Chilo suppressalis, the Asiatic rice borer or striped rice stemborer, is a moth of the Crambidae family. It is a widespread species, known from India, Sri Lanka, China, eastern Asia, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia to the Pacific. It is a serious pest of rice. They are largely responsible for the great reduction in the rice growing in East Asia, India and Indonesia. It was probably introduced in Spain and Hawaii by humans, where it is widely spread towards Northern Territory of Australia. The wingspan is 18 mm in male and 18-20 mm in female. In the male, the head and thorax are brown and white. Abdomen pale. Forewings with somewhat acute apex which is ochreous, wholly suffused with brown except a patch in cell and a streak below medial nervure. Inner margin whitish. A sinuous rufous medial line runs with silvery spots on its inner side, also on discocellulars, and below vein 2. A rufous submarginal line, highly angled at vein 6 and with silvery line on its outer edge. A marginal series of black specks ...
Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with different doses of β-glucan by injection into the haemocoel. Those larvae that had received high doses of β-glucan (15, 30 or 60 μg/larva) demonstrated increased survival following infection with the yeast Candida albicans. High concentrations of glucan induced an increase in haemocyte density and a reduction in yeast proliferation within the haemocoel. Proteomic analysis of glucan-treated larvae revealed increased expression of a variety of peptides some of which may possess antimicrobial properties. Analysis of expression profiles revealed that low doses of β-glucan (3.75 μg/larva) triggered the increased expression of certain peptides (e.g. hemolin) while high dose inoculation was required before the increased expression of others (e.g. archaemetzincin) was evident. These results indicate that low doses of β-glucan induce a limited immune response while high doses induce an immune response that has the potential to curtail the threat ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of superficial and systemic infections in susceptible patients. Here we describe how an inoculum of S. aureus activates the cellular and humoral response of Galleria mellonella larvae while growing and disseminating throughout the host, forming nodules and ultimately killing the host. An inoculum of S. aureus (2×106 larva− 1 ) decreased larval viability at 24 (80±5.77 %), 48 (55.93±5.55 %) and 72 h (10.23±2.97 %) and was accompanied by significant proliferation and dissemination of S. aureus between 6 and 48 h and the formation of nodules in the host. The hemocyte (immune cell) densities increased between 4 and 24 h and hemocytes isolated from larvae after 24 h exposure to heat-killed S. aureus (2×106 larva− 1 ) showed altered killing kinetics as compared to those from control larvae. Alterations in the humoral immune response of larvae 6 and 24 h post-infection were also determined by quantitative shotgun
Transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins were first commercialized in 1996. By 2009, Bt crops were planted on ca. 47.6 Mha in 22 countries worldwide, with the USA and Canada accounting for 54% of this area. Resistance (virulence) development in target insect pests is a major threat to the sustainable use of Bt crops. Four major target pests of Bt crops in the USA and Canada - European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (both Lepidoptera: Crambidae), tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) - remain susceptible to Bt toxins after 15 years of intensive use of Bt maize and Bt cotton. The success in sustaining susceptibility in these major pests is associated with successful implementation of the high-dose/refuge insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategy: (i) Bt crop cultivars express a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of nonbinding site proteinases in the development of resistance of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera. T2 - Noctuidae) to Cry1Ac. AU - Cao, Guangchun. AU - Zhang, Lili. AU - Liang, Gemei. AU - Li, Xianchun. AU - Wu, Kongming. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - Development of resistance to transgenic crops expressing the Cry toxin from Bacterium thuringiensis (Bt) has been the major concern for the long-term success of Bt crops. Alterations in nonbinding site proteinases and Bt toxin receptors are the two types of mechanisms responsible for Bt resistance in resistant insects. However, little is known about the relative contributions of the two types of mechanisms in the early and late phases of the development of Bt resistance. To address the relative contributions of four nonbinding site proteinases including esterase, total protease, chymotrypsin, and glutathione S-transferase in the early and late phases of the development of Cry1Ac resistance, we analyzed the ...
Outline The Lepidoptera Taxome Project aims to coordinate the production, completion, and dissemination of online taxonomy of Lepidoptera on our planet at the species and subspecies level. There are about 180,000 described species of Lepidoptera, around 10% of all described species of living organisms. This project started out life as the Butterfly Taxome Project. Given the data banks already available for moths and the enthusiasm of people such as Malcolm Scoble, Niels Kristensen, and George Beccaloni, it seems that at the very least a synonymic catalogue for the entire Lepidoptera will be possible within five years, and should be undertaken. Malcolm Scobles group has already completed a baseline project on the Geometridae (21,000 species) which demonstrates that the project is plausible. In the butterflies (Papilionoidea), there are about 17,500 described species, or 1% of known organisms, and they will be covered in much greater detail than the moths, including original descriptions and ...
They fused the sequence for Bt toxin Cry1Ac with that of the nontoxic B-chain subunit of ricin (RB) in a recombinant plasmid. RB is a leptin that binds with galactose as well as N-acetylgalactosamine residues with high affinity, the latter of which are key components of Bt toxin-binding receptors. Then embryonic callus from mature maize seeds were bombarded with this BtRB fusion. The researchers tested their fusion toxin against stem borer Chilo suppressalis, a pest normally susceptible to Cry1Ac, and found that maize producing low levels of BtRB killed 75 per cent of larvae, compared with 17 per cent in Bt-only plants. Similar trials with the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis, which is resistant to Bt delta endotoxins, showed that after 4 days, nearly 78 per cent of larvae died on BtRB maize, compared with less than 20 per cent on Bt-only or nontransformed maize. In the leafhopper Cicadulina mbila, which like other homopterans was ordinarily not affected by Bt toxins, 95 per cent of ...
Velvetbean caterpillars are active and will spring from plants and wiggle rapidly when disturbed. Individuals less than one-half inch long loop when they crawl and are often misidentified as soybean loopers (Sprenkel 1999). The life cycle of the velvetbean caterpillar is completed in about four weeks during the summer, but takes longer in the fall. The number of generations occurring depends on the dispersal and arrival of adults. Velvetbean caterpillar moths overwinter in southern Florida and begin moving northward in early summer. They arrive in north Florida by mid-August and are very abundant by September. Egg: The egg of the velvetbean caterpillar is prominently ribbed, slightly oval, and white until just before hatching, when it turns pink. The egg is 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter, and flattened on the lower surface. Eggs are laid singly on the undersides of leaves, although in heavy infestations eggs may be found on the upper surfaces of leaves, on the petioles and even on the stems (Watson ...
Curacron - Insecticides Control of Lepidoptera in Cotton by Syngenta. The foundation product for the control of lepidoptera in cotton with strong effects against mining and sucking insects as well as mites. The ideal partner for tank-mix or ready-mix...
This work provides a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships within the Neotropical genus Sparganothina, and between this genus and other lineages of Sparganothini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Nineteen species are considered to belong to Sparganothina. Ten additional species are placed in Sparganothina and five in Coelostathma, pending a better phylogenetic understanding of Coelostathma and related genera. Thirty species are described as new.
Free Essay: They are found in many parts of the world, most notably in North America and throughout various sections of Europe. One of the most notable...
Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885 (artist, author), "Caterpillar, possibly of the Bomolocha species from Lepidoptera : Larva, Food-Plant, Pupa, &c. by Titian Ramsay Peale," AMNH Research Library , Digital Special Collections, accessed February 17, 2020, https://lbry-web-007.amnh.org/digital/index.php/items/show/33099 ...
A series of novel tetrazole derivatives was synthetized using N-alkylation or Michael-type addition reactions, and screened for their fungistatic potential against Candida albicans (the lack of endpoint = 100%). Among them, the selected compounds 2d, 4b, and 6a differing in substituents at the tetrazole ring were non-toxic to Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo and exerted slight toxicity against Caco-2 in vitro (CC50 at 256 μg/mL). An antagonistic effect of tetrazole derivatives 2d, 4b, and 6a respectively in combination with Fluconazole was shown using the checker board and colorimetric methods (fractional inhibitory concentration indexes FICIs ,1 ...
Graces Insect Cell Medium with L-Glutamine optimal for growth and maintenance of insect cells in culture such as in Dipteran and/or Lepidopteran cell lines
Winter; P. O., En extra hjælp til bestemmelse af Amphipyra pyramidea (L.) og A. berbera svenssoni (Fletcher) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Oversat fra engelsk af Ib Norgaard), . . . pg. ...
Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885 (artist, author), "Probably Ceratomia undulosa from Lepidoptera : Larva, Food-Plant, Pupa, &c. by Titian Ramsay Peale," AMNH Research Library , Digital Special Collections, accessed April 6, 2020, https://lbry-web-007.amnh.org/digital/index.php/items/show/33108 ...
9780849321610 Our cheapest price for Manual of Lepidoptera: Classification of the Butterflies and Moths of is $193.95. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Valtonen, A., Leinonen, R., Pöyry, J., Roininen, H., Tuomela, J. and Ayres, M. P. (2014), Is climate warming more consequential towards poles? The phenology of Lepidoptera in Finland. Global Change Biology, 20: 16-27. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12372 ...
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Hatch occurs in 1 to 1 1/2 weeks and then the small caterpillars move to an adjacent leaf to begin feeding as a group. These small larvae consume only the soft portions of the leaf, leaving behind the leaf skeleton. At this stage the caterpillars are most easily located by looking in the vicinity of skeletonized leaves. After several days of feeding and growing, the 1st stage caterpillars shed their head capsule and skin and become second stage larvae. Caterpillars continue to feed and stay in groups. Larger caterpillars consume entire leaves leaving branches with nothing but bare twigs. After five to six weeks, the mature caterpillars cease feeding and disperse down from trees to pupate. This is the time, about mid-October in Florida, when most people notice and are likely to be bothered by the oakworms. Oakworms pupate about 2 to 3 inches deep in the soil, overwintering in this stage for nearly ten months. Moths emerge the next year to begin the cycle again.. ...
Van Nieukerken, E.J. et al. 2011: Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011: Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148: 212-221. ISBN 978-1-86977-849-1 (paperback) ISBN 978-1-86977-850-7 (online edition) PDF Reference page. ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Purification and characterization of trypsin produced by gut bacteria from Anticarsia gemmatalis.
Behaviour of laboratory-selected Cry1Ac-tolerant strain of ,i,Helicoverpa armigera,/i, (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on ,i,Bt,/i,-cotton ...
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If this growth to a full sized creature, (and I am thinking principally of the lepidoptera caterpillar here) is possible, subsequent to someone being infected with cloned bacteria, it is of immense clinical importance that this is stated. Alternatively, (and I know that the colours, the sensing antennae, have been remarked upon), is it possible that the hairs of the adult lepidoptera butterfly or moth can be present? Of course, I understand that no-one may know the answer to this, or it may be that my questions in the last two paragraphs are silly, and that this could not happen in this way. If either of the preceding is your thoughts, please say so. You wont hurt my feelings or anything, because this level of science is not part of my life ...
Forister ML, Novotny V, Panorska AK, Baje L, Basset Y, Butterill PT, Cizek L, Coley PD, Dem F, Diniz IR, Drozd P, Fox M, Glassmire AE, Hazen R, Hrcek J, Jahner JP, Kaman O, Kozubowski TJ, Kursar TA, Lewis OT, Lill J, Marquis RJ, Miller SE, Morais HC, Murakami M, Nickel H, Pardikes NA, Ricklefs RE, Singer MS, Smilanich AM, Stireman JO, Villamarín-Cortez S, Vodka S, Volf M, Wagner DL, Walla T, Weiblen GD, Dyer LA. The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13; 112(2):442-7 ...
ID: Males of I.pectinea and I.masculella differ from other Incurvaria species in having pectinate antennae. I.masculella has a more distinctly orange-yellow head and more distinct white spots on a darker browner forewing. In I.pectinea the dorsal pale spots are more obscure and the forewing a greyer-brown. There is also a difference in the tapering of the antennal pectinations, the tapering occurring more gradually in I.masculella (illustrated right). In these examples at least there is also a difference in the number of pectinations, 27 in I.pectinea, 30 in I.masculella, but I do not know if this is variable or if so the range of variability. Also in my specimens in I masculella there is a greater contrast between the dark dorsal surface and pale ventral surface of the abdomen, the pale colour being restricted to the distal fringe of each segment in I.pectinea - but this difference needs to be confirmed. ...
Both Hart and Sterling & Parsons use the scale-tooth as the main external feature for confirming identity, though both describe it in comparative terms. Hart keys it as "scale-tooth generally long and narrow" in A.acanthadactyla and "scale-tooth generally short and broad" in A.punctidacyla (with long/short being along the length of the hindwing 3rd lobe and narrow/broad referring to the degree of projection of the scale-tooth from the 3rd lobe). Sterling & Parsons describe the scale-tooth as "wide and short" in A.acanthadactyla and "narrow and tall" in A.punctidactyla (with wide/narrow being along the length of the hindwing 3rd lobe and short/tall referring to the degree of projection of the scale-tooth from the 3rd lobe). In my limited experience the length of the scale-tooth is difficult to judge but its degree of projection is a reliable feature ...
Naumann, S ; W.A. Nässig & S. Löffler, 2008: Notes on the identity of Loepa katinka diversiocellata Bryk, 1944 and description of a new species, with notes on preimaginal morphology and some taxonomic remarks on other species (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo N.F. 29 (3): 149-162 ...
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29 (15-23) (1848), (1): pl. 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852 ...
Gellir dosbarthur pryfaid (neur Insecta) syn perthyn ir Urdd a elwir yn Lepidoptera yn ddwy ran: y gloynnod byw ar gwyfynod. Maer dosbarthiad hwn yn cynnyws mwy na 180,000 o rywogaethau mewn tua 128 o deuluoedd.. Wedi deor oi ŵy maer ôl-adain wellt yn lindysyn syn bwyta llawer o ddail, ac wedyn maen troi i fod yn chwiler. Daw allan or chwiler ar ôl rhai wythnosau. Mae pedwar cyfnod yng nghylchred bywyd glöynnod byw a gwyfynod: ŵy, lindysyn, chwiler ac oedolyn.. ...
Genera: Aremfoxia - Epityches - Hyalyris - Hypothyris - Napeogenes. References. * Lamas, G., 2004, Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist Part 4A; Hesperioidea- ...
Reise der sterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Behilfen des Commodore B. von W llerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Band 2. Abtheilung 2. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 1-136, pl. 1-21 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, [1865]), (2): 137-378, pl. 22-47 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1865), (3): 379-536, pl. 48-74 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1867), (4): 537-548, pl. 75-120, (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-9 (pl. 1-74), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874) , (5): pl. 121-140, (erkl rung) 1-10 (pl. 75-107), (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-20 (pl. 108-140), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875 ...
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Many people believe in the Law of Karma, of Cause and Effect and how what we do can come back on us, but do animals have karma too?
Comparative susceptibility and binding of Cry1 Bacillus thuringiensis toxins to the Asian (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) and European (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) corn borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae ...
The lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 was activated in vitro using insect gut proteases and found to be highly specific for the lepidopteran cell line Choristoneura fumiferana CF1 among a wide range of lepidopteran and dipteran cell lines tested. The toxicity of P1 against CF1 cells is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and the lectins soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat-germ agglutinin. Protein blotting was used to identify a glycoprotein of 146 X 10(3) Mr in the plasma membrane of CF1 cells, capable of binding both the toxin and SBA, which is specific for GalNAc. This glycoprotein was labelled using galactose oxidase and sodium boro-[3H]hydride and solubilized in Triton X-100 before partial purification by affinity chromatography on SBA-agarose. We propose that this glycoprotein is a good candidate for the cellular receptor of the lepidopteran-specific P1 delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. ...
BACKGROUND: The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impact on both target and non-target pests worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential effects of six seed-mixture ratios of insect-resistant dominance (100%-R100, 95%-S05R95, 90%-S10R90, 80%-S20R80, 60%-S40R60, and 0%-S100) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. RESULTS: The occurrence of target pests, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, decreased with the increased ratio of resistant rice, and the mixture ratios with ≥90% resistant rice significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with lowest occurrences of non-target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, in S100 and S10R90 seed-mixture ratios ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A lepidopteran aminoacylase (L-ACY-1) in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera. T2 - Noctuidae) gut lumen hydrolyzes fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, elicitors of plant defense. AU - Kuhns, Emily H.. AU - Seidl-Adams, Irmgard H.. AU - Tumlinson, III, James Homer. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been identified in Lepidopteran larvae as elicitors of plant defenses. Plant responses include the production of primary defense compounds and induction of secondary defense strategies including attraction of parasitoid wasps. These elicitors are present despite fitness costs, suggesting that they are important for the larvaes survival. In order to exploit FAC-mediated plant defense responses in agricultural settings, an understanding of FAC purpose and metabolism is crucial. To clarify their role, enzymes involved in this metabolism are being investigated. In this work a previously undiscovered FAC hydrolase was purified from Heliothis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a novel member of genus Iflavirus in Helicoverpa armigera. AU - Yuan, He. AU - Xu, Pengjun. AU - Yang, Xianming. AU - Graham, Robert I.. AU - Wilson, Kenneth. AU - Wu, Kongming. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important agricultural pests of many economic crops worldwide. Herein, we found a novel single-strand RNA virus by RNA-Seq and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in H. armigera named Helicoverpa armigera iflavirus (HaIV), which possessed a genome with 10,017 nucleotides in length and contained a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative polyprotein of 3021 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 344.16 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.45. The deduced amino acid sequence showed highest similarity (61.0%) with the protein of Lymantria dispar Iflavirus 1. Phylogenetic analysis with putative RdRp amino acid sequences indicated that the virus clustered ...
There are several subspecies and races of Gypsy Moth. There are: - The Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar dispar race asian - The European gypsy moth Lymantria dispar dispar race Europe - and Lymantria dispar japonica the Japanese gypsy moth. The image shown here are of Lymantria dispar dispar the European gypsy moth. See reference for Schintlmeister 2004 Male Gypsy moths are brown with a darker brown pattern on their wings. Females are slightly larger and nearly white, with a few dark markings on their wings. Newly hatched caterpillars are black and hairy, later developing a mottled yellow to gray pattern with tufts of bristle like hairs and two rows of blue then red spots on their back. Adult females from Asian strains (west of the Ural mtns.) of Gypsy moth are capable of flight but European strains are incapable of flight. North American populations originated from Europe. Larvae of Asian strains also tend to grow larger. Because of these differences, eradication is usually directed to be more ...
The transmembrane sector of V-ATPases is involved in proton conduction across the membrane where a 15-17 kDa proteolipid forms a putative proton channel. An affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibody was developed to an antigenic and putatively extracellular region of a cloned 17 kDa proteolipid. In larval tissue sections, this antibody labeled the midgut goblet cell apical membrane in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the apical membrane in Malpighian tubules from H. virescens and Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). The antibody also recognized the 17 kDa protein in an immunoblot of H. virescens Malpighian tubule homogenate. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of two transcript sizes in the midgut (1.9 and 1.2 kb) and Malpighian tubules (2.2 and 1.9 kb). Our results strongly support the hypothesis that the 17 kDa protein is a component of the V-ATPase, where it is thought to be the proton-conducting subunit. This polyclonal antibody may provide a powerful tool for ...
To mitigate resistance development in pest insects to transgenic field corn and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins, the USDA and EPA have indicated that a high dose/refuge strategy is most effective, but single toxin Bt crops which predominate the transgenic crop acreage provide only a moderately high dose for one target pest in North Carolina, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), or bollworm. When a source of susceptible insects is present, moderately high insecticide doses are expected to result in resistance development more quickly than high doses. In theory, introducing a pyramided genotype expressing two different Bt proteins in the presence of a source of susceptible insects can more substantially delay resistance development than a single Bt genotype expressing a high or moderately high Bt dose. Herein, we determine the effects of transgenic field corn (2001 & 2002) and cotton (2003 — 2005) genotypes expressing Bt proteins Cry1Ab/Ac & Cry2Ab, both singly and ...
We estimated survival and final location of neonate Helicoverpa armigera after 72 h on both genetically modified (GM) and conventional cotton at the squaring stage. On average, about 2.5% out of a total of 1620 initial larvae survived on two gene GM cotton (CS × 450, 289BGII®) compared with 39.5% out of a total of 810 initial larvae on Sicot 189, a conventional cotton variety. A disproportionate number of larvae were collected on squares of GM cotton, assuming they behave the same way on GM plants as on conventional plants but suffer higher rates of mortality. Our results imply that the behaviour of neonates on GM plants in terms of finding squares (and/or better survival on squares) may be contributing to the continued pest status of Helicoverpa on GM cotton from time to time. Experiments to determine if selection for changed behaviour in the field has or is occurring are urgently required ...
Maize is wind-pollinated and releases prodigious quantities of pollen into the environment during anthesis [1]. In the case of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize, this pollen also carries insecticidal Bt protein. Because non-target herbivores may feed on host plants dusted with Bt pollen-both within and around maize fields, this exposure and its subsequent effects must be evaluated to assess the risks associated with the cultivation of Bt maize.. Risks posed to non-target Lepidoptera by the cultivation of Bt maize plants resistant to lepidopteran species such as the European corn borer are widely acknowledged [2-5]. Scientific controversies exist, however, in regard to estimates of the potential magnitude of effects and measures such as isolation buffer distances applied for risk management [5-14].. Because exposure is the basis of any effect, the interpretation of maize pollen leaf deposition data is highly relevant to the above debate. For several reasons, successful ...
Definition of tobacco hornworm in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of tobacco hornworm. What does tobacco hornworm mean? Information and translations of tobacco hornworm in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Baculoviruses are widely used both as protein expression vectors and as insect pest control agents. This video shows how lepidopteran larvae can be infected with polyhedra by droplet feeding and diet plug-based bioassays. This accompanying Springer Protocols section provides an overview of the baculovirus lifecycle and use of baculoviruses as insecticidal agents, including discussion of the pros and cons for use of baculoviruses as insecticides, and progress made in genetic enhancement of baculoviruses for improved insecticidal efficacy.