BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs. Hence, in addition to the need for prophylactic vaccines against leishmaniasis, the development of therapeutic vaccines for use alone or in combined immuno-chemotherapy has been identified as an unmet clinical need. Here, we report the first clinical trial of a third-generation leishmaniasis vaccine, developed intentionally to induce Leishmania-specific CD8+ T cells. METHODS We conducted a first-in-human dose escalation Phase I trial in 20 healthy volunteers to assess the safety, tolerability and
PENAFORTE, Klauber Menezes et al. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet. [online]. 2013, vol.22, n.4, pp.592-596. ISSN 1984-2961. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612013000400022.. Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. ...
Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines ...
Introduction. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala azar, is potentially fatal, if left untreated.[1] Almost 90% of the confirmed cases of visceral leishmaniasis are from India, Bangladesh, Nepal and east Africa, particularly Sudan. In India, it is a major problem in Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.[2] Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) poses a serious threat to the success of elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. Epidemiologically, global distribution of the condition is fragmentary. Highest number of cases were reported from Sudan and Indian subcontinent, especially Bangladesh with a prevalence up to 16/10,000 population.[3] Main parasitic pathogen causing PKDL is Leishmania donovani, though Leishmania infantum is responsible for sporadic cases in northwestern Iran.[4] In India, there is a prevalence of 4.4-7.8/10,000 in endemic areas of Bihar.[5] Approximate time of acquiring PKDL after visceral leishmaniasis is 0-3 years. The skin lesions are typically ...
Abstract Twenty-four Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis were treated for 30 days with either conventional therapy (daily pentavalent antimony, n = 14) or experimental immunochemotherapy (daily antimony plus interferon-gamma [IFN-γ] every other day, n = 10). All 24 patients responded clinically to treatment, and microscopic splenic aspirate scores rapidly decreased in both groups. As judged by splenic aspirate culture results, IFN-γ-treated patients responded more quickly (50% versus 22% culture-negative after one week and 75% versus 58% culture-negative after two weeks). While not statistically significant, these differences raise the possibility that combination therapy using IFN-γ, which was safe and well-tolerated, may accelerate the early parasitologic response in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.
Background: Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India. Methods: Standard treatment (1 mg/kg amphotericin B infusion on alternate days for 30 days, total dose 15 mg/kg) was compared with three drug combinations (single injection of 5 mg/kg liposomal amphotericin B and 7-day 50 mg oral miltefosine or single 10-day 11 mg/kg intramuscular paromomycin; or 10 days each of miltefosine and paromomycin) in an open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in two hospital sites in Bihar, India. Patients aged 5-60 years with parasitologically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis were randomly assigned one of the four treatments by the trial statistician using a computer-generated list. Clinical assessments were done at the end of treatment (15 days on combination treatment; 31 days for standard treatment) and after 45 ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Despite the euthanasia of dogs serologically positive, such action has not solved the endemic in Brazil. A risk area for VL involves the presence of the vector, the occurrence of canines and the record of human cases. The factors that have favored the persistence and spread of VL in Brazil are related to the predatory action of man on the environment, to the migratory movements and rural exodus, and a close coexistence of man and animals. Thus considering the epidemiological chain of VL, one fact seems clear: we do not know yet the true extent of the participation of the dog in the infectious cycle of VL. The clinical disease is an important indicator of the extent of the problem in an endemic area. The immunological events are complex and involve resistance and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). One aspect in CVL is that many symptomatic dogs underwent xenodiagnosis not infect the vector. In such
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic disease in some parts of Iran. Many techniques have been used for diagnosis of VL, among which the urine based la-tex agglutination test (KAtex) is a promising one. Objective: To compare three diag-nostic tests of VL including KAtex, ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) in VL patients and healthy controls in the south west of Iran. Methods: Serum (n = 29) and urine samples (n = 31) were collected from parasitologically confirmed VL patients. Control samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n = 61) and also from patients with infectious diseases other than VL. The collected serum samples were tested by DAT and ELISA using crude antigen from promastigotes of Leishmania infantum and the urine samples were tested by KAtex. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex for diagnosis of VL was found to be 83.9% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivities of DAT and ELISA were 93.1% and 86.2% and their specificities were 100% and 90.5%, respectively.
Cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have regularly been recorded, mainly in southern Europe. HIV infection can increase the risk of VL development by 10-100 times in endemic areas. We describe the occurrence of this co-infection in 15 patients from Brazil. The mean age of the patients was 38 +/- 8.8 yr, with 86.6% males. The mean time between HIV diagnosis and the onset of visceral leishmaniasis was 44 +/- 39 mo. The main signs and symptoms presented at admission were splenomegaly (73%), weight loss (73%), cough (67%), fever (67%), asthenia (60%), and diarrhea (60%). The mean T CD4+ lymphocyte count was 173.7 +/- 225.6 cells/mm3, and viral load was 51,030 +/- 133,737/mm3. Treatment consisted of pentavalent antimonials (67% of cases). Most (87%) patients recovered from VL infection; death occurred in 1 patient due to septic shock. VL is an important opportunistic infection in HIV patients, which is potentially fatal, even when correct
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic review on antigens for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, with a focus on East Africa. AU - Kühne, Vera. AU - Rezaei, Zahra. AU - Pitzinger, Paul. AU - Büscher, Philippe. N1 - FTX. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - BackgroundAccurate and accessible diagnosis is key for the control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Yet, current diagnostic tests for VL have severe limitations: they are invasive or not suitable as point of care (POC) test or their performance is suboptimal in East Africa. We analysed the antigens in the VL serodiagnostics development pipeline to identify shortcomings and to propose strategies in the development of an alternative POC test for VL in East Africa.ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to identify and to analyse all antigens for VL serodiagnosis that have been published before 2018 in order to identify candidates and gaps in the pipeline for a new POC test in East Africa.MethodsA systematic literature search was performed on PubMed for ...
Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania donovani complex, is a vectorborne zoonotic infection that infects humans, dogs, and other mammals. In 2000, this infection was implicated as causing high rates of illness and death among foxhounds in a kennel in New York. A serosurvey of >12,000 foxhounds and other canids and 185 persons in 35 states and 4 Canadian provinces was performed to determine geographic extent, prevalence, host range, and modes of transmission within foxhounds, other dogs, and wild canids and to assess possible infections in humans. Foxhounds infected with Leishmania spp. were found in 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. No evidence of infection was found in humans. The infection in North America appears to be widespread in foxhounds and limited to dog-to-dog mechanisms of transmission; however, if the organism becomes adapted for vector transmission by indigenous phlebotomines, the probability of human exposure will be greatly increased.
Personal view Visceral leishmaniasis Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda Philippe J Guerin, Piero Olliaro, Shyam
by Ibarra-Meneses AV, Ghosh P, Hossain P, Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Alvar J, Moreno J and Carrillo E. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2017, doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00200.. Summary: New biomarkers are needed for monitoring the effectiveness of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis. They might also improve the detection of the asymptomatic population in Leishmania-endemic areas. This paper examines four potential biomarkers - IL-2, IFN-g, IFN-g-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and monokine-induced-by-IFN-g (MIG) - from asymptomatic individuals and patients treated for VL living in a post-outbreak (Leishmania infantum) area in Spain, and in an endemic (Leishmania donovani) area of Bangladesh. Determining IP-10, MIG, and IFN-g levels proved useful in monitoring the cellular immune response following treatment for active disease caused by L. infantum.. Click here to read the article / PDF. ...
Background: Miltefosine has been used successfully to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, but it was unsuccessful for VL in a clinical trial in Brazil. Methods: To identify molecular markers that predict VL treatment failure whole genome sequencing of 26 L. infantum isolates, from cured and relapsed patients allowed a GWAS analysis of SNPs, gene and chromosome copy number variations. Findings: A strong association was identified (p = 0·0005) between the presence of a genetically stable L. infantum Miltefosine Sensitivity Locus (MSL), and a positive response to miltefosine treatment. The risk of treatment failure increased 9·4-fold (95% CI 2·11-53·54) when an isolate did not have the MSL. The complete absence of the MSL predicted miltefosine failure with 0·92 (95% CI 0·65-0·996) sensitivity and 0·78 (95% CI 0·52-0·92) specificity. A genotyping survey of L. infantum (n = 157) showed that the frequency of MSL varies in a cline from 95% in North East Brazil to ,5% in the South ...
The northward spread of leishmaniasis from Mediterranean to Continental Europe affects our area where it is typically associated with Leishmania infantum infection. In this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than Italy) attending the University Hospital of Parma, Northern Italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosed in this area. One hundred fifty-six samples from 134 patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis (96 suspected of having VL, 37 CL and one both VL and CL) were analyzed in our laboratory during 1992-2013 by microscopy, culture and, from 2005, also by real-time PCR. Leishmania spp. were detected in 23 samples of 15 patients (seven with VL and eight with CL), representing an infection rate of 11.2%. The figure of the cases of leishmaniasis herein reported, even if not comparable to that
American visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic zoonosis widespread in Latin America, with 90% of the cases occurring in Brazil, where it affec...
Abstract Mathematical models are used to compare the effectiveness of various untested, unused, and undeveloped methods for controlling canine and human zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL), including insecticides, vaccines, killing serologically positive and sick dogs, and drugs. For given percentage changes in control parameters, insecticides are the most effective control method. Where transmission occurs peridomestically and vectors are accessible to treatment, as in parts of tropical America, insecticides are expected to reduce the incidence of human ZVL even more effectively than they reduce the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis, a result that should encourage properly designed vector control trials. The second best strategy is to reduce susceptibility to leishmaniasis by vaccinating people or dogs, or by eliminating childhood malnutrition where it is common. Both killing vectors and reducing susceptibility (by whatever means) are more effective than killing dogs or treating them with drugs. In
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence visceral), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide. Response to infection by Leishmania donovani varies a great deal, not only by the strength but also by the type of the patients immune ...
Trypsin treatment of Leishmania promastigote antigen has proved to be indispensible in the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). In the present study four antigen batches were prepared with pronase (400 micrograms/ml …
Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) in the Mediterranean Basin and, based on isoenzyme typing of a few isolates from patients and domestic dogs, this parasite was considered to predominate in the Kaleybar focus of IVL in northwest Iran. However, in the current investigation only one out of five sandfly infections was found to be L. infantum, based on PCR detection and sequencing of parasite internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA infecting Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus. The four other infections were of haplotypes of L. tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East and a parasite occasionally detected in the viscera of dogs and patients in Iran and elsewhere. The widespread distribution of L. tropica in the Kaleybar focus suggests that this parasite is not a transient introduction. Kaleybar has been used for a deltamethrin dog collar intervention to reduce the biting rates of the vectors of L. ...
This study was carried out in clusters of villages that represent an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). These villages were located in Gedaref state, eastern Sudan. For diagnostic purposes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed successfully, directly from clinical samples spotted on filter papers with no prior cultivation from 100 patients suspected of having kala-azar or post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Mainly the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 & ITS2) were targeted in PCR because this region is more variable and allows clear species identification and also strain differences could be expected by further analysis of these PCR products. PCR was found to be more sensitive compared to the gold standard microscopic method. Four PCR based approaches were used to analyse diversity within Sudanese isolates of Leishmania donovani. Methods compared were fingerprinting with single non-specific primers, restriction analysis of the amplified ITS locus (RFLP), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluating the potential of polyester nanoparticles for per oral delivery of amphotericin B in treating visceral leishmaniasis. AU - Italia, Jagdishbhai Laxmanbhai. AU - Kumar, M.N.V Ravi. AU - Carter, Katharine. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease, which is responsible for response for major epidemics in many parts of the World. Amphotericin B (AMB) is one of the drugs used to treat leishmaniasis but it must be given intravenously and serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity can limit its use. Development of a formulation of AMB, which can be given by a non-invasive route but is still as effective as the conventional formulation, whilst causing minimal adverse side effects, is required. The present study describes a method for scale up production of a per oral nanoparticle formulation of AMB (AMB-NP) and compared its efficacy both in vitro and in vivo against Leishmania donovavni. Prophylactic studies showed that the AMB-NP formulation was ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, which can be fatal if left untreated. The majority of VL cases are found in resource-poor regions, including India (Bihar), Bangladesh, Brazil, Nepal, and Sudan. VL pathogenesis has been linked to an overproduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, which can promote parasite replication and disease progression. Experimental models have shown that IL-10 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of VL.. The current study has two parts. Part 1 will be an open-label, dose-escalating design to determine the safety and tolerability of SCH708980 used in combination with AmBisome(Registered Trademark). Part 2 will be a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design. A total of 50 subjects (n=10 subjects/group) will be enrolled in part 1 of the study. A group of 10 subjects will be observed for 7 days prior to receiving AmBisome(Registered Trademark) (10 mg/kg) on the 8th day, as part of the ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection caused primarily by Leishmania donovani in the Old World, and by Leishmania amazonensis in the New World.1 VL is also known as kala azar (Hindu name meaning black poison), and is found in tropical and subtropical regions. VL is a chronic illness that is characterised by irregular fever, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia and leucopenia, and progressive weakness and emaciation which can result in death if left untreated. The vector is the female sandfly, and in most regions, the dog is the reservoir. The causative organism was first isolated in 1903.2 In vertebrates, the parasites are found intracellularly in the reticuloendothelial system as the amastigote form, which is aflagellate, round, and 2-4 μm in diameter (Leishman-Donovan body, LDB). Infection results in notable proliferation of the reticuloendothelial system. In the vector, the promastigote form is flagellate, spindle shaped, and 15-20 μm long.1 It is estimated that globally approximately ...
Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals.. Objectives. To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis.. Search methods. We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials.. Selection criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions.. Data ...
OBJECTIVES. For the last decades, anti-Leishmania antibodies have been detected in sera from dogs living in areas of leishmaniosis endemicity (1). The presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has also been described in aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid (2). Nevertheless, a review of the literature failed to identify the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dog urine samples. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of dogs suffering from leishmaniosis.. MATERIALS. Fifty dog urine samples collected from patients examined at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB from year 2000 since 2002, were obtained from the sample bank of the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service of Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). The urine samples were analyzed at the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service for protein-to-creatinine ratios. Their clinicopathological data were obtained from the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB. ...
Leishmaniasis is a severe infectious disease. Drugs used for leishmaniasis are very toxic, and no vaccine is available. We found that the hemoglobin receptor (HbR) of Leishmania was conserved across various strains of Leishmania, and anti-HbR antibody could be detected in kala-azar patients sera. Our results showed that immunization with HbR-DNA induces complete protection against virulent Leishmania donovani infection in both BALB/c mice and hamsters. Moreover, HbR-DNA immunization stimulated the production of protective cytokines like interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with concomitant down-regulation of disease-promoting cytokines like IL-10 and IL-4. HbR-DNA vaccination also induced a protective response by generating multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. All HbR-DNA-vaccinated hamsters showed sterile protection and survived during an experimental period of 8 months. These findings demonstrate the potential of HbR as a vaccine candidate ...
Kala azar is the second largest parasitic killer in the world-only malaria is more deadly. Along with Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, kala azar is one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).
The study was conducted from 2010-2011 at the Community Based Medical College Hospital and Trishal Upazilla Health Complex, Mymensingh District, Bangladesh. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee of Sir Salimullah Medical College, Mitford, Dhaka, Bangladesh.. Consecutive unselected patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis by microscopy of splenic aspirate and/or RK 39 rapid diagnostic test were recruited provided they gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: patients unable or unwilling to co-operate with eye examination; contraindications to dilating eye drops, such as angle closure glaucoma; and patients with media opacities precluding fundal view.. On admission, a full history and examination were carried out. Blood samples were obtained for haemoglobin, haematocrit, parasitaemia, platelet count, white cell count, ESR and biochemistry.. Eye examination included pupillary reflex to light and accommodation, visual acuity by Snellen chart, ...
We previously reported that STAT1-/- mice on a susceptible BALB/c background were highly resistant to visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and developed minimal organ pathology compared with wild-type (WT) controls, despite mounting a poor Th1 response. We also found that STAT1 in non-T cells (i.e. macrophages and neutrophils) mediated susceptibility and pathology. The objective of this study was to determine whether macrophages are involved in the pathogenesis of VL cause by Leishmania donovani and to determine the role of STAT1 in phagocytes in mediating disease susceptibility. Depletion of monocytes and macrophages using clodronate-containing liposomes both prior to and after L. donovani infection impaired Th1 development in WT BALB/c mice, but rendered them highly resistant to infection and minimized liver pathology. This phenotype was strikingly similar to that seen in infected STAT1-/- mice. Further in vivo studies using an airpouch model demonstrated that both macrophages and neutrophils of ...
BACKGROUND: Antimonials are the mainstay of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment in Africa. The increasing incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection requires alternative safe and effective drug regimens. Oral miltefosine has been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of Indian VL but has not been studied in Africa or in persons with HIV and VL coinfection. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of miltefosine and sodium stibogluconate (SSG) in the treatment of VL in persons in Ethiopia. A total of 580 men with parasitologically and/or serologically confirmed VL were randomized to receive either oral miltefosine (100 mg per day for 28 days) or intramuscular SSG (20 mg/kg per day for 30 days). RESULTS: The initial cure rate was 88% in both treatment groups. Mortality during treatment was 2% in the miltefosine group, compared with 10% in the SSG group. Initial treatment failure was 8% in the miltefosine group, compared with 1% in the SSG group. Among the 375 patients (65%) ...
Visceral leishmaniasis, known as kala-azar, is a serious parasitic disease. After malaria, VL is the second largest parasitic killer. This paper focuses on the VL transmission around sandflies, dogs, and people. ...
Yolanda Mueller, Dawson B. Mbulamberi, Peter Odermatt, Axel Hoffmann, Louis Loutan, François ChappuisTrop Med Int Health 2009;14:910-7. Tropical Medicine & International Health Read more
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is the most dreaded and devastating formof leishmaniasis, causing high mortality rate, mainly in children. A vaccine againstdifferentforms ofleishmaniasis should be feasible considering the wealth of information on geneticsof the parasite, clinical and experimental immunology of leishmaniasis, andandbIO.lobgiylityof vaccines that can protect expenm. entaI arumaIsagainst challenge With the avallad here i ffectiL. hmaniaspecies. However, to ate, t ere ISno e ectivevaccine against anydifferenftleiesthsmaniasisfor general human use. Efforts to develop an effective vaccine soform 0e been limited due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant. A mixture of safe Leishmaniafar .ha:sandan adjuvant that preferentially stimulates cellular immune response presentsanug.e I option for a vacci.n e against Ie ishmam.asi.s, A vaccm. e for man needs to be testeda. rasnuoitnaableprimate models such as the vervet monkey due to their close phylogenetic~lation to humans. This study ...
The parasites causing a Palestinian case of infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) and those from four dogs from the Jenin District were identified serologically, biochemically and molecular biologically as Leishmania infantum, showing dogs act as a reservoir. The strain from the human case was distinct because of its unique 200-bp kDNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) component in its restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profile after digestion with the endonuclease RsaI, and by the electrophoretic mobility of its malate dehydrogenase (MDH140), designating it the reference strain of a new zymodeme of L. infantum, MON-281 ...
In this study we intend to evaluate the immune and therapeutic responses of patients with visceral leishmaniasis N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an adjuvant to standard treatment with pentavalent antimony, compared to treatment with antimonial only through a blind randomized clinical trial. Our hypothesis is that patients treated with NAC associated with pentavalent atimonial have a rapid changing of the immune responses, towards TH1, and clinical improvement when compared to patients who will use only the standard ...
The risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in Europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. Leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of Europe, with ≈700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if Turkey is included). Asymptomatic cases have been estimated at 30-100/1 symptomatic case, and leishmaniasis has up to 25% seroprevalence in domestic dogs. Even though leishmaniasis is essentially associated with Leishmania infantum and visceral leishmaniasis, new species, such as L. donovani and L. tropica, might colonize European sand fly vectors. Drug-resistant L. infantum strains might be exported outside Europe through dogs. Despite this possibility, no coordinated surveillance of the disease exists at the European level. In this review of leishmaniasis importance in Europe, we would like to bridge the gap between research and surveillance and control.
Background: Concomitant infections with HBV, HCV, HIV and Malaria among VL patients are not uncommon, thus this study conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and Malaria co-infection with VL among patients admitted to Gedarif teaching hospital in Eastern Sudan.. Methods: This was a retrospective, hospital-based study, carried out on data collected from the Medical records of confirmed VL patients at Gedarif Teaching Hospital between January 2013 and June 2014. Sera samples were tested for HBSAg, anti- HCV and HIV antibodies using enzyme-link immunosorbantassay (ELISA). Thick blood films were examined for malaria.. Results: A total of 313 confirmed VL cases were enrolled in the study with mean age 31.4±(11.9) years. The majority of patients were male 237(75.7%). farmers 176 (56.2%) and rural residents 233(74.4%). Antibodies for HIV, HCV and HBV were detected in 14(4.4%), 5(1.6%) and 6(1.9%) cases respectively. Blood film positive for malaria was found in 29(9.1%). VL/HIV ...
Michael Thomas, De Rycker M, Ajakane M, Crouch S, Campbell L, Daugan A, Fra G, Guerrero C, Mackenzie C, MacLean L, Manthri S, Martin F, Norval S, Osuna-Cabello M, Riley J, Shishikura Y, Miguel-Siles J, Simeons F, Stojanovski L, Thomas J, Thompson S, Velasco R, Fiandor J, Wyatt P, Read K, Gilbert I, Miles T.. RSC Med. Chem., 2020, Advance Article, https://doi.org/10.1039/D0MD00203H. Abstract. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects millions of people across the world, largely in developing nations. It is fatal if left untreated and the current treatments are inadequate. As such, there is an urgent need for new, improved medicines. In this paper, we describe the identification of a 6-amino-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine scaffold and its optimization to give compounds which showed efficacy when orally dosed in a mouse model of VL.. ...
Stenzinger, Albrecht; Nemeth, Johannes; Klauschen, Frederick; Schewe, Christiane; Ladhoff, Axel-Michael; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Schürmann, Mariana; Schürmann, Dirk; Weichert, Wilko (2012). Visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS: early pathological diagnosis using conventional histology, PCR and electron microscopy is the key for adequate treatment. Virchows Archiv, 460(3):357-60. ...
Health professionals have developed a new partnership program to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis, a deadly illness in Asia and several African countries.
Issue Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the major neglected parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania donovani in Asia and Africa, and is fatal if left untreated. Although assays based on detection of antibodies against the parasite (such as the rK39 test) have been developed, these tests cannot distinguish active disease from asymptomatic infections because they cannot directly detect the presence of the parasite in the blood. Definitive diagnosis of VL still relies on non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever and enlarged spleen, combined with a positive rK39 serological test. Development of a simple assay that can determine Leishmania levels in the blood is urgently needed for VL diagnosis, monitoring, treatment and to determine which asymptomatic-infected individuals can transmit or develop disease. Solution The project aimed to develop a diagnostic test that could detect Leishmania parasites in the blood. Based on the assumption that Leishmania proteins that are highly abundant would ...
Background. For patients with Indian visceral leishmaniasis, amphotericin B deoxycholate is usually given as 15 alternate-day infusions of 1 mg/kg over 30 days (total dose, 15 mg/kg); daily treatment with 1 mg/kg for 20 days (total dose, 20 mg/kg) is also used. This study was done to address the unsettled therapeutic questions of administration schedule (alternate-day vs. daily administration) and dose (1 vs. 0.75 mg/kg) and to determine whether the duration of amphotericin B treatment in Bihar, India, can be shortened to 15 days.. Methods. To compare alternate-day versus daily administration and 1-mg/kg versus 0.75-mg/kg doses and to determine whether the duration of treatment could be abbreviated, Indian subjects randomly received 15 infusions of 1 mg/kg (group A; 245 patients) or 0.75 mg/kg (group B; 244 patients) on alternate days or 1 mg/kg (group C; 500 patients) or 0.75 mg/kg (group D; 496 patients) daily. Noninferiority testing compared 6-month cure rates using a 5% margin.. Results. ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis with high prevalence and incidence in the Northeastern region of Brazil. This study aimed to determine whether people living near the Mossoró River in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, have knowledge of VL and to characterize the environmental properties of this region. Questionnaires were administered to 478 residents in three neighborhoods near the Mossoró River, addressing the populations knowledge about VL and environmental characteristics. Most survey participants were female, with ages between 18 and 40 years, 53.8% had completed primary education, and 61.5% owned pet dogs (p < 0.05). The majority (95.9%) showed little knowledge about the characteristics inherent to sandflies, and 85.3% were unaware of the environments preferred by this vector (p < 0.05). Sewage from the homes of respondents was mainly dumped into the river (44.6%), and 76.6% of the respondents complained about the accumulation of garbage in the streets (p < 0
Neutrophils play an immunomodulatory role through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are released in response to Leishmania infection, but the mechanism of NET extrusion has not been elucidated. The lipoxin A4 receptor on neutrophils is crucial for the inflammatory response and immune regulation of many diseases, including Leishmania infection. Therefore, in the present study, we tried to explore whether Leishmania infantum promastigotes stimulate neutrophil activation and NET release via activating the lipoxin A4 receptor. Leishmania infantum promastigotes stimulated neutrophil activity, but blocking of the lipoxin A4 receptor with its antagonist Boc prior to L. infantum stimulation abrogated these effects. Neutrophils showed citrullinated histone H3 expression and simultaneous NET extrusion on L. infantum stimulation, but a decline in both was observed on blocking of the lipoxin A4 receptor. Moreover, differentiated HL-60 cells with lipoxin A4 receptor silencing showed a
A Leishmaniose Visceral (LV) está amplamente distribuída em 98 países, com mais de 350 milhões de pessoas em risco. Não existem vacinas licenciadas para uso em humanos e o antimônio pentavalente ainda é o fármaco de primeira escolha para o tratamento da doença, apesar de sua toxicidade. Em um estudo prévio foram realizados ensaios sobre a participação de proteína ligante de heparina de L. infantum chagasi (PLHLc) no processo infeccioso do parasito, considerando os processos de adesão, penetração e internalização em macrófagos, demonstrando que a proteína nativa está envolvida na interação entre parasito e hospedeiro. Também foram demonstrados níveis de imunogenicidade e de proteção contra L.infantum chagasi quando camundongos BALB/c foram imunizados com a PLHLc nativa. A partir disso, foi feito o sequenciamento dessa proteína e a produção da sua forma recombinante (rPLHLc). Nesse trabalho, utilizamos a rPLHLc em experimentos de imunização de camundongos BALB/c ...
Pentavalent antimonials have been the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis for decades. However, the development of resistance to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) has limited its use, especially for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The present work aims to optimize a cationic liposomal formulation of SSG for the treatment of both SSG-sensitive (AG83) and SSG-resistant (GE1F8R and CK1R) Leishmania donovani infections. Parasite killing was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained macrophages. Macrophage uptake studies were carried out by confocal microscopic imaging. Parasite-liposome interactions were visualized through transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity tests were performed using assay kits. Organ parasite burdens were determined by microscopic counting and limiting dilution assays. Cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and flow cytometry. Although all cationic ...
Objective: To determine an algorithm for molecular diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) (RV1/ RV2) and internal transcriber spacer (ITS1) (LITSR/L5.8S) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), complemented by ITS1 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), using peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate from patients with suspected VL. Methods: Biological samples were submitted to the gold standard for the diagnosis of VL and molecular diagnosis represented by ITS1 PCR, kDNA PCR, and ITS1 PCR RFLP. The samples were obtained from seven groups: group I, 82 samples from patients with confirmed VL; group H , 16 samples from patients under treatment for VL; groupII, 14 samples from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL); group II, a pool of six experimentally infected sandflies (Lutzomya longipalpis); group IV, 18 samples from patients with confirmed tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and groups Ή and VI were from control groups without VII. Results: The following ...
Looking for online definition of American leishmaniasis in the Medical Dictionary? American leishmaniasis explanation free. What is American leishmaniasis? Meaning of American leishmaniasis medical term. What does American leishmaniasis mean?
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Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in several areas of Paraguay with the reports of sporadic cases and consecutive increase in the last few years [1-3]. Asuncion in the Central Department of Paraguay has reported the largest numbers of human cases but other regions more distant from the capital, such as Bella Vista Norte, near the border with Brazil, Encarnacion, near the border with Argentina, and the Departments of Conception and Amambay y San Pedro have been considered as new endemic areas by the Paraguayan Health Secretary [4, 5].. As in most endemic areas, Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum ( Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South and Central America. Even though Lu. longipalpis is recognized as a species complex, no consensus has been established on the number of species present in the New World [6-13].. Field and laboratory observations have shown that, prior to copulation, Lu. longipalpis s.l. males ...
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a recurrence of kala-azar that may appear on the skin of affected individuals months and up to 20 years after being partially treated, untreated or even in those considered adequately treated.[5][6] In Sudan, they can be demonstrated in up to 60% of treated cases. They manifest as hypopigmented skin lesions (such as macules, papules, nodules), or facial redness. Though any organism causing kala-azar can lead to PKDL, it is commonly associated with Leishmania donovani which gives different disease patterns in India and Sudan. In the Indian variant, nodules enlarge with time and form plaques but rarely ulcerate, but nodules from the African variety often ulcerate as they progress. Nerve involvement is common in African variety but rare in Indian subcontinent.[7] Histology demonstrates a mixture of chronic inflammatory cells; there can be macrophage or epitheloid granuloma.[8] Parasite concentration is not consistent among studies, perhaps reflecting ...
T lymphocytes participate in the immune response to L. donovani infection by producing different cytokines of Th1 and Th2 types. Th1 and Th2 cells can be distinguished by the cytokines they secrete: Th1 cells secrete activators of cell-mediated immunity, such as IFN-γ, while Th2 cells secrete cytokines, such as IL-4, which promote antibody responses. Infection by L. donovani in humans induces T-cell anergy as assessed by the depression of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and failure of peripheral blood T cells to proliferate (15, 17) and to produce IFN-γ and IL-2 in response to Leishmania antigens (4, 7). Cytokine analysis reveals enhanced induction of IFN-γ, IL-10, and/or IL-4 mRNA in tissues (12, 19) and the enhanced presence of IL-4 in the circulation (31) of visceral leishmaniasis patients. While the presence of these cytokines suggests a coexistence of Th1- and Th2-like responses in the clinical stage of the disease, the absence of IL-2 points to the dominance of the Th2 response. ...
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; ...
Twelve Leishmania isolates from visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern Sudan were characterized using isoenzyme analysis, Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting. Isoenzyme analysis revealed the presence of 3 zymodemes: MON-18, MON-30 and MON-82, corresponding to Leishmania donovani sensu stricto, L. infantum and L. archibaldi (still of uncertain taxonomic status), respectively. Southern blotting and PCR fingerprinting revealed identical patterns for all 3 zymodemes, which were indistinguishable from those of L. donovani s.s ...
2015. Diabate M, Munro P, Garcia E, Jacquel A, Michel G, Obba S, Goncalves D, Luci C, Marchetti S, Demon D, Degos C, Bechah Y, Mege JL, Lamkanfi M, Auberger P, Gorvel JP, Stuart LM, Landraud L, Lemichez E, Boyer L. Escherichia coli α-Hemolysin counteracts the anti-virulence innate immune response triggered by the Rho GTPase activating toxin CNF1 during bacteremia. PLoS Path. 2015 in press. 2014. Hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with visceral leishmaniasis. Martis N, Pomares C, Jeandel PY, Lazure T, Marty P, Rosenthal E. Hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with visceral leishmaniasis. Immunol Res. 2015 61(1-2):169-71. Vassallo M, Moranne O, Ambrosetti D, Jeandel PY, Pomares C, Cassuto E, Boscagli A, Giraud G, Montagne N, Dentone C, Demacina I, Villaggio B, Secondo G, Ferrea G, Passeron C, Saudes L, Kaphan R, Marty P, Rosenthal E. Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum with renal involvement in HIV-infected patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 14(1):561. Abnave P, Mottola G, Gimenez G, ...
In the Indian subcontinent, Leishmania donovani, the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by the sand fly vector Phlebotomus argentipes. Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LN) have been postulated as alternative or complement to Indoor Residual Spraying but there are few field studies evaluating the entomological efficacy of different nets against this vector. We conducted two crossover trials in a VL endemic area in Nepal to compare the barrier effect of (1) LN with different mesh sizes (156 holes/inch2 vs 625 holes/inch2) and (2) alpha-cypermethrin treated LN and untreated nets having the same mesh size (156 holes/inch2). Each crossover trial had two arms consisting of a sequence of two different nets for 8 nights. We used 10 cattle sheds per trial. A cow placed under the net was used as bait. CDC light traps placed inside the nets were used to evaluate the number of P. argentipes crossing the net barrier. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) population
Out of 200 countries and territories reporting to WHO, 97 countries and territories are endemic for leishmaniasis.[23] The settings in which leishmaniasis is found range from rainforests in Central and South America to deserts in western Asia and the Middle East. It affects as many as 12 million people worldwide, with 1.5-2.0 million new cases each year.[24] The visceral form of leishmaniasis has an estimated incidence of 500,000 new cases.[25] In 2014, more than 90% of new cases reported to WHO occurred in six countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan.[26] As of 2010, it caused about 52,000 deaths, down from 87,000 in 1990.[10] Different types of the disease occur in different regions of the world.[2] Cutaneous disease is most common in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, and Iran, while mucocutaneous disease is most common in Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru, and visceral disease is most common in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Sudan.[2] Leishmaniasis is found ...
Journal of Tropical Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of tropical medicine.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a sporadic illness in Bulgaria. However, cases in humans are registered nearly every year. This study describes the geographical distribution of the disease in Bulgaria from 1988 to 2012, over a period of 25 years. Cases were analysed according to age, sex, and place of residence. A total of 122 cases were registered in 25 years, 118 of which were autochthonous and four of which were imported from endemic countries in southern Europe. The average annual incidence for the study period was 0.06 per 100,000 population, or an average of five cases per year (maximum 15 in 1989; no cases notified in 1991, 1995, 1996 and 2008). Cases of visceral leishmaniasis were recorded in 13 out of 28 regions in Bulgaria, mainly in the southern part of the country. The highest number of cases were registered in the regions of Blagoevgrad (n=36) and Stara Zagora (n=34). Data presented in this study show that there is ongoing transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bulgaria with a high mortality
Introduction: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is required to control leishmaniases. Therefore, simple tests that can evaluate the cellular immunity of the target populations can help to understand the immune status of the human subjects, their immunity to the re-infection and the ...
Leishmania infantum is responsible for a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis all over the world. The universally accepted standard method for characterizing and identification of Leishmania is the isoenzyme analysis. Especially for L. infantum, this procedure lacks of discriminative power because the predominant zymodeme MON-1 is represented by more than 80 % of the analysed isolates. In this study, PCR assays amplifying 15 independent microsatellites were developed using a method to create highly enriched libraries that can easily be adapted for other species of Leishmania. The panel of markers was tested for 13 strains of the L. donovani complex with main emphasis on L. infantum MON-1. The calculated dendrograms corresponded to the results of former phylogenetic investigations based on genotypic methods. Depending of zymodeme and species, different degrees of allelic heterozygosity were observed. This is the first set of independent microsatellite markers especially developed for L. ...
Leishmaniasis is an parasitic infectious disease of dogs and people that is usually limited to tropical regions of the world, including South America, the Mediterranean, Middle East and Asia. The subspecies of the parasite Leishmania donovani can infect dogs, causing a disease form called visceral leishmaniasis. Dogs serve as a reservoir of infection. The disease is transmitted among dogs and to people by sandflies.. The disease was not thought to be naturally present in the United States. However, there have been cases in the United States in dogs that have traveled to areas where natural infection occurs. Sand fly species, presumably capable of transmitting the disease, are present in the United States creating the potential for the disease to increase in incidence. General interest in this disease has risen because of a recent outbreak of leishmaniasis diagnosed in several foxhounds in a kennel in New York. The kennel and kennel veterinarians are working with the Centers for Disease Control ...
Responsible for up to 30,000 deaths annually, leishmaniasis is a complex spectrum of diseases endemic in 97 countries around the globe. Disease control relies heavily on the early diagnosis and treatment of the active cases (relevant for anthroponotic disease), although it is widely accepted that a prophylactic vaccine for human leishmaniasis is the way to achieve the successful elimination of human disease (taking in consideration the vast list of non-human reservoirs that enable the perpetuation of parasites all around the globe). The notion that infection leads to strong and long-lasting immunity against leishmaniasis supports vaccination as an achievable goal. However, and in spite of the different candidates tested along the years, till date, we still do not have an approved vaccine for humans. In this chapter, we will explore the last advances made in the field of vaccines against Leishmania without forgetting the historical perspective, essential to the understanding of the road already undergone
Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with architectural disorganization of the splenic tissue in human and in dogs. In this study we estimate the changes in the number of Ki-67+ (proliferating cells), CD3+ (T cells), α-CD79+ (cells B) and S100+ (follicular dendritic cells) and in the expression of CXCL13, LTα, TNF, IFN-gamma, IL10, TGFbeta, CCR7, CCL19, CCL21 in the spleens of dogs from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, with organized or disorganized splenic architecture. The number of T cells, B cells, proliferating cells and follicular dendritic cells was lower in the lymphoid follicle of the animals with disorganized splenic tissue than in animals with organized splenic tissue (P , 0.01). The number of B cells was also reduced in the MZ of animals with disorganized splenic tissue (P , 0.01). B cells (P , 0.01) and proliferating cells (P , 0.05) density was lower in the lymphoid follicles of animals with disorganized splenic tissue. CXCL13 (P , 0.02) and LT-α (P , 0.05) expressions ...
Currently there is no vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Towards developing an effective vaccine, we have reported extensively on the immunogenicity of live attenuated LdCentrin-/- mutants in naive animal models. In VL endemic areas, asymptomatic carriers outnumber symptomatic cases of VL and are considered to be a reservoir of infection. Vaccination of asymptomatic cases represents a viable strategy to eliminate VL. Immunological correlates of protection thus derived might have limited applicability in conditions where the immunized host has prior exposure to virulent infection. To examine whether LdCen-/- parasites can induce protective immunity in experimental hosts that have low-level parasitemia from a previous exposure mimicking an asymptomatic condition, we infected C57Bl/6 mice with wild type Leishmania donovani parasites expressing LLO epitope (LdWTLLO 103, i.v.). After 3 weeks the mice with low levels of parasitemia were immunized with LdCen-/- parasites expressing 2W epitope (LdCen-
Amastigotes of Leishmania parasites inside macrophages, illustration. Leishmania sp. cause leishmaniosis, a tropical disease transmitted by bites from infected sand-flies. These are the non-flagellated amastigote form of the parasite. In humans flagellated promastigotes infect macrophages and are transformed into amastigotes. There are two forms of leishmaniosis. The first, cutaneous leishmaniosis, affects the skin giving rise to an ulcer at the site of the bite. This mainly heals naturally, although scarring may occur. The more serious, visceral leishmaniosis (kala-azar), causes fever and liver damage, and can be fatal. - Stock Image F019/2555
WHO India Country Office collaborates with the Government of India, other WHO Offices and relevant stakeholders within the framework of the collaborative Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS), to actively support the development and implementation of national health policies, strategies and plans for strengthening the work in the area of NTDs. The WCO-India programme of work supports the Government of India (GoI) in providing technical support in developing national policies, strategies and programmes activities for elimination of NTDs including Leprosy, Visceral Leishmaniasis, Lymphatic Filariasis and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis, contributing to strengthening the monitoring of the prevention and control of NTDs and facilitating the adoption of evidence-based public health interventions in relevant areas and well as the transitioning of existing programmes and health systems reforms with the aim to promote equity and accelerate the movement towards Universal Health Coverage and NTD elimination. ...
Medical term visceral leishmaniasis 内脏利什曼病; 内脏莱什曼病 and its variants in English, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese and Pinyin with audio pronunciation. 规范医学术语词汇
One randomized, open-label, active-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of IMPAVIDO in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India, an area where L. donovani is known epidemiologically to be the prevalent infecting species. Patients ≥ 12 years of age with clinical signs and symptoms compatible with visceral leishmaniasis (fever, splenomegaly, and cytopenia) confirmed by the presence of Leishmania amastigotes in aspirates of spleen or bone marrow were randomized to receive oral IMPAVIDO or intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate in a 3:1 ratio. Patients weighing ≥ 25 kg received an IMPAVIDO 50 mg capsule with meals twice a day. Patients weighing , 25 kg received an IMPAVIDO 50 mg capsule with meals once a day in the morning. Weight ranged between 15 and 67 kg (mean weight 38.6 kg) and BMI ranged between 8.2 and 24 (mean 16.1). No patient weighed more than 70kg. Amphotericin B was administered intravenously over 6 continuous hours at 1 mg/kg every other day for ...
In order to see how the treatments affect cytokine production, draining lymph nodes of mice were excised and the isolated cells were cultured and stimulated with PMA/I. IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ secretion was measured in the supernatants harvested 24 hr after stimulation. Interestingly, infected mice without any treatment (Group P) produced significantly higher IFN-γ compared to non-infected control mice. This finding is in consonance with the previous reports demonstrating that IFN-γ production in BALB/c is not impaired even when the disease completely developed (Lang et al., 2003; Sommer et al., 1998). In addition, the disease severity would be affected by a mechanism independent of conventional helper T-cell responses since B6.C (lmr1/2) mice had similar cytokine levels to the parental C57BL/6 mice despite increased susceptibility and C.B6 (lmr1, lmr2) were similar to BALB/c despite increased resistance (Elso et al., 2004). In human visceral leishmaniasis it has also been found that plasma ...
Visceral leishmaniasis, a lethal parasitic disease, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. The absence of an effective vaccine, drug toxicity and parasite resistance necessitates the identification of novel drug targets. Reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic models and their simulation h
The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine expression in 22 Leishmania infantum naturally infected dogs, in order to correlate this parameter with the clinical status of infected animals. After 4 and 8 months from the first diagnosis of Leishmania infection, clinical and laboratory examination of dogs was performed and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated. The cytokine profile was analysed in terms of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in cultured PBMC by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Thirteen out of 22 Leishmania-infected dogs remained asymptomatic in the follow-up, while 9 showed clinical signs of leishmaniasis. IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA levels were not significantly different in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic animals 4 months from the diagnosis of Leishmania infection, but were significantly higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic dogs after 8 months from diagnosis. In addition, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA ...
Adenosine is an endogenously released purine nucleoside that signals through four widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Of these, A2AR is recognized as mediating major adenosine anti-inflammatory activity. During cutaneous leishmaniasis, adenosine induces immunosuppression, which promotes the establishment of infection. Herein, we demonstrated that A2AR signaling is exploited by Leishmania infantum parasites, the etiologic agent that causes Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), to successfully colonize the vertebrate host. A2AR gene-deleted mice exhibited a well-developed cellular reaction with a strong Th1-immune response in the parasitized organs. An intense infiltration of activated neutrophils into the disease-target organs was observed in A2AR-/- mice. These cells were characterized by high expression of CXCR2 and CD69 on their cell surfaces and increased cxcl1 expression. Interestingly, this phenotype was mediated by IFN-γ on the basis that a neutralizing antibody specific to
References. 1. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, et al. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35671. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035671. [ Links ] 2. Allahverdiyev AM, Abamor ES, Bagirova M, Baydar SY, Ates SC, Kaya F, et al. Investigation of antileishmanial activities of [email protected] nanoparticles on biological properties of L. tropica and L. infantum parasites, in vitro. Exp Parasitol. 2013;135(1):55-63. [ Links ] 3. Cota GF, de Sousa MR, Demarqui FN, Rabello A. The diagnostic accuracy of serologic and molecular methods for detecting visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients: meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(5):e1665. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001665. [ Links ] 4. Sundar S, Chakravarty J. An update on pharmacotherapy for leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015;16(2):237-52. doi:10.1517/14656566.2015.973850. [ Links ] 5. Ferreira AS, Barraviera B, Barraviera SR, Abbade LP, Caramori CA, Ferreira Junior RS. A ...
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Leishmaniasis, Leishmania, Disease, Leishmania Donovani, Visceral Leishmaniasis, Amphotericin B, Carbon, Amphotericin, Macrophages, Infection, Mice, and Proteins
Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is a zoonosis of major public health impact caused by organisms of the genus Leishmania which is transmitted to human and animals by phlebotomine sand flies. The skin is the first point of contact with Leishmania parasites for sandy fly vectors and it is considered an important reservoir compartment in infected dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the ma ...
Journal of Tropical Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on all aspects of tropical diseases. Articles on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases, parasites and their hosts, epidemiology, and public health issues will be considered. Journal of Tropical Medicine aims to facilitate the communication of advances addressing global health and mortality relating to tropical diseases.
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