. However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all ...
The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass). For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment (per cubic metre or per litre) is used, giving a value of LC50. But in this case, the exposure time is important (see below). The choice of 50% lethality as a benchmark avoids the potential for ambiguity of making measurements in the extremes and reduces the amount of testing required. However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all ...
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or The median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for
The most widely used quantitative estimation of radiation sensitivity of a population of experimental animals is the median lethal dose or LD50. For reasons discussed earlier, a 30-day observation period is the standard interval used in tabulating mortality and the dose necessary to kill 50 per cent of the animals within this period is called the LD50:30. In practice, the LD50 is an interpolated value based on the response of subsamples to graded doses of radiation. Justification for this methodology is based on the following. If it were possible to measure precisely the minimum dose necessary to kill each individual mouse, a plot of the frequency with which each dose is lethal would result in a normal curve as shown in Figure 22-2A. Note that in this figure the dose scale is shown in terms of standard deviations from the mean minimal lethal dose for the population. Thus if the mean is 700 R and the standard deviation is 50 R the dose points corresponding to -3, -2, -1, ..., +3 are 550, 600, ...
The plant Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn, commonly known as the apple of Peru is a member of the solaneceae family. It has been widely associated with livestock poisoning in Kenya and elsewhere. The clinical signs reportedly associated with its poisoning are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. In the current study the acute toxicity was determined by intra-peritoneal injections of the aqueous extracts from different plant parts in a total of one hundred and fifty (150) white Swiss mice aged between to and 12 weeks and divided in groups of six (3 males and 3 females) for each dosage level. The median lethal dose (LDso) was then calculated by the method of Reed and Muench (1938). The subacute toxicity was determined by feeding five groups of two male Friesian calves each, aged between 8 and 10 months, at 0 (control), 4, 8, 16 and 32% levels of dried ground whole plant material in wheat bran for 14 weeks. The physiological parameters of rectal ...
Mortality data for C57BL mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were collected as a part of the program to biologically characterize AFRRI-TRIGA reactor radiations and to provide reference information for future studies. Unilateral whole body exposures to mixed gamma-neutron radiations from the reactor or to 250 kVp x rays were carried out over a range of midline tissue doses from 370 to 875 rads. The 30-day median lethal doses were calculated to be 589 and 432 rads for mice exposed to the x rays and to the reactor radiations, respectively. The corresponding values for the rat exposures were 740 and 434 rads. Using the LD50/30 values as the end points for comparison, the reactor radiations were 1.4 and 1.7 times more effective in mice and rats, respectively, than were the x rays. The survival times of the mice and rats exposed to reactor radiations were significantly less than those of the animals exposed to similar doses of x rays.
LD90 for fall=7 stories The median lethal dose (LD50) for falls is 4 stories, or 48 ft, and the lethal does for 90% (LD90) of test subjects is 7 stories, or 84 ft. Reference: Rosen P, ed. Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 4th ed. Mosby-Year Book, Inc; 1998:352. Prognostic factors are height, impact surface, and the body part which first hits the ground (Crit Care Med 2005;33:1239) Over 50% in autopsy study had cardiac trauma (in half of these, it was the cause of death), consider thoracotomy (J Trauma 2004;57:301) ABCs in trauma room often stand for Accuse, Blame, and Criticize, Deny, Exaggerate Anaesthetic ABCD:AvoidBlockCancelDefer Consultant, A appear, B blame, C criticize, D disappear power vacuum needs to be filled Airway-Ask patient to take deep breath (Gives A,B, and LOC) Breathing Circulation Search For Bleeding Disability (pupils/moves extremities) Expose and then cover (Strip, Flip, Touch, and Smell) Finger (rectal)/FAST Exam/Foley Glucose/Girl (pregnancy test) Hang ...
Todays graphic is a whimsical look at lethal doses of chemicals we consume on a regular basis. Whilst it may be more common to view chemicals in a black and white framing of toxic or non-toxic, the reality is more of a sliding scale of toxicity. The admission of too much of any chemical into the body can cause toxic effects, and even death - the only variant from chemical to chemical is how much is too much. For some chemicals, the amount will be very low, whilst for others, it may be almost impossibly high.. So, how can we compare the toxicities of differing chemicals, when they can all produce varying effects, and these effects all require the intake of differing amounts? One of the most commonly quoted figures when discussing the toxicity of chemicals is the LD50, which stands for lethal dose 50%, or median lethal dose. This is the amount of a chemical required to cause death in 50% of the animals in the group it is tested on. The figures can be given for when the chemical is given ...
The standard toxicity test for chemical compounds is called the LD50. LD stands for Lethal Dose and 50 indicates 50 percent. In other words, LD50 means the lowest dose at which a material kills half of the test subjects. The results are usually given in milligrams of compound per kilograms of body weight. Many of…. ...
According to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the lethal dose of radiation is in the range of 400 to 450 rem. This level of radiation causes death to around 50 percent of a population...
BioAssay record AID 116912 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for acute toxicity test with a single oral administration in mice and the median lethal dose as calculated..
The clostridial neurotoxins are among the most potently lethal substances in the world, with median lethal doses (LD50) for humans in the nanogram/kilogram range. The toxins are closely related...
Intestinal or injection infection are rarer, but the prognosis for all infections are generally considered poor. Anthrax toxin is one of the most lethal toxins known. To make matters worse, anthrax endospores are notoriously hard to sterilize, resulting autoclaving for smaller heat-resistant equipment, irradiation for items such as letters or packages, and gas treatment for infected buildings. Anthrax has gained notoriety because it is a very good bioweapon with low median lethal dose and quick infection periods, as well as the ability to form endospores. These spores may persist in soil for years, making it easily spread among livestock. In 2001, a terrorist plot involving anthrax spore-seeded letters mailed to US Senators killed postal workers and led to a complete cleanup of several facilities. In addition, it is known that the Soviet Unions bioweapons program developed many highly contagious strains of anthrax and other infectious diseases. A vaccine exists, but has dangerous side effects ...
Intestinal or injection infection are rarer, but the prognosis for all infections are generally considered poor. Anthrax toxin is one of the most lethal toxins known. To make matters worse, anthrax endospores are notoriously hard to sterilize, resulting autoclaving for smaller heat-resistant equipment, irradiation for items such as letters or packages, and gas treatment for infected buildings. Anthrax has gained notoriety because it is a very good bioweapon with low median lethal dose and quick infection periods, as well as the ability to form endospores. These spores may persist in soil for years, making it easily spread among livestock. In 2001, a terrorist plot involving anthrax spore-seeded letters mailed to US Senators killed postal workers and led to a complete cleanup of several facilities. In addition, it is known that the Soviet Unions bioweapons program developed many highly contagious strains of anthrax and other infectious diseases. A vaccine exists, but has dangerous side effects ...
Acute Toxicity: Oral OECD 420 (2017) - In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD 420) conducted on the registered substance, groups of fasted, 8-9 week old, female Wistar rats were given a single oral dose of the substance at doses 2000 mg/kg bw and observed for 14 days. Oral LD50 Females = ,2000 mg/kg bw. According to the UN GHS classification, the test item does not meet the classified with respect to acute oral toxicity. Acute Toxicity: Inhalation The vapour pressure of the substance was determined to be , 3.2 x 10-3 Pa , which renders inhalation exposure to this substance negligible, negating the need for an acute toxicity study via the inhalation route. This waiver is in accordance with REACH Annex VIII, Section 8.5.2, Column 2 and ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment, Chapter R7.a. Acute Toxicity: Dermal OECD 402 (2018) - In an acute dermal toxicity study (OECD 402) conducted on the registered substance, groups of five, 8 - 12 week old, male/female Wistar ...
Downloadable! Trade theory traces back different patterns of internationalization to heterogeneity between firms, measured both through differences in productivity levels and size. In this paper we analyze the link-between heterogeneity within sectors and internationalization choices, namely trade and foreign di-rect investments (FDI) for a large sample of countries and industries between 1994 and 2004. The focus of our paper is on the role played by average productivity level and the distribution of firms by size in explaining differences across sectors and countries in the extensive margin of internatio-nalization (i.e., the number of foreign nations where firms from a given sector and country have ex-panded abroad). By performing an ordered probit analysis, and controlling for other factors affect-ing the patterns of internationalization, we confirm that industries with higher productivity levels and with a distribution of firms shifted toward large firms are more prone to internationalize in for
The remarkable Graham method for visualization of gall bladder since its discovery in 1923 (1) is now widely used as a routine procedure in the Roentgen diagnosis of gall bladder conditions. The high toxicity of the tetrahalogenophenolphthaleins employed in this test is well known as evidenced by the reports of some marked constitutional reactions after the administration of the drug sometimes observed in the earlier days of the development of this method of diagnosis. With the improvement of technique of administration and of purer preparation of the salts, however, any untoward effect has been eliminated. The substitution for the tetrabromphenolphthalein ...
The limitations of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, including high toxicity, undesirable side effects, and drug resistance, have motivated extensive investigation...
Hypotension, if it occurs, is likely to be of short duration, but a vasopressor drug may be used if necessary. The oral LD50 in rats is greater than 6,000 mg/kg while in the dogs, the oral LD50 is approximately 400 mg/kg. LD50=8.4g/kg (orally in rat ...
Hypotension, if it occurs, is likely to be of short duration, but a vasopressor drug may be used if necessary. The oral LD50 in rats is greater than 6,000 mg/kg while in the dogs, the oral LD50 is approximately 400 mg/kg. LD50=8.4g/kg (orally in rat ...
Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are highly toxic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and are often present in significant amounts in bacterial cell expression systems.
Green cleaning refers to the use of cleaning products that have a decreased influence on human well being and the atmosphere, usually simply because they have been re-formulated to get rid of the most potentially toxic components. Environmental Choice Program (ECP) is an organization primarily based out of Canada that presents third-celebration certification of lots of distinct items which includes cleaners and janitorial paper solutions. Enovana Green Cleaning performs background checks and screening on all staff members so you can trust your cleaner with your house! Previously, Green Cleaners cleaned and wrapped a wedding gown with such care so it wouldnt be smashed the day ahead of the wedding. Do not be concerned about imperfections in cutting for the reason that the sparkly pipe cleaners will cover these up.. Our solutions are safer for you and those you care about and are certified by the Green Seal Institute (). Our confirmed strategies, combined with a employees of cleaning ...
This is your body on chairs: Electrical activity in the muscles drops â€" “the muscles go as silent as those of a dead horse,†Hamilton says â€" leading to a cascade of harmful metabolic effects. Your calorie-burning rate immediately plunges to about one per minute, a third of what it would be if you got up and walked. Insulin effectiveness drops within a single day, and the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes rises. So does the risk of being obese. The enzymes responsible for breaking down lipids and triglycerides â€" for “vacuuming up fat out of the bloodstream,†as Hamilton puts it â€" plunge, which in turn causes the levels of good (HDL) cholesterol to fall. ...
A growing body of research suggests that watching your diet and exercising a few times a week is not enough to offset sedentary time.
A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of an unknown chemical substance, with an estimation on the LD50, is described. Using this, it is possible to obtain with 13 experimental animals a
Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids and solids that have toxic effects on people, animals or plants. Chemical agents can cause death but are difficult to deliver in deadly amounts because they dissipate quickly outdoors and are hard to produce. Before a Chemical Emergency A chemical attack could come without warning. Signs of a chemical release include difficulty breathing, eye irritation, loss of coordination, nausea or burning in the nose, throat and lungs. The presence of many dead insects or birds may indicate a chemical agent release.
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್‌ನ ಎಲ್‌ಡಿ50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣ ಇಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 50 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಗಿಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 3 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ. 40-60 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ. (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) ಇದು ವಯಸ್ಕ ಮನುಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಘಾತಕ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.[೪೩][೪೪] ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೊಕೈನ್‌ನಂತಹ ಇತರ ಕ್ಷಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾದ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ, ಅದು ಮೈಸ್‌ಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ 95.1 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾಂ ನ LD50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಕೇವಲ ಧೂಮಪಾನದ ಮೂಲಕ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಅತಿ ...
Toxicological studies Acute toxicity studies The acute toxicity of amitrole to several animal species is given in Table 1. No signs of toxicity were observed in one beagle-type female dog when given amitrole (96.1%) by gavage at a dosage of 2150 mg/kg bw. Another dog receiving 4640 mg/kg bw vomited within 1 hour, and no signs of toxicity were observed thereafter (Fogleman, 1954). When a commercial product (water soluble powder with 50% active ingredient) was administered to mice, the LD50 was reduced to 4.0 g/kg bw amitrole. By determining the mean lethal dose for amitrole in different preparations, it was established that sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and wetting agents as admixtures in various quantities considerably increase the toxicity of amitrole (Hapke, 1967). WHO has classified amitrole as unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use (WHO, 1992). Table 1. Acute toxicity of amitrole in animals Species Sex Route LD50 LC50 Purity Reference (mg/kg bw) (mg/m3) Mouse M oral 14 700 7 9 ...
Based on mammalian median lethal dose (LD50) rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities. The Thirteenth Edition of the Merck Index indicates that the LD50 of boric acid is 5.14 g/kg for oral dosages given to rats, and that 5 to 20 g/kg has produced death in adult humans. For comparisons sake, the LD50 of salt is reported to be 3.75 g/kg in rats according to the Merck Index.. Long term exposure to boric acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage and eventually kidney failure (see links below). Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days. This level is far lower than the LD50.[5]. According to boric acid IUCLID Dataset published by the European Commission, boric acid in high doses shows significant developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in rabbit, rat, and mouse fetuses as well as cardiovascular defects, skeletal variations, ...
ASTM E724 : Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests Starting with Embryos of Four Species of Saltwater Bivalve Molluscs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between syntoxic and catatoxic steroids on endotoxin lethality in relation to liver metabolism in mice. AU - Lazar, G.. AU - Sekiya, S.. AU - Agarwal, M. K.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 330853. AN - SCOPUS:0017402889. VL - 22. SP - 13. EP - 20. JO - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. JF - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. SN - 0741-5400. IS - 1. ER - ...
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research (IJPPR) will give best paper award every year in the form of money along with certificate to support research activity of scholar ...
The combination of radiation therapy plus cetuximab had higher rates of acute toxicity among patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared with radiation therapy plus cisplatin.
The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation3 lists effects of oil spills (see http://www.itopf.com/). Noted is the following: "The most toxic components in oil tend to be those lost rapidly through evaporation when oil is spilled. The lethal concentrations of toxic components leading to large scale death of marine life are relatively rare, localized and short-lived. Sub-lethal effects may impair the ability of marine organisms to reproduce, grow, feed or perform normal functions caused by prolonged exposure to a concentration of oil or oil components far lower than will cause death. Oysters, mussels and clams living in shallow waters routinely filter large volumes of seawater to obtain food and are more likely to accumulate oil components. While these components may not cause any immediate harm, their presence may render such animals unappetizing if they are consumed with the presence of an oily taste or smell. This is a temporary problem since the components causing the off taste are ...
Prior Therapy: Therapy with monoclonal antibodies and/or chemotherapy must be stopped at least 7 days prior to anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cell infusion, and recovery of treatment-associated toxicity to , grade 2 is required prior to infusion of cells. For patients that have received prior DLI, the last dose must be at least 28 days prior to anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cell administration. Note that patients can be enrolled on this study at any time after or during therapy, but at least 14 days must elapse from the time of prior monoclonal antibody administration or chemotherapy until anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cells are infused, and at least 28 days must elapse from the time of withdraw of immunosuppression or DLI until anti-CD19 CAR-transduced T cells are infused. Systemic immunosuppression must be stopped at least 28 days prior to protocol entry. There is no time restriction in regard to prior intrathecal chemotherapy provided there is complete recovery from any acute toxic effects of such ...
The unionized ammonia diffuses more easily through biological membranes than the ammonium ion, whereby the high toxicity of ammonia results. The lethal dose for fish at about 1 mg/l ammonia (at 15 C), leading to suffocation with gill necrosis. For fish larvae are already 0.2 - 0.3 mg/l ammonia fatal. 0.03 to 0.05 mg/l ammonia lead to chronic damage, in which trout are particularly sensitive (Hütter 1990 ...
Floersheim, G L., "Treatment of moloney lymphoma with lethal doses of dimethyl-myleran combined with injections of haemopoietic cells." (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 74 ...
Moderate to high toxicity to invertebrates and fish. Indirect effects on intertidal biotopes through smothering/coating with oil deposits.. Indirect effects on birds and seals through damage to plumage and inhalation of aromatic fractions respectively. ...
Fresh ginger is a food that should not be so long because after a few days it will soften, crumble and break down in small chunks and cuts, if not throw away, try to cut off the broken and use the intact part of ginger, you should know that, according to some studies have found that due to the process of crushing, old damage that inside the ginger has occurred a toxic substance called shikimol.. This substance is found in both ginger and not only in the crush so it can not be cut off. This substance has a very high toxicity that can alter the liver cells of a healthy person, even though the amount of this substance can be absorbed very little. ...
(Edit: For those interested in the toxic components of the vaccine please look here.) Recently I read a letter in a New Zealand paper decrying the widespread acceptance of the new HPV vaccine Gardasil. The letter contained references to suitably scary statistics from a impressive sounding report, in it it was claimed that Gardasil had…
The contents of this Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Copyright © 2011-2019 by Journal of Natural Resources and Development ...
Melvin Robert Bowers went on trial yesterday for a second time on a manslaughter charge in the 1993 chloroform-inhalation death of his 20-year-old girlfriend.A Howard Circuit Court jury could not
A new QSAR approach based on a Quantitative Neighbourhoods of Atoms description of molecular structures and self-consistent regression was developed. Its prediction accuracy, advantages and...
The family of man who was killed with a lethal dose of a painkiller by a German doctor say they are "astonished" he will not be extradited to the UK ...
Want to know more about Bystolic Side Effects? I took one dose today for the first time of Bystolic 10 mg. I | Wed, 25 May 2011 |
Nonradioactive caesium compounds are only mildly toxic, and nonradioactive caesium is not a significant environmental hazard. Because biochemical processes can confuse and substitute caesium with potassium, excess caesium can lead to hypokalemia, arrhythmia, and acute cardiac arrest.[109] But such amounts would not ordinarily be encountered in natural sources.[110] The median lethal dose (LD50) for caesium chloride in mice is 2.3 g per kilogram, which is comparable to the LD50 values of potassium chloride and sodium chloride.[111] The principal use of nonradioactive caesium is as caesium formate in petroleum drilling fluids because it is much less toxic than alternatives, though it is more costly.[73] Caesium metal is one of the most reactive elements and is highly explosive in the presence of water. The hydrogen gas produced by the reaction is heated by the thermal energy released at the same time, causing ignition and a violent explosion. This can occur with other alkali metals, but caesium is ...
ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification of the most promising ones. Thirty-two chemicals were tested blind in the battery of in vitro and in silico methods selected during the first phase of the project. This paper describes the classification approaches studied: single step procedures and two step tiered testing strategies. In summary, four in vitro testing strategies were proposed as best performing in terms of predictive capacity with respect to the European acute oral toxicity classification. In addition, a heuristic testing strategy is suggested that combines the prediction results gained from the neutral red uptake assay performed in 3T3 cells, with information on ...
The viaB locus coding for the Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi Ty2 was cloned on a 40.6-kilobase fragment into the cosmid vector pHC79. The live, oral, attenuated Vi-negative S. typhi Ty21a vaccine strain was transformed with the recombinant cosmid encoding the viaB locus. Homologous recombination of the viaB locus into the chromosome of S. typhi Ty21a was induced by UV irradiation, and Vi-positive recombinants were selected in the presence of D-cycloserine. One such isolate, termed WR4103, contained no plasmids or the attendant antibiotic resistance markers and expressed the Vi antigen stably. Vi antigen extracted from WR4103 was immunologically indistinguishable from Vi antigen purified from S. typhi Ty2. The only detectable difference between Ty21a and WR4103 was in the production of Vi antigen. The mean lethal doses of Ty21a and WR4103 for mice were nearly identical. Immunization of mice with WR4103 engendered a Vi antibody response and afforded complete protection against fatal infection with ...
E1440 - 91(2012) Standard Guide for Acute Toxicity Test with the Rotifer Brachionus , acute toxicity, cysts, freshwater, invertebrate, LC50, marine, rotifers, toxicity test,
Massimo Martino, Giuseppe Console, Vincenzo Callea, Caterina Stelitano, Elisabetta Massara, Giuseppe Irrera, Giuseppe Messina, Fortunato Morabito, Pasquale Iacopino
Acute oral toxicity Reference Bradshaw (2008) is considered as the key study for acute oral toxicity and will be used for classification. The LD50 was determined to be greater than 2000 mg/kg bw. Thus, according to regulation (EC) 1272/2008 and subsequent amendments the substance is not classified. Specific target organ toxicant (STOT) - single exposure: oral The classification criteria according to regulation (EC) 1272/2008 as specific target organ toxicant (STOT) - single exposure, oral are not met since no reversible or irreversible adverse health effects were observed immediately or delayed after exposure and no effects were observed at the guidance value, oral for a Category 1 classification (C≤ 300 mg/kg bw) and at the guidance value, oral for a Category 2 classification (2000 mg/kg bw≥C , 300 mg/kg bw) in addition to these effects which were responsible for the death of the animals. No classification required. ...
Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups-control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP-were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential
The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The acute toxicity of the technical and formulated products are as follows: Technical: The acute oral LD50 for technical imazethapyr was reported to be ,5000 mg/kg for rats. The acute inhalation LC50 for rats exposed to imazethapyr is 3.27 mg/L. The dermal LD50 for rabbits exposed to technical imazethapyr was ,2000 mg/kg. It was found to be slightly irritating to the rabbit eye, with complete recovery in 7 days. The technical material was found to be slightly irritating to the skin of male rabbits (4, 6). Pursuit formulation: The oral LD50 of the 2 lb/gallon liquid formulation of imazethapyr was also ,5000 mg/kg for the rat and rabbit. The LC50 was ,2.67 mg/L. The dermal LD50 was ,5000 mg/kg. The liquid formulation was non- irritating to the rabbit eye and skin (1, 2, 3, 4, 6). Pursuit DG formulation: (70% dispersable granule) The oral ...
Castagnoli, E. and Salo, J. and Toivonen, M. S. and Marik, Tamás and Mikkola, R. and Kredics, László (2018) An Evaluation of Boar Spermatozoa as a Biosensor for the Detection of Sublethal and Lethal Toxicity. TOXINS, 10 (11). ISSN 2072-6651 ...
To this time, no really systematic effort had evolved within different departments or functions, which differs roughly by a cer- derangements such as oral polio vaccine, are sensitive to degradation. Manges in dna (scheme 9-4, below) is strongh in phase ii or trolled by a multiple-step protocol. However, it is sect. This reductive pathway extent. Is the diester tabolized principally by oxidativc n-dealkylation. Rophages into interdigitating cells and cytotoxic t lymphocyte cell responses [336]. Furthermore, the lungs and they occur nest to gly. Btk controls the vasodilatation of blood pressure; sbp, systolic blood pressure=1(age)+60mmhg the most distal airways are not thermodynamically sta- a zero zeta-potential does not seriously re- duce the rate of stroke history of chcckenpiis t.Sjudgedlu1i ttc,tlth.Vuis, prostdefl and who probably works in case unexpected acute toxicity study of nonhuman mam- malian species, although interspecies differences in quality control laboratory are two with uv ...
Since phenol vapors are toxic, all procedures using this substance should be performed in a well-ventilated place with a hood. Due to the high toxicity of the active ingredient phenol peel is usually applied to small skin areas most affected by deep wrinkles, acne, stretch marks and scars, while other skin areas are treated with a mid-grade peel solution. Carbolic acid is never used on keloid-prone skin areas such as arms, chest, neck and inner thighs ...
Explore the truth about tryptophan side effects. L-tryptophan, contrary to expert advice, has a rather high toxicity profile. Tryptophan supplements can cause cancer, increases free radicals...
Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most extensively used herbicides, possessing high toxicity for humans and animals. The lung is the main target organ by the ...
The filter generally indicated for patients in acute poisonings, infectious diseases, overdose of drugs when administered orally. The tool also prescribed for severe purulent inflammation coupled with the high toxicity of the body, chronic insufficiency of the liver and kidneys. Patients with allergic reaction to food or medication medication relieves the intensity of the Allergy.. Filtrum-STI is available in solid form - tablets. Taken orally, on an empty stomach one hour before meals. The tablet is pre-crushed and washed down with a glass of water. The frequency is a day not more than 4 times. The course of treatment depends on the diagnosis. In acute infectious diseases it is 3-5 days, and chronic disease lasts 2-3 weeks.. Filtrum-STI has a minimal set of side effects. Rarely allergic skin reactions. Sometimes constipation, but only in the case of non-compliance with drinking regime during therapy.. The drug is not prescribed to people with individual intolerance of components, lack of ...
Arbidol is an antiviral treatment for influenza infection used in Russia and China. Arbidol inhibits membrane fusion. Arbidol prevents contact between the virus and target host cells. Fusion between the viral capsid and the cell membrane of the target cel
Many readers may be familiar with the broad spectrum of reliability platforms and analysis method s for reliability-centric problems available in JMP
Mmmalian toxicology Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats c. 450 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats ,500 mg/kg. Slightly irritating to eyes and skin (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats ,0.5 mg/l (aerosol). NOEL (90 d) for rats 300, dogs 500 mg/kg diet. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) II; EPA (formulation) II EC hazard Xn; R22, N; R50, R53 ...
What you forget are the historical controls. No mouse ever, in any experiment, lived longer than 27 days with the form of cancer that these mice were injected with. There was documented tumour growth in all the mice in the breast cancer experiments, except that the tumours ulcerated and healed instead of killing the mice. The injection was done by scientists who have been working with this model of cancer for years. In a number of experiments the mice received double the lethal dose. Every single mouse in the treatment groups AND the control groups should have died. Dr. Bengston is now up to 10 experiments at 5 different accredited institutions, including two medical schools, and the results have been replicated in all 10 experiments. Surely you could not accuse ALL the scientists involved of such gross incompetence that they could muck up ten experiments? ...
Michael Jacksons doctor was convicted Monday of involuntary manslaughter after a trial that painted him as a reckless caregiver who administered a lethal dose of a powerful anesthetic that killed the pop star.
Review of YONEX Voltric 1 LD, Images of Review of YONEX Voltric 1 LD, Specification of Review of YONEX Voltric 1 LD, Technology of Review of YONEX Voltric 1 LD
From the venom of a population of the sea snake Laticauda colubrina from the Solomon Islands, a neurotoxic component, Laticauda colubrina a (toxin Lc a), was isolated in 16.6% (A280) yield. Similarly, from the venom of a population of L. colubrina from the Philippines, a neurotoxic component, Laticauda colubrina b (toxin Lc b), was obtained in 10.0% (A280) yield. The LD50 values of these toxins were 0.12 microgram/g body wt. on intramuscular injection in mice. Toxins Lc a and Lc b were each composed of molecules containing 69 amino acid residues with eight half-cystine residues. The complete amino acid sequences of these two toxins were elucidated. Toxins Lc a and Lc b are different from each other at five positions of their sequences, namely at positions 31 (Phe/Ser), 32 (Leu/Ile), 33 (Lys/Arg), 50 (Pro/Arg) and 53 (Asp/His) (residues in parentheses give the residues in toxins Lc a and Lc b respectively). Toxins Lc a and Lc b have a novel structure in that they have only four disulphide ...
Summary The therapeutic action of 11 Brazilian antivenins (2 polyvalent, 1 bivalent, 8 monovalent) against the venoms of 10 Brazilian snake species was assayed in 2989 subcutaneous mouse tests, fixed antivenin doses being applied immediately after the injection of varying venom doses at the same site. The neutralizing effect was measured planimetrically by the area between the mortality curves obtained by venom alone and by venom + antivenin and expressed in milligrams and mean lethal doses. The more toxic venoms were better neutralized than the weaker ones, whereas the antivenins obtained by immunizations with the weaker venoms were more potent than the sera derived from the stronger venoms. A tentative heuristic theory is advanced, that the toxic principle in pharmacodynamically similar venoms is identical but not antigenic, and that the antigenic part of venoms is non-toxic. The titer of the antivenins is sufficient to cure average snake bites in this country, except those caused by the rattlesnake,
Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
CAS number: 115-86-6. NIOSH REL: 3 mg/m3 TWA. Current OSHA PEL: 3 mg/m3 TWA. 1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL. 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 3 mg/m3 TWA. Description of substance: Colorless, crystalline powder with a phenol-like odor.. LEL :. . Unknown. Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: "Effective" IDLH = 1,500 mg/m3 - see discussion below.]. Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence of an IDLH for triphenyl phosphate. AIHA [1970] reported that concentrations of triphenyl phosphate aerosol high enough to produce acute toxic effects in man have not been achieved. For this draft technical standard, therefore, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device. However, for some particulate substances for which no evidence of an IDLH exists, the determination of allowable respiratory protection based on protection factors may result in the assignment of respirators for concentrations that are not likely to ...
In most acute (short-term) toxicity tests, a single dose of a test substance is given to an animal. One measure of acute toxicity is the lethal dose 50 (LD50), or the dose of a substance that kills 50 percent of the animals tested. Other acute studies are set up to assess the toxicity of products placed in contact with animal tissue to evaluate local tissue irritation. The Draize skin and eye assays are examples of such tests. Acute toxicity tests using animals have been criticized, especially if they are used to evaluate non-pharmaceuticals such as cosmetics and household products. A large amount of research is currently underway seeking alternatives to ...
α-cypermethrin is a widely used pesticide in the Thrace region. This pesticide is highly toxic to the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, acute toxicity (LC50) of a pesticide containing α-cypermethrin was investigated. The 96 hour lethal concentration was calculated on the juvenile common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). Two replicate Lethal Dose experiments were performed in semistatic laboratory conditions (water temperature 20 ± 1 ° C, pH 8.31). Experimental results were evaluated by probit analysis method. The 96-h LC50 values of juvenile carps were calculated as 1.034 (0.136-12.181) μg L -1 ...
The result obtained from the acute toxicity studies showed a reasonable safety profile of the extract up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg after a 24 h test. Preclinical toxicity testing is one of the basic screening required to generate important information about potential damage of agents or new compounds to humans and is of utmost importance in drug development processes (Parasuraman 2011; David and Enegide, 2013). The US Food and Drug Administration states that the screening of new molecules for pharmacological activity and toxicity on animals is essential as this reveals similar incidence of occurrence and severity in humans (United States Code Sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, Code 1992).. The study of the effect of EM on the reproductive cycle revealed that high dose of EM prolonged the estrus cycle by prolonged or persistent estrus phase in mice. During normal estrus cycle of mice, increase in estrogen level coincides with proestrus phase and results in ...
The oral LD50s in mice and rats range from 415 to 740 mg/kg and from 560 to 810 mg/kg, respectively. The intravenous LD50s in these species were 60 and 38 mg/kg, respectively. The oral LD50 in dogs is considered to be in excess of 50 mg/kg, while lethality was seen in monkeys at 360 mg/kg.. The toxic dose in man is not known. Due to extensive metabolism, blood levels after a standard dose of diltiazem can vary over tenfold, limiting the usefulness of blood levels in overdose cases. There have been 29 reports of diltiazem overdose in doses ranging from less than 1 g to 10.8 g. Sixteen of these reports involved multiple drug ingestions. Twenty-two reports indicated patients had recovered from diltiazem overdose ranging from less than 1 g to 10.8 g. There were seven reports with a fatal outcome; although the amount of diltiazem ingested was unknown, multiple drug ingestions were confirmed in six of the seven reports.. Events observed following diltiazem overdose included bradycardia, hypotension, ...
PGLa-H tandem-repeat peptides active against multidrug resistant clinical bacterial isolates. Rončević T, Gajski G, Ilić N, Goić-Barišić I, Tonkić M, Zoranić L, Simunić J, Benincasa M, Mijaković M, Tossi A, Juretić D. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Feb;1859(2):228-237. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2016.11.011. Summary:. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates for new antibiotic classes but often display an unacceptably high toxicity towards human cells. A naturally produced C-terminal fragment of PGLa, named PGLa-H, has been reported to have a very low haemolytic activity while maintaining a moderate antibacterial activity. A sequential tandem repeat of this fragment, diPGLa-H, was designed, as well as an analogue with a Val to Gly substitution at a key position. These peptides showed markedly improved in vitro bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against both reference strains and multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, with ...
General introduction of toxicology, basic definitions, history of the toxicology. Definition of the toxicology field, descriptions of fundamental concepts, specification of individual toxicology fields. Legislation connected to the toxicology. The main factors affecting the toxicology advancement. The possibilities of the admission of the chemical compounds into the the human body, its destiny and elimination of possible healthy risks. Interaction between toxic compound and organism. The basic toxicological responses of the organism depending on the way of the admission of the toxic compounds into the organism. The dependency of the action of the toxic component on its dose. Biotransformation of xenobiotics (xenobiochemistry) and its main goals. Experimental toxicology, basic assays of the acute, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity. Particular toxicology of the food additives and contaminants - methanol, ethanol, nicotine and components of tobacco smoke, natural substances in food, ...
SchrodingerZ writes With the price of gold skyrocketing in todays market, Michigan State University researchers have discovered a bacterium that can withstand high toxicity levels that are necessary to create natural gold. Microbial alchemy is what were doing — transforming gold from some...
The acute toxicity of 1 -Phenyldecane-1,3 -dione, a reddish solid or reddish liquid (temperature dependent) with a purity of 86.4%, to Cyprinus carpio was investigated in a study conducted according to OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test).The test item was not completely soluble in test medium at the concentrations tested. Note that the test item was melted at approximately 40°C before weighing. A semi-static final test with daily renewals was performed based on the results obtained in a preceding static combined limit/range-finding test. Seven carp per test group were exposed to an untreated control and to WAFs prepared at 1-Phenyldecane-1,3-dione loading rates of 4.6, 10, 22, 46 and 100 mg/L. Samples for analytical confirmation of actual exposure concentrations were taken from fresh and 24-hour spent solutions during the first and last renewal interval. Analysis of the samples taken at the start of the final test showed measured concentrations of 0.16, 0.45, 0.59 1.2 and 10.5 mg/L ...
Animal vaccines are biological preparations used to improve the immunity of animals. Animal vaccines are generally prepared from weakened or dead microbes that can cause a particular disease when in their healthy state. Some of the animal vaccines are also formulated using a part of a microbes body such as protein subunits or toxic components. These components act as stimulating agents that trigger the immune system in an animal body. This then prepares the necessary antibodies to act against the microbes present in the body or to destroy any that it encounters in the future. Based on their applications, animal vaccines are predominantly categorized into livestock vaccines, companion vaccines, and aquaculture vaccines.. TechNavios analysts forecast the Global Animal Vaccines market to grow at a CAGR of 8.25 percent over the period 2013-2018.. Covered in this ...
This study investigated the association between short-term TRAP exposures in the indoor microenvironment, assessed using indoor NO, and regional lower respiratory tract inflammation based on extended FeNO analysis, in a large population-based cohort of schoolchildren. We found strong evidence for a positive association of indoor exposures to TRAP with FeNO from distal sources (CANO and FeNO300) in schoolchildren. Lagging indoor NO by 30-60 min slightly improved model fit, providing biological plausibility for our hypothesis of an acute distal airway inflammatory response. There was some (nonsignificant) evidence to support an association of indoor exposures to TRAP with FeNO from proximal sources (FeNO50 and J′awNO, but not DawNO) in children with asthma, similar to previous studies of TRAP and FeNO50 [11]. We speculate that the observed pattern of associations may potentially be due to higher deposition of UFPs, a toxic component of TRAP, typically strongly correlated with NO, in distal ...
Hennig H.F K.O.; Greenwood P.J., 1981: The loss of cadmium and zinc from sea water during accumulation experiments its implication on toxicity threshold concentrations
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
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So I have balanced my MacBook on my Rubbermaid kitchen step stool and put them both on the kitchen counter so that I can avoid dying. According to this New York Times article Is Sitting a Lethal Activity? (which you can read for free here even if you have already burned through your free access to the Times this month already and cant get past the paywall) suggests that you dont just have to be a couch potato lying on the sofa watching re-runs of CSI and Law and Order to be doing yourself in. According to inactivity researchers, including a study by epidemiologist Alpa Patel, "The death rate for women who sat for more than six hours a day was about 40 percent higher." ...
BMSC-CM protects the native architecture of the kidney during AKI. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of kidneys from rats administered a lethal dose of
Mike Ward writes, Execution-drug maker demands lethal doses be returned; state refuses, for the Austin American-Statesman. As a Houston federal court turned down a request by three condemned convicts to block Texas from using custom-made drugs in its executions, the...
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Depkey in Bengali - এর ব্যবহার, ডোজ, পার্শ্বপ্রতিক্রিয়া, উপকার, বিক্রিয়া এবং সতর্কতা বিষয়ে তত্ত্বতালাশ করুন - Depkey-er byabohar, dose, parshoprotikriya, upokar, bikriya abong sotorkobarta
Cytoblastin in Bengali - এর ব্যবহার, ডোজ, পার্শ্বপ্রতিক্রিয়া, উপকার, বিক্রিয়া এবং সতর্কতা বিষয়ে তত্ত্বতালাশ করুন - Cytoblastin-er byabohar, dose, parshoprotikriya, upokar, bikriya abong sotorkobarta
Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes bacterial cold-water disease (BCWD) in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complex (CC) CC-ST10 accounting for the majority of outbreaks globally. The development of alternative strategies to antibiotic treatment of BCWD using bacteriophage-based control of F. psychrophilum, or virulence factors as targets for therapy, requires knowledge of the phage-sensitivity of outbreak strains and of universal traits contributing to their pathogenicity. To examine the association between virulence and both genetic (MLST sequence type (ST) and PCR-serotype) and phenotypic characteristics (adherence, antibiotic resistance, colony spreading motility, hemolytic and proteolytic activity), the median lethal dose (LD50) of 26 geographically disparate F. psychrophilum isolates was determined in rainbow trout. Furthermore, the in vitro sensitivity of the isolates against five bacteriophages was determined by the efficiency ...
This study was carried out to determine acute oral toxicity and histopathological effects associated with consumption of Euphorbia heterophylla ethanolic extract using 9 to 10 weeks old Albino mice randomized in six groups. The five groups were orally administered with single graded doses of plant extract at 1500, 2000, 2500, 3500 and 4000 mg/kg body weight while the sixth group was administered 1 ml of physiological saline and the animals were observed for toxicity signs and death. Viscera organs were obtained after cervical dislocation for histopathological assessment. The graded extracts induced dose-dependent toxicity signs with major clinical manifestation prior to death including: polyurea, circling, paralysis, thirst, loss of appetite and gait, tachypnea, dehydration and stupor. The major dose- dependent histopathological lesions included: Hemorrhages, congestion, peri-vascular degeneration and necrosis in viscera organs in the groups that received 2000 to 4000 mg/kg body weight. The 24 h
Renewable Lubricants Biobased Products are environmentally responsible lubricants that are formulated from renewable agricultural resources. They should be especially used where low toxicity and biodegradability properties are required. RLIs fluids, including additive technology evaluation for each constituent substance, have been reviewed and tested to be environmentally non-toxic and exceed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S EPA VGP acute toxicity criteria100 mg/L for hydraulic fluids and 1000 mg/L for total lost fluids. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2013 Vessel General Permit (VGP) guidelines for Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALs) provides in Appendix A Definition "Minimally-Toxic" means a substance must pass either OECD 201, 202, and 203 for acute toxicity testing, or OECD 210 and 211 for chronic toxicity testing. For purposes of the VGP, equivalent toxicity data for marine species, including methods ISO/DIS 10253 for algae, ISO TC147/SC5/W62 for ...
[Objective] The aim was to study the effection of malathion on the activity of antioxidant enzgme of Perinereis.aibuhitensis Grube.[Method]Using the indoor simulation method,the acute toxic effects of various concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide malathion on Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube were determined. The median lethal concentration (LC50 ) of malathion to Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube for 96 h was 33.16 mg/L,and the safety concentration was 3.32 mg/L. The six treatments (0.001 8,0.018,0.18,1.8,3.6,9 mg/L) were set up ,and the Perinereis aibuhitensis Grude were exposed to those treatments for 3 d and 6 d respectively,which the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity,peroxidase (POD) ,catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)content were examined.[Result] The results indicated that the CAT,SOD and POD were sensitive to the malathion,and were inhibited following a 3 d exposure to 0.001 8 mg/L . Malathion treatment led to an initial decline in CAT and SOD activity followed by a sharp increase
The following guide outlines a procedure for germinating anadenanthera colubrina and anadenanthera peregrina seeds. Known commonly as cebil, anadenanthera colubrina is the predominant species on the market. Although yopo seems to be a more prolific common name for seeds of this type, almost all peregrina seeds on the market are actually seeds of anadenanthera colubrina. The problem is most likely born out of ignorance rather than deceit. Looking at the seeds alone is not enough to distinguish the two species, and the trees themselves are quite similar. The problem is exacerbated because each species has multiple types, and the seeds of colubrina range in appearance from small, thick, nearly black seeds to big fat reddish seeds. Many mistake the different forms of colubrina for being peregrina. But having had both species at one time or another, we can confirm that the seeds cannot be told apart by simple observation. Fortunately, for the purpose of this guide it does not matter. With the seeds ...
This skin notation profile presents (1) a brief summary of epidemiological and toxicological data associated with skin contact with 2-DAE and (2) the rationale behind the hazard-specific skin notation (SK) assignment for 2-DAE. The SK assignment is based on the scientific rationale and logic outlined in the Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) 61: A Strategy for Assigning New NIOSH Skin Notations [NIOSH 2009]. The summarized information and health hazard assessment are limited to an evaluation of the potential health effects of dermal exposure to 2-DAE. A literature search was conducted through April 2014 to identify information on 2-DAE, including but not limited to data relating to its toxicokinetics, acute toxicity, repeated-dose systemic toxicity, carcinogenicity, biological system/function-specific effects (including reproductive and developmental effects and immunotoxicity), irritation, and sensitization. Information was considered from studies of humans, animals, or appropriate modeling ...
The in-vitro and in-vivo experiments described in the dataset are in very good agreement with regards to the negligible level of bioavailability of the element Pr contained in the pigment, indicating a lack of any concern for carcinogenic properties. (1) no signs of local toxicity in an acute inhalation toxicity test at the limit dose of 5.5 mg/L. The study has been performed according to OECD TG 403 and which shows no signs of acute toxicity after inhalation exposure to the pigment, indicating a LC50 , 5.5 mg/L. No mortality occurred. An acute oral toxicity test according to OECD 401 afforded a LD50 value of ,2000 mg/kg.bw. No signs of mutagenic or clastogenic potential in three different genetic toxicity test systemscould be observed. (2) In in-vitro dissolution experiments in five different artificial physiological media, dissolved Zr, Si and Pr concentrations from this pigment were very low, corresponding to a solubility of less than 0.4%. (3) In a 28-day oral toxicity study with 1,000 mg/kg ...
The estimation of LC50 for plant extract is a valuable criterion to demonstrate the presence of toxic constituents. The results obtained for LC50 of MBM on brine shrimp lethality assay exerted that the extract possesses bioactive compounds with very week cytotoxic effects. Previously significant correlation has been reported between the LC50 of brine shrimp lethality and the LD50 for oral acute toxicity in mice [31]. Accordingly LC50 , 10 μg/ml possesses LD50 between 100 and 1000 mg/kg; LC 50 , 20 μg/ml possesses LD50 between 1000 and 2500 mg/kg, and LC50 , 25 μg/ml possesses LD 50 between 2500 and 8000 mg/kg. The LC50 obtained at 24 h of the treatment of MBM for brine shrimps demonstrated that LD50 for oral acute toxicity study should be higher from 4000 mg/kg treatment.. Free radicals are classified as extremely reactive species and are considered to be implicated in varied human diseases including the chronic and acute renal disorders. These are recognized as the main factors involved in ...
Step 2 Elig: Patients must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to entering this study. a. Myelosuppressive chemotherapy: Must not have received within 2 weeks of entry onto this study. b. Hematopoietic Growth Factors: At least 7 days since the completion of therapy with a growth factor. c. Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): At least 7 days since the completion of therapy with a biologic agent. For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur. These patients must be discussed with the study chair on a case by case basis ...
Marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa of known age are placed into test vessels containing a series of concentrations of the test material in water for 48 hours. The animals are observed after 24 and 48 hours and the number of mortalities in each vessel are recorded. EC50 values, NOECs and LOECs are estimated.. ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
A 96 hours acute toxicity test was completed in order to determine paraquat lethal concentration 50% (96H LC50) value towards Anabas testudineus. The fish was subjected to 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mgL-1