Histological studies have shown that morphometric changes at the microscopic level of choriocapillaris (CC) occur with aging and disease onset, and therefore may be sensitive biomarkers of outer retinal health. However, visualizing CC at this level in the living human eye is challenging because its microvascular is tightly interconnected and weakly reflecting. In this study, we address these challenges by developing and validating a method based on adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with angiography (AO-OCTA) that provides the necessary 3D resolution and image contrast to visualize and quantify these microscopic details. The complex network of anastomotic CC capillaries was successfully imaged in nine healthy subjects (26 to 68 years of age) and at seven retinal eccentricities across the macula. Using these images, four fundamental morphometric parameters of CC were characterized: retinal pigment epithelium-to-CC depth separation (17.5 ± 2.1 µm), capillary diameter (17.4 ± 2.3 µm), ...
A MEMS optical device includes a MEMS image array and a self-aligned microlens array. The MEMS image array includes a number of individual channels. The microlens array includes individual microlenses, each of which is associated with one of the channels of the MEMS image array. The microlens array is formed directly on the MEMS image array using semiconductor fabrication techniques. Each microlens is automatically aligned with its respective channel within the image array. The need for precise and expensive manual alignment of the MEMS image array and the microlens arrays is avoided. Improvements in the fill factor and the transmission efficiency of the optical device are realized. Further, by tailoring the refractive index of the lens relative to both the substrate and the ambient air, the total internal reflection phenomenon can be exploited, for additional improvement in the transmission efficiency of the optical device.
with a thickness of only 1.6 mm. The freeform microlens array resides on a flat substrate, and thus can be directly mounted to a commercial 2D image sensor. Freeform surfaces were used to design the microlens profiles, thus allowing the microlenses to steer and focus incident rays simultaneously. The profiles of the freeform microlenses were represented using extended polynomials, the coefficients of which were optimized using ZEMAX. To reduce crosstalk among neighboring channels, a micro aperture array was machined using high-speed micromilling. The molded microlens array was assembled with the micro aperture array, an adjustable fixture, and a board-level image sensor to form a compact compound-eye camera system. The imaging tests using the compound-eye camera showed that the unique freeform microlens array was capable of forming proper images, as suggested by design. The measured field of view of ...
Abstract. A digital light modulation microscope (DLMM) that utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) on an epifluorescence microscope has been developed to modulate excitation light in spatial and temporal domains for phosphorescence lifetime detection. Local O2 concentration can be inferred through the detected lifetime around an O2-quenching phosphorescent porphyrin microsensor. Combined with microsensor arrays, the DLMM can sequentially address light to each microsensor element to construct a discrete lifetime image or O2 distribution. In contrast to conventional phosphorescence lifetime imaging, the new method eliminates the need for a pulsed light source and a time-gated camera. To demonstrate O2 sensing with lab-on-a-chip devices, an array of 150-µm-diameter micro-wells coated with phosphorescent porphyrin were observed. The locations of the sensor elements were automatically identified though image analysis. The goal of this platform is to measure the O2 consumption of individual ...
Microlenses are fabricated with a refractive-index gradient. The refractive-index gradient is produced in a microlens material such that the refractive index is relatively higher in the material nearest the substrate, and becomes progressively lower as the layer gets thicker. After formation of the layer with the refractive-index gradient, material is etched from the layer through a resist to form microlenses. The index of refraction can be adjusted in the microlens material by controlling oxygen and nitrogen content of the microlens materials during deposition. High-oxide material has a lower index of refraction. High-oxide material also exhibits a faster etch-rate. The etching forms the material into a lens shape. After removal of the resist, the microlenses have a lower relative refractive index at their apex, where the index of refraction preferably approaches that of the ambient surroundings. Consequently, light loss by reflection at the ambient/microlens interface is reduced.
Purpose : Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited irreversible visual loss worldwide. The biological mechanisms that cause cones to die-the most debilitating phase-remain unknown. To better describe photoreceptor loss, we used adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to characterize a subset of cones that unexpectedly present reflections from their inner segment. Methods : We used the Indiana AO-OCT system at 500 KHz A-scan rate and clinical OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg) to image three subjects: two with early and one with late stage arRP. 450x450 μm2 AO-OCT volume videos were acquired along the temporal horizontal meridian (early stage: 2°-12° and 3°-12° retinal eccentricity; late stage: 0.5°-4.5° retinal eccentricity), which sampled the transition zone as well as the healthy and severely diseased areas that straddled it. Volumes were registered in 3D to remove eye motion artifacts, projected separately along the cone inner and outer segments (IS, OS), ...
In this paper, we present a prediction model for microlens formation by means of a deep X-ray lithography followed by a thermal treatment of a PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) sheet. According to this modeling, X-ray irradiation causes the decrease of molecular weight of PMMA, which in turn decreases the glass transition temperature and consequently causes a net volume increase during the thermal cycle resulting in a swollen microlens. Both a simple analysis and a Finite Element Analysis based on this model are found to be able to predict the variation pattern of the maximum heights of microlens which depends on the thermal treatment. The prediction model could be applied to optimization of microlens fabrication process.
In this paper we present the state-of-the-art of Deep Lithography with Protons (DLP), a technology that we have adopted and optimized to rapidly prototype three-dimensional micro-optical components and high-aspect ratio micro-mechanical structures in Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate). In particular we focus on the fabrication of individual plastic refractive microlenses featuring a wide range of numerical apertures, diameters and pitches and their 2D arrays. We give a detailed description of the microlens fabrication technique and the calibration procedure that goes along with it. We highlight the quantitative geometrical and optical characteristics of these DLP microlenses and we demonstrate the reproducibility of their fabrication process. We also illustrate the prototyping flexibility of DLP by making arrays featuring microlenses with different sags, pitches and diameters ...
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LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE WITH MICROLENS ARRAY - A method of manufacturing a micro-lens array and light-emitting device, comprising forming a first structured polymer film with close packed surface cavities having a mean diameter of less than 20 micrometers and a relatively lower surface energy surface, forming a transparent second structured film with an array of microlenses formed thereon corresponding to the cavities of the first structured film, wherein the second structured film comprises a relatively high surface energy material and has a refractive index greater than 1.45, and wherein the microlenses are randomly distributed, separating the second structured film with the micro-lens array from the first structured polymer film, and attaching the second structured film to a transparent substrate or cover of a light-emitting device through which light is emitted. Use of microlens arrays formed from relatively high surface energy materials enables matching refractive index of microlens array to ...
Wide-field fluorescence microscopy is generally limited to either small volumes or low temporal resolution. We present a microscope add-on that provides fast, light-efficient extended depth-of-field (EDOF) using a deformable mirror of update rate 20kHz. Out-of-focus contributions in the raw EDOF images are suppressed with a deconvolution algorithm derived directly from the microscope 3D optical transfer function. Demonstrations of the benefits of EDOF microscopy are shown with GCaMP-labeled mouse brain tissue ...
An in-plane liquid gradient index (L-GRIN) microlens is designed for dynamically adjusting the beam focusing. The ethylene glycol solution (core liquid) withde-ionized (DI) water (cladding liquid) is co-injected into the lens chamber to form a gradient refractive index profile. The influences of the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction of ethylene glycol and flow rate of liquids on the refractive index profile of L-GRIN microlens are analyzed, and the finite element method and ray tracing method are used to simulate the convection-diffusion process and beam focusing process, which is helpful for the prediction of focusing effects and manipulation of the device. It is found that not only the focal length but the focal spot of the output beam can be adjusted by the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction and flow rate of liquids. The focal length of the microlens varies from 942 to 11 μm when the mass fraction of the ethylene glycol solution varies from 0.05 to 0.4, and the focal length changes from 127.1
The mirrors themselves are made out of aluminum and are around 16 micrometers across. Each one is mounted on a yoke which in turn is connected to two support posts by compliant torsion hinges. In this type of hinge, the axle is fixed at both ends and twists in the middle. Because of the small scale, hinge fatigue is not a problem [3] and tests have shown that even 1 trillion (1012) operations do not cause noticeable damage. Tests have also shown that the hinges cannot be damaged by normal shock and vibration, since it is absorbed by the DMD superstructure. Two pairs of electrodes control the position of the mirror by electrostatic attraction. Each pair has one electrode on each side of the hinge, with one of the pairs positioned to act on the yoke and the other acting directly on the mirror. The majority of the time, equal bias charges are applied to both sides simultaneously. Instead of flipping to a central position as one might expect, this actually holds the mirror in its current position. ...
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This thesis is about our peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is poor compared to central vision, due to both neural and optical factors. The optical factors include astigmatism, defocus and higher order aberrations consisting mainly of coma. Neurally, the density of ganglion cells decreases towards the periphery, which limits the sampling density. The questions that this thesis attempts to answer are how much and under which circumstances correction of optical errors can improve peripheral vision. For this, an adaptive optics system has been constructed with a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror working in closed loop to perform real-time correction of optical errors. To investigate vision, psychophysical routines utilizing Bayesian methods have been evaluated and modified for peripheral vision to handle the presence of aliasing, fixation instability and rapid fatigue.. We found that correcting both refractive errors and higher order aberrations improved peripheral low-contrast resolution ...
A stereolithographic apparatus is disclosed comprising a vat, a working surface in the vat, an elevating mechanism for controlling the level of liquid within the vat relative to the working surface, an illumination source for emitting radiation, and an area array deformable mirror device. The illumination source emits radiation which is operable to harden a stereolithographic liquid, while the deformable mirror device is operable to reflect the incident radiation onto the surface of the liquid. The deformable mirror device can harden an entire lamina of liquid in one brief exposure interval increasing throughout without sacrificing resolution.
The fabrication of cylindrical microlenses and microlens arrays by CO/sub 2/ laser irradiation of polyvinylidene fluoride substrates (PVDF) has been demons
Hot compression molding is a promising method to fabricate polymer stand-alone microlenses. A reliable theoretical as well as statistical analysis is required for the optimization of the process to minimize the residual stresses and to predict the amount of springback to achieve a better replication of the mold profile. This article in this context focuses on the finite element simulation (FES), optimization as well as experimental validation of hot compression molding of polymer stand-alone microlenses. Three steps such as molding, cooling, and demolding, under different molding parameters, were analyzed using ABAQUS/standard solver and the results were compared with experimental results. Compression test and compression relaxation test have been conducted at different temperatures and strain rates to characterize the rheological behavior of material. Two material models, linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic-viscoelastic models, were developed and used for compression test simulations. ...
An objective lens system for endoscopes comprising, in the order from the object side, a first lens component having a negative refractive power, a second lens component having a positive refractive power, an aperture stop arranged right after the second lens component, and a rear lens unit comprising a third lens component designed as a cemented doublet consisting of a lens element having a positive refractive power and a lens element having a negative refractive power. Said objective lens system for endoscopes has a wide field angle, a compact design, a small number of lens elements and favorably corrected aberrations.
The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is a camera formerly installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. The camera was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is roughly the size of a baby grand piano. It was installed by servicing mission 1 (STS-61) in 1993, replacing the telescopes original Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC). WFPC2 was used to image the Hubble Deep Field in 1995, the Hourglass Nebula and Egg Nebula in 1996, and the Hubble Deep Field South in 1998. During STS-125, WFPC2 was removed and replaced with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the missions first spacewalk on May 14, 2009. After returning to Earth, the camera was displayed briefly at the National Air and Space Museum and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory before returning to its final home at the Smithsonians National Air and Space Museum. WFPC2 was built by NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which also built the predecessor WF/PC camera launched with Hubble in 1990. WFPC2 contains internal corrective optics to ...
The present invention disclose a composite structure for light diffusion, including at least one carrier media layer and a microlens system comprising a plurality of microlenses thereon. A transparent material for enlarging the shape is coated on each microlens to cover the gaps between the microlens. Partial surface of the transparent material can be coated a light absorbing layer for glare reduction. Besides, the microlens can be or asymmetric or arranged in random, non-periodic array for interference reduction.
In order to minimize light diffraction along the direction of switching and more particularly light diffraction into the acceptance cone of the collection optics, in the present invention, micromirrors are provided which are not rectangular. Also, in order to minimize the cost of the illumination optics and the size of the display unit of the present invention, the light source is placed orthogonal to the rows (or columns) of the array, and/or the light source is placed orthogonal to a side of the frame defining the active area of the array. The incident light beam, though orthogonal to the sides of the active area, is not however, orthogonal to any substantial portion of sides of the individual micromirrors in the array. Orthogonal sides cause incident light to diffract along the direction of micromirror switching, and result in light leakage into the on state even if the micromirror is in the off state. This light diffraction decreases the contrast ratio of the micromirror. The micromirrors of
Localized plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (LPSIM) is a recently developed super resolution technique that demonstrates immense potential via arrays of localized plasmonic antennas. Microlens microscopy represents another distinct approach for improving resolution by introducing a spherical lens
We describe the purpose and sample results of a wave optics propagation simulation developed to study multi-conjugate adaptive optics for 4-10 m class telescopes. This code was developed to assess the impact of diffraction effects and a variety of implementation error sources upon the performance of the Gemini-South MCAO system. These effects include: Hartmann sensing with extended and elongated laser guide stars, optical propagation effects through the optics and atmosphere, laser guide star projection through the atmosphere, deformable mirror and wave front sensor misregistration, and calibration for non-common path errors. The code may be run in either a wave optics or geometric propagation mode to allow the code to be anchored against linear analytical models and to explicitly evaluate the impact of diffraction effects. The code is written in MATLAB, and complete simulations of the Gemini-South MCAO design (including 3 deformable mirrors with 769 actuators, 5 LGS WFS with 1020 subapertures, ...
Scientists are working on ways of making the mirrors more temperature-resistant and getting rid of the deformation. However, this difficult undertaking only works up to a point. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are pursuing a completely different approach. "Weve developed a mirror that doesnt prevent deformation by the laser, but corrects it," explains Dr. Claudia Reinlein, from Fraunhofer IOF. "By deliberately heating up the mirror to a precisely controlled level, we balance out the unwanted deformation by the laser.". Working with colleagues from Fraunhofer IKTS and Ilmenau University of Technology, the scientist designed a ceramic mirror with a copper layer on the front and built-in temperature sensors and filaments. When a laser beam heats up the mirror, the sensors detect the change. Software calculates how strongly the mirror is deforming from the heat and sends a corresponding current of electrical power through the ...
The minus lens is merely an aid to vision, i.e., compensation by external means. In the majority of cases, naked-eye vision gets worse with the traditional minus lens correction. . . . At times, the best that I can do is to emphasize that the use of (minus lens) glasses be restricted to chalk board, and always must be removed after class. . . . The earlier age you begin wearing the minus lens, the faster vision deteriorates. The minus lens can make vision worse all by itself! Many scientists, engineers and health workers have formed this opinion - that the minus lens is definitely harmful to young kids long-term vision. . . . . My goal is to look to the future and begin preventive methods which can be effective for the child who is on the threshold of myopia. Today, I make it clear that my mission and task is to try my best to discuss the alternate opinion on the therapeutic use of the plus lens - instead of the compensatory use of minus lens. . . . I have supported several hundred children ...
A method for generating spontaneously aligned surface wrinkles utilizes control of local moduli-mismatch and osmotic pressure. The method includes modifying the surface of an elastomeric layer to form a superlayer that is stiffer and/or less absorbent than the elastomeric layer. The elastomeric layer is then swollen with a polymerizable monomer, which causes buckling of the superlayer. The monomer is then polymerized, dimensionally stabilizing the surface buckling. The budded surfaces generated by the method are useful in a wide variety of end-use applications, including microlenses, microlens arrays, compound microlenses, diffraction gratings, photonic crystals, smart adhesives, mechanical strain sensors, microfluidic devices, and cell culture surfaces.
OPTRA proposes the development of a two-color IR source simulator based on fused projected images of two digital micromirror devices (DMDs), one for each spectral band. The system employs a broadband IR (thermal) source whose energy is spectrally filtered via a dichroic beamsplitter and bandpass filters prior to being imaged onto each DMD. The "on" reflected image from each DMD is then recombined by the dichroic beamsplitter, and the fused beam is expanded by a telescope and transmitted towards the unit under test. The relative intensities of the two bands are controlled through the duty cycle of "on" versus "off" images reflected by each DMD. Because the IR source temperature is constant, response is considerably faster than resistive based simulators; similarly, thermal management issues are significantly less complex than with resistive arrays whose time constant depends on thermal management. Simplified thermal management may result in a lower power, more fieldable system. This approach ...
Obviously, the field has come a long way since Cricks initial speculation. In fact, last year, another major development occurred right here on the Harvard campus. In January 2011, the Samuel Lab of the Center for Brain Science published their work on CoLBeRT, an optogenetic system that allows them to "Control Locomotion and Behavior in Real Time" (4). CoLBeRT uniquely allows neural manipulation in freely moving, unanesthetized organisms like C. elegans. Though the 302 neurons of C. elegans have been extensively mapped, the Samuel Lab wanted to examine patterns of neural activity underlying common behaviors exhibited by these worms.. To target individual motor neurons, they used a digital micromirror device (DMD). Laser lights of the appropriate frequency are reflected off a series of mirrors onto the DMD, which focuses the light with high spatial specificity on the worm (genetically engineered to express ChR2 and NpHR). The lasers specificity is so precise that the system can illuminate the ...
De Beule, P.; de Vries, A. H. B.; Arndt-Jovin, D. J.; Jovin, T. M.: Generation-3 programmable array microscope (PAM) with digital micro-mirror device (DMD). In: SPIE proceedings, Bd. 7932, 7932OG (Hg. Douglass, M. R.; Oden, P. I.). Conference on Emerging Digital Micromirror Device Based Systems and Applications III, San Francisco, Calif., 26. Januar 2011. SPIE, Bellingham, Wash. (2011 ...
2011 marks DPIs 15th anniversary, and what a monumental milestone it is. With so many years of pragmatic growth and a sound corporate structure, the time is right for DPI to extend our product offerings and bring our precision displays to select new markets.. -- Digital Projection International (DPI) was founded with one key objective; to innovate the projection technology of the future in order to advance the capabilities of large-screen displays. Since our company first took on this challenge, we have worked closely with our customers to assure our products create the most precise imagery possible within every application. From our strategic partnership with Texas Instruments which led to refinement of the Digital Micromirror Device™ for projection applications and the worlds first 3-chip DLP projector, to receiving the only Emmy Awards ever awarded to a projector manufacturer, weve seen many successes. DPIs progress over the years is proof that equal parts hard work and product ...
The TI DLP660TE digital micromirror device (DMD) is a digitally controlled micro-opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) spatial light modulator (SLM) that enables bright, affordable full 4K UHD display solutions.
We present an analytical derivation of the on-axis performance of adaptive optics systems using a given number of guide stars of arbitrary altitude, distributed at arbitrary angular positions in the sky. The expressions of the residual error are given for cases of both continuous and discrete turbulent atmospheric profiles. Assuming Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with circular apertures, we demonstrate that the error is formally described by integrals of products of three Bessel functions. We compare the performance of adaptive optics correction when using natural, sodium, or Rayleigh laser guide stars. For small diameter class telescopes ( ...
The Shack-Hartmann or Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensors are particular forms of the Hartmann sensor and are the most commonly used in adaptive optics. The traditional Hartmann screen in the pupil is replaced by an array of small lenslets at a conjugate to an image of the pupil or deformable mirror. Each lenslet forms an independent image of the incoming wavefront. Shifts in the positions of these images can be shown by simple geometric optics to be proportional to the mean wavefront gradient over each lenslet. The measurement range or dynamic range of a conventional Shack-Hartmann sensor is normally limited by the sub-aperture size of the detector plane, in which each spot should remain. In order to overcome this restriction, several methods, such as modified unwrapped algorithm or a spatial-light modulator as a shutter, have been proposed. We first simulated the image forming of a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for highly aberrated spherical aberrations through computer simulation, ...
Sep 06, 2011 Able to meet need for working distances from 0.3-30 mm, apochromatic objectives are customized with high numerical apertures and long working distances for use with various sample sizes and applications. Lenses are also tailored to function at wavelengths from visible light at 390-750 nm to near infrared (NIR) at 700-1,400 nm. Depending on type of studies being done, 2-photon microscopy systems... Read More. ...
The ocular lens is one of two lenses in the optical train of a microscope, the other being the objective lens. Located in the eyepiece, the ocular lens is the nearest lens to the observer's eye providing additional magnification and directing the image into the observer's eye.Total MagnificationThe total magnification of a microscope is the product of the magnification of the ocular lens and the objective lens. For example, a 10x ocular lens and a 40x objective lens produce a total magnification of 400x.Monocular vs. Binocular MicroscopesMonocular microscopes have one ocular lens, while binocular microscopes have two ocular lenses--one for...
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The new frontier in the quest for the highest contrast levels in the focal plane of a coronagraph is now the correction of the large diffraction artifacts introduced at the science camera by apertures of increasing complexity. Indeed, the future generation of space- and ground-based coronagraphic instruments will be mounted on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes; the design of coronagraphic instruments for such observatories is currently a domain undergoing rapid progress. One approach consists of using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to correct for aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror. The coronagraph for the WFIRST-AFTA mission will be the first of such instruments in space with a two-DM wavefront control system. Regardless of the control algorithm for these multiple DMs, they will have to rely on quick and accurate simulation of the propagation effects introduced by the out-of-pupil surface. In the first part of this paper, we ...
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An optical illumination assembly comprising an array of optical microprisms and microlenses for redirecting light from a light source. Such displays are used in a wide variety of applications such as backlit flat panel displays requiring a directed light source which provides an efficient output of light. The illumination assembly has a light transmitter optically coupled to an input end of array of microprisms through an optional diffuser, and a microlens on the light output end of each microprism. The microprisms have a light input end optically coupled to the light transmitting means and a light output end spaced from the light input end. Two pairs of oppositely positioned sidewalls having one an edge defined by said light input end and another edge defined by said light output end are positioned for reflecting of transmitted light toward the light output end; When light from the light transmitting means enters each microprism through the light input end, the light is directed by said sidewalls
Density-functional model cluster studies of EPR g tensors of Fs+ centers on the surface of MgO. Di Valentin, Cristiana; Neyman, Konstantin M.; Risse, Thomas; Sterrer, Martin; Fischbach, Esther; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Nasluzov, Vladimir A.; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Rösch, Notker // Journal of Chemical Physics;1/28/2006, Vol. 124 Issue 4, p044708 We report g tensors of surface color centers, so-called Fs+ centers, of MgO calculated with two density-functional approaches using accurately embedded cluster models. In line with recent UHV measurements on single-crystalline MgO film, we determined only small g-tensor anisotropies and negative... ...
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This 30x Magnification Loupe is an ideal tool for Jeweler, laboratory and industrial use. The loupe has the diameter of 21 mm and built-in 6 bright LED and UV light. This Loupe is equipped with Triplet lens (consists of three single lenses) so that it is achromatically and aplanatically corrected.
Effects of diffraction of a spectral beam from an edge of the micromirrors are reduced in order to optimize the passband in a wavelength selective switch. The effects of diffraction on the pass band may be reduced by appropriate modification of the edges of the micromirrors, by modification of the input and/or output ports to allow for attenuation by rotation of the micromirror about the switching axis, by using rotation of the micromirror about both the attenuation axis and the switching axis to achieve the desired level of attenuation, by inserting an aperture at a focal plane or external to the device to reduce the magnitude of the micromirror edge diffraction transmitted to any or all output ports, or by appropriate filtering of angular frequencies with a diffraction grating used to separate a multi-channel optical signal into constituent spectral beams.
The mechanisms of how the brain processes information by neurons and supporting cells remain an active and fascinating research topic in neuroscience. The development of an ultracompact (1-2 mm in diameter) and ultra lightweight (0.5 g) fiber-optic scanning endomicroscope for single and/or two-photon fluorescence (SPF/TPF) imaging offers new opportunities to enable an unprecedented panoramic view of cortical activities (such as Ca+ activity) of many neurons in population. Imaging can be conducted while an animal is awake and/or engages in natural behaviors. The information over a population of neurons afforded by the new technology would not be possible to get with the traditional electrode recording technique or with the animal anesthetized. TPF microscopy has been widely employed for direct in vivo brain imaging, but only with the animals head held still under the microscope objective lens. To enable simultaneous observation of macro-scale animal behavior and the underlying neuronal dynamics ...
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