TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the bovine lens plasma membrane substrates for cAMP‐dependent protein kinase. AU - LOUIS, Charles F.. AU - JOHNSON, Ross. AU - JOHNSON, Keith. AU - TURNQUIST, Janet. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - cAMP‐dependent protein kinase, derived from either calf lens or bovine heart, promotes the phosphorylation of three lens plasma membrane proteins of molecular mass 28 kDa, 26 kDa and 18 kDa. Correlation of the maximal level of phosphorylation of these components with the Coomassie blue staining intensity of fractionated lens membranes suggests that the phosphorylation of the 28 kDa and 18 kDa components may be approximately stoichiometric. The protein kinase substrates could be dephosphorylated by a cardiac sarcoplasmic‐reticulum‐bound protein phosphatase activity. The 26 kDa component comigrated with MP26, the major lens membrane component that has been localized to the lens fiber cell junction. Treatment of phosphorylated lens membranes with chymotrypsin ...
Purpose: : FGF signaling controls numerous processes during cell lineage specification, organogenesis and terminal differentiation. In lens, FGF signaling was implicated as the key pathway that controls lens fiber cell differentiation, but little is known about its nuclear components such as DNA-binding transcription factors and its cross-talk with other signaling pathways that function downstream and/or in parallel with FGF signaling. Methods: : We employed a rat lens epithelial explant system and performed integrated RNA and microRNA expression profiling in cells induced to differentiate by FGF2 (100 ng/ml). The RNAs were isolated at 2, 4, 12 and 24 hours following the treatment. RNA expression profiling was conducted using rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 arrays. MicroRNA profiling was conducted using the rodent TaqMan Low Density Array v2 ABI system. Candidate microRNA targets were identified through a combination of TargetScan 5.0 and integrated prediction databases in miRWalk and by inverse ...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To study the distribution of SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) in the murine lens. SPARC has been shown to be an essential factor in the development and maintenance of lens transparency in mice because all SPARC-null mice begin to form cataract within 1 month after birth. It is therefore important to identify the localization and cellular expression of SPARC in the murine lens. Method: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses were conducted on murine lens capsule and on lens cells from E14 to 2 yr; steady-state levels of SPARC mRNA in lens cells were determined by RT-PCR. Results: Lens epithelium produced abundant SPARC as early as E14; the protein remained at high levels up to 2 yr of age. By immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, the lens fiber cells at the equator were shown to contain SPARC, but not the secondary fibers located inside the bow region. The lens capsule did not contain SPARC. SPARC protein was also identified in the vitreous. Proteolytic ...
Ablation of cataractous human eye lens tissue with carbon dioxiqe laser beam of wave-length 10.6 μm is investigated at power densities upto 20 KW/cm2 with interaction time in the rnge of 4-20 msec. It is found that the ablation initiates at a fluence of about 26 J/cm2 and thereafter the ablated volume of the tissue increases with the laser fluence with a decreasing slope. A well defined zone of coagulation necrosis borders the laser ablated region and its width increases with the power density and interaction time of the laser beam. From the thermal behaviour of the cataractous lens tissue, it is found that at the onset of ablation, tissue attains a temperature of about 270°C. To confine this temperature to a reasonably small volume, short duration laser pulses will be ideal for ablating the cataractous lens ...
10. Kim ST, Koh JW. Mechanisms of apoptosis on human lens epithelium after ultraviolet light exposure. Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO 2011; 25:196-201 ...
The developing lens is a powerful system for the study of tissue interactions and also the target of the medically important ocular disease cataract, a lens opacity that affects over 25 million individuals and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide (Asbell et al., 2005; Hejtmancik, 2008). The mature lens consists of two polarized cell types: a monolayer of lens epithelial (LE) cells and a mass of elongated and aligned lens fiber (LF) cells. The entire structure is covered by a lens capsule, a thick basement membrane secreted by LE and early LF cells in a polarized manner (Wederell and de longh, 2006). During development, the lens originates from a thickening of the head ectoderm that invaginates to form the lens pit, and then detaches to form the lens vesicle. Cells from the anterior lens vesicle differentiate into epithelial cells, while cells from the posterior lens vesicle elongate to form primary fiber cells. In later embryogenesis, LE cells continuously proliferate and differentiate ...
MP20 is an intrinsic membrane protein previously identified in mammalian lens fiber cells. To identify a possible role for this protein in the lens, the distribution of MP20 and connexin46 has now been examined. Western immunoblotting with an anti-peptide antibody generated to the C-terminal 8 amino acids of MP20 confirmed the presence of this protein in the lens of several different mammalian species. A monoclonal antibody 5H1 was prepared that, in Western blots of bovine lesn membranes, recognized the same component as an antibody to rat connexin46 (Cx46). The apparent molecular mass of this component decreased from 59 kDa to 55 kDa following treatment of lens membranes with alkaline phosphatase. A monoclonal antibody to connexin-related MP70 recognized a 70 kDa component in bovine lens membranes confirming the presence of these two different connexin proteins in bovine lens membranes. To localize MP20 and Cx46 in the bovine lens membrane, lens fiber cell bundles were immunofluorescently ...
Tissue lectins appear to be involved in a broad range of physiological processes, as reflected for the members of the family of galectins by referring to them as adhesion/growth-regulatory effectors. In order to clarify the significance of galectin presence, key challenges are to define their binding partners and the profile of localization. Having identified the chicken galectin-related interfiber protein (C-GRIFIN) as lens-specific protein present in the main body of adult lens, we here report its interaction with lens proteins in ligand blotting. The assumption for pairing with α-, β- and δ-crystallins was ascertained by mass spectrometric detection of their presence in eluted fractions obtained by affinity chromatography. Biochemical and immunohistochemical monitoring revealed protein presence from about 3-day-old embryos onwards, mostly in the cytoplasm of elongated posterior cells, later in secondary lens fiber cells. On the level of gene expression, its promoter was activated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-invasive phakometric measurement of corneal and crystalline lens alignment in human eyes. AU - Dunne, Mark C.M.. AU - Davies, Leon N.. AU - Mallen, Edward A.H.. AU - Kirschkamp, Thomas. AU - Barry, Jean-Cyriaque. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - We describe a non-invasive phakometric method for determining corneal axis rotation relative to the visual axis (β) together with crystalline lens axis tilt (α) and decentration (d) relative to the corneal axis. This does not require corneal contact A-scan ultrasonography for the measurement of intraocular surface separations. Theoretical inherent errors of the method, evaluated by ray tracing through schematic eyes incorporating the full range of human ocular component variations, were found to be larger than the measurement errors (β , 0.67°, α , 0.72° and d , 0.08 mm) observed in nine human eyes with known ocular component dimensions. Intersubject variations (mean ± S.D.: β = 6.2 ± 3.4° temporal, α = 0.2 ± 1.8° temporal and ...
During development of the lens, epithelial cells at the lens equator begin a differentiation process to become secondary fibre cells. The differentiating cells elongate and migrate towards the centre of the lens where they envelop the older, central fibre cells. Differentiation into fibre cells is accompanied by the breakdown of all organelles, such as the mitochondria. All organelle degradation is completed and denucleation occurs at the border of the organelle free zone (OFZ) which contains the central, terminally differentiated, fibre cells. The differentiation pathway is not well characterised, though it is believed to have similarities to an attenuated form of apoptosis supported by the identification of apoptosis related genes, such as TNF, in the lens. This study continues the search for and characterisation of apoptosis related genes expressed during lens development, focusing on TNFs and their extended family. Reverse Transcriptase-(RT-) PCR was carried out, identifying a number of TNF ...
Results of electrical, dye-coupling and morphological studies have previously suggested that gap junctions mediate communication between the anterior epithelium of the lens and the underlying lens fiber cells. This connection is believed to permit metabolic cooperation between these dissimilar cell types and may be of particular importance to the fiber cells, which are thought incapable of autonomous ionic homeostasis. We reinvestigated the nature of the connection between epithelial and fiber cells of the embryonic chicken lens using fluorescence confocal microscopy and freeze-fracture analysis. In contrast to earlier studies, our data provided no support for gap-junction-mediated transport from the lens epithelium to the fibers. Fluorescent dyes loaded biochemically into the lens epithelium were retained there for more than one hour. There was a decrease in epithelial fluorescence over this period, but this was not accompanied by an increase in fiber cell fluorescence. Diffusional modeling ...
Two aquaporins have been detected in the crystalline lens. AQP1 is confined to the mitotic epithelial cell layer that lines the anterior surface (14), whereas AQP0 is characteristic of the terminally differentiated fiber cells (33) that constitute the bulk of the lens mass. Although AQP1 is at least 10-fold more active as a water channel than its fiber cell counterpart (23), no spontaneous lens pathology has been associated with AQP1 deficiency in humans (25) or mice (20). In this study, we have shown that AQP0 accounts for ∼80% of the water permeability of mouse lens fiber cell plasma membranes and that heterozygous loss of this MIP is sufficient to compromise lens transparency. These observations suggest that although the lens can compensate for loss of AQP1 function, there is no such redundancy for AQP0 deficiency.. The relative loss of water permeability recorded in Aqp0+/− mouse lenses was similar in magnitude to that measured in the kidney proximal tubules of Aqp1+/− mice (20). This ...
For more than a century, the lens has provided a relatively simple structure in which to study developmental mechanisms. Lens induction, where adjacent tissues signal the cell fate changes that result in lens formation, have been of particular interest. Embryological manipulations advancing our understanding have included the Spemann optic rudiment ablation experiments, optic vesicle transplantations as well as more contemporary work employing lineage tracers. All this has revealed that lens induction signaling is a multi-stage process involving multiple tissue interactions. More recently, molecular genetic techniques have been applied to an analysis of lens induction. This has led to the identification of signaling pathways required for lens induction and early lens development. These include the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling pathways where Bmp4 and Bmp7 have been implicated. Though no fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) ligand has been implicated at present, the Fgf signaling pathway clearly
Human Lens Epithelial Cells (HLEpiC) from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the human lens. HLEpiC are cryopreserved at primary culture and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HLEpiC are characterized by immunofluorescent method with antibodies to cytokeratin-18, cytokeratin-19 and fibronectin. HLEpiC are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HLEpiC are guaranteed to further culture in the conditions provided by Creative Bioarray ...
Previously, the researchers were not able to address the genes possible role in mouse eye formation because inactivation of Six3 significantly disrupted development of the area of the brain where the eye normally forms. The St. Jude team overcame this problem by taking advantage of Cre/loxP-technology, which allowed them to choose the time and place in which to remove Six3 function from specific cells. This permitted the investigators to remove Six3 activity from the presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE)--the area of the developing head where the lens will ultimately form in response to a series of biochemical signals. Following this systematic approach, the St. Jude team demonstrated that Six3 plays its important role in the PLE. The investigators also showed that a key consequence of removing Six3 during early development is that the PLE fails to undergo its normal thickening, an initial critical step in lens formation.. "Our discovery helps to better unravel the regulatory pathway that controls ...
My research focuss on two areas of ocular disease-cataract and glaucoma. As it relates to lens biology, I am currently studying growth factor initiated signaling pathways critical for the regulation of lens epithelial cell proliferation, elongation and differentiation. A specific focus in this broad area of research is to elucidate the role (s) played by small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras and Rho family, in signaling pathways important in normal lens function and physiology, and in processes underlying cataractogenesis.
A human eye model is proposed using a single equation for GRIN profile representation in crystalline lens. The role of GRIN in providing optical power and maintaining image quality during accommodation is studied and simulated.. © 2006 Optical Society of America. PDF Article ...
Journal Français dOphtalmologie - Vol. 37 - N° 10 - p. 773-779 - Spectral transmission of the pig lens: Effect of ultraviolet A + B radiation - EM|consulte
Mutations in the small heat shock proteins α-crystallins have been linked to autosomal dominant cataracts in humans. Extensive studies in vitro have revealed a spectrum of alterations to the structure and function of these proteins including shifts in the size of the oligomer, modulation of subunit exchange and modification of their affinity to client proteins. Although mouse models of these mutants were instrumental in identifying changes in cellular proliferation and lens development, a direct comparative analysis of their effects on lens proteostasis has not been performed. Here, we have transgenically expressed cataract-linked mutants of αA- and αB-crystallin in the zebrafish lens to dissect the underlying molecular changes that contribute to the loss of lens optical properties. Zebrafish lines expressing these mutants displayed a range of morphological lens defects. Phenotype penetrance and severity were dependent on the mutation even in fish lines lacking endogenous α-crystallin. The ...
Purpose: To model the time evolution of active caspase-3 protein expression in a healthy lens, and in a lens exposed to UVR-300 nm (UVR-B). To develop an automated method to classify the fluorescent signal of biomarkers in the lens epithelial cells.. Methods: Six-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Firstly, expression of active caspase-3 was studied in the lens epithelium of healthy rats. Secondly, rats were unilaterally exposed in vivo to 1 kJ/m2 UVR-B for 15 minutes. At 0.5, 8, 16, and 24 hours after the UVR-B exposure, the exposed and the contralateral non-exposed lenses were removed. Immunohistochemistry was done on three mid-sagittal sections from each lens. The florescent labelling for active caspase-3 in each lens section was counted three times. The time evolution of active caspase-3 expression in response to UVR-B exposure was modelled as a function of cell position in the lens epithelium. An automated objective method was developed to quantify the lens epithelial cells and to ...
The procedures for culturing Nakano and normal mouse lens epithelium were developed in the NEI laboratory by Dr. Y. Tsunematsu and Dr. Paul Russell. My goals were to grow both kinds of cells in culture and to record the morphological development of the cultures. I also hoped to examine two characteristics of the cultures for significant differences between Nakano and normal cells: the growth characteristics, and the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase/hexokinase ratio, (an indication of the type of cellular metabolism ...
We have demonstrated a distinct association between ocular lens fluorescence and the estimated risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) calculated on the basis of a number of non-ocular health parametres. The relationship was attributable to the effects of glucose metabolism and tobacco smoking on both the aging process of the lens and IHD risk. Glucose metabolism and tobacco smoking are well-known risk factors for both lens aging [27] and cardiovascular disease [31, 2]. Glucose and substances in tobacco smoke, glycotoxins, induce irreversible changes on proteins through formation of advanced glycation end products leading to impaired collagen function such as stiffening of arterial walls [32, 33, 13]. In the lens, these protein changes are marked features of the aging process and they can be quantified non-invasively and in vivo by lens autofluorometry. The effect on the rest of the body excerted by these factors can, however, not be assessed in vivo unless invasive procedures are used.. Ischemic ...
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Read "Connexins in Lens Development and Cataractogenesis, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Figure 6. Expression pattern of p57Kip2. In situ hybridizations were done on ocular sections of nontransgenic (marked +/+; A,B), OVE1934 (C-F), and OVE1935 (G-J) embryos using 35S-labeled p5735 riboprobe. In wild-type lenses, p57Kip2 expression is upregulated in the equatorial region where fiber cell differentiation is initiated (A,B, red arrowheads). In lenses of homozygous (Tg/Tg) transgenic mice from OVE1934 and OVE1935 embryos, the zone of p57Kip2 induction has migrated toward the posterior of the lens (E,F,I,J, red arrowheads). Expression of p57 was nearly normal in heterozygous (Tg/+) embryos from these same families (C,D,G,H). The cornea (c), lens epithelial cells (le), lens fiber cells (lf), and retina (r) are identified in A. The scale bar (I) represents 100 μm.. ...
J:136711 Zhao H, Yang T, Madakashira BP, Thiels CA, Bechtle CA, Garcia CM, Zhang H, Yu K, Ornitz DM, Beebe DC, Robinson ML, Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008 Jun 15;318(2):276-88 ...
Eyes are the organs of vision. Through a complex process, they detect and focus light to create images. Vision begins when light rays are reflected off of an object and enters the eye through the cornea and then pupil. It then passes through the crystalline lens which refracts light to be focused on the retina. By changing shape, the lens functions to change the focal distance of the eye so it can focus on objects at various distances. When light hits the retina, tiny cells, rods, and cones, capture the light signals and convert them into electrochemical impulses in neurons. Rods communicate the objects shape by reading black and white and shades of gray. Cones communicate the color of the object. Working together, the rods and cones process the light. They then create an image by triggering nerve impulses that pass to the image centers in the brain via the optic nerve.. ...
A method of delivering a drug or other compound to the lens of the eye. A conduit through which a drug is introduced penetrates at least the outer lens capsule for drug delivery. When withdrawn, the aperture is self-sealing, thus minimizing trauma and minimizing the risk of cataract formation. The drug remains localized within the lens.
Purpose: GSK-3 may regulate Wnt signaling, gene expression, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 can be obtained via the structurally unrelated substances lithum or Kenpaullone. The lens and the lens epithelial cells are excellent models to study the role of this enzyme. Methods: Primary cultures of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) or the mouse lens in organ culture were exposed to the GSK-3 inhibitors lithium (2 mM) or Kenpaullone (2 {micro}M) for times upp to 24h.The cells were, before or after treatment, placed in medium containing fluorogenic indicators of oxidative damage. DCFH-DA was used to assay peroxides, mitochondrial function was evaluated with Rhodamine 123 and JC-1, monochlorobimane was used to assay intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, Proteolytic activities were assayed, on line, with cell-permeable fluorogenic substrates.Proteasome and calpain activities were assayed with LLVY-AMC, Cathepsin B with RR-AMC or FR-AMC. Metalloproteases were ...
I am a board-certified ophthalmologist interested in asp.net, visual basic and Xcode programming. I have posted some visual studio programs below to the left to help with common calculations. I occasionally post photos and clinical scenarios from my clinical practice. Aaron Sobol
This procedure is essentially the same as PRELEX except a fixed-focus lens is implanted rather than a multi-focal lens. It is therefore the same procedure as that usually carried out for patients with cataracts. Some patients are not suitable for PRELEX, but would benefit from removal of their natural crystalline lens and the insertion of a fixed-focus lens implant. This group of patients includes those with specific refractive disorders, such as high myopia. Often these patients are outside the treatment range for LASIK and yet a multi-focal lens implant may not be appropriate.. ...
An ocular lens material comprising a polymer prepared by polymerizing a component containing a benzotriazole compound (A) represented by the formula (I): wherein X is hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl having 1 to 3 carbons or an alkoxy having 1 to 3 carbons, R1 is an alkylene having 2 to 10 carbons, R2 is hydrogen, methyl or a halogenated methyl, R3 is hydrogen, an alkyl or an aryl, and each of R4 and R5 is independently an alkyl having 1 to 8 carbons. The material shows excellent ultraviolet-ray absorbing power and oxidation inhibiting power at the same time.
Find Optical Lenses on GlobalSpec by specifications. Optical lenses are transparent components made from optical-quality materials and curved to converge or diverge transmitted rays from an object. These rays then form a real or virtual image of the object. This area includes micro lenses.
Eye lens. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cells from the lens (crystalline lens) of the eye. The cells are in a stacked linear, fibre-like arrangement. The transparency of the lens is thought to arise from this regular interlocking arrangement, as well as the absence of nuclei and the cells mainly containing the protein crystallin. The lens (found at the front of the eye) focuses light on to the light-sensitive cells in the retina at the back of the eye. - Stock Image P424/0246
Lens regeneration in monkeys after minimally invasive surgery. Slit-lamp microscopy showed regenerating lens tissue grew from the peripheral to the central
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Gemma Martinez, Mary Wijesinghe, Kirsty Turner, Helen E Abud, Makoto M Taketo, Tetsuo Noda, Michael L Robinson, Robb U de Iongh].
A photogrammetric camera, in particular for photogrammetric measurements of technical objects, has a primary lens system (10) designed as a focussable objective and a combination of at least one high-resolution sensor (12, 14, 16) and a lens unit (18, 20, 22) which acts as a secondary lens system for producing an enlarged section of the focal plane of the primary objective on the high-resolution sensor. The secondary objective and the high-resolution sensor are movable across the optical axis (26) of the primary objective. High-resolution distance measurement devices (28, 30) which detect the distance between the projection center of the secondary objective and a reference point of the high-resolution sensor on the one hand and the optical axis of the primary objective on the other hand are associated to the secondary objective and to the high-resolution sensor.
ELSEVIER Ophthal. Physil. Opt. Vl. 19, N. 4, pp , The Cllege f Optmetrists. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain /99 $
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With older single coated lenses, many times I have seen slight cleaning marks on the outer lens surface. Does this effect optical quality ? I have read of techn ology to apply new coatings to the lens surface. When is re-coating such a lens worth the effort from both a practical and economic point of view ?
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lentropin: activity present in adult & embryonic chicken vitreous humor which causes lens epithelial cells to elongate & differentiate into cells that resemble lens fiber cells
Instead we have progressive glasses, so named because they go smoothly from a nearsighted concave lens toward the top to a convex (or at least less concave) lens at the bottom. This is actually very complicated; you want the change to be gradual, without too much visual bending, blurring or other weird effects during the transformation. We dont look through a point in the glasses, but through a whole area, so a single point in the lens may both be part of the lower edge of the concave near-sighted area toward the top, and part of the convex presbyopic area at the bottom at the same time. Add the astigmatic correction for people like me and the lens surface will get quite complicated ...
Feature:3.The button on the lens can switch the color of light you want.Placement on vehicle: frontFitment: Universal Car 2/52mm diameter oil temperature gauge1 X Cable
Comparing using the XL and Century, Im more apt to use the Century indoors for still life/close-up shots focusing on the ground glass, but when Im heading outside I choose the XL with a normal lens and usually the Grandagon, and maybe a tele, as well. Being able to quickly change lenses and have RF coupling, parallax correction, brightlines, etc, is very nice. I started out using 35mm, and Im still partial to using different focal lengths, shooting quickly, etc, and the XL beats the Century in this area. By the way, I do have the Graflex grip for the Century, which makes it very easy to hold, but the separate viewfinder & rangefinder, and inability to quickly adjust the RF for different lenses relegates it to mostly a house camera for me ...
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Hışıltı; Alt solunum yollarının obstrüktif patolojisinde oluşan, genellikle patolojik (normalde zorlu ekspratuvar manevrada da duyulabilen) sestir. Hışıltılı Çocuk; Hışıltısı bir aydan daha uzun süren ve veya üç ya da daha fazla yineleyen çocuktur.
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | The authors describe a preterm infant who developed advanced retinopathy of prematurity bilaterally with a prominent tunica vasculosa lentis. Treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab resulted in regression of the tunica vasculosa lentis and posterior manifestations of the retinopathy of prematurity. RetCam imaging (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) of the anterior segment was used to