Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is a paradigm of study within cognitive psychology and linguistics. Its goal is to investigate the processes that underlie human language learning by testing subjects ability to learn a made-up grammar in a laboratory setting. It was developed to evaluate the processes of human language learning but has also been utilized to study implicit learning in a more general sense. The area of interest is typically the subjects ability to detect patterns and statistical regularities during a training phase and then use their new knowledge of those patterns in a testing phase. The testing phase can either use the symbols or sounds used in the training phase or transfer the patterns to another set of symbols or sounds as surface structure. Many researchers propose that the rules of the artificial grammar are learned on an implicit level since the rules of the grammar are never explicitly presented to the participants. The paradigm has also recently been utilized for ...
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There is ongoing debate about the contribution of explicit processes to incidental learning, particularly attention, working memory and control mechanisms. Studies generally measure explicit process contributions to incidental learning by comparing dual- to single-task sequence learning on some variant of a Serial Reaction Time (SRT), usually adopting an auditory tone counting task as the secondary task/memory load. Few studies have used secondary working memory stimuli with the SRT task, those that have typically presented secondary stimuli, before, after or between primary task stimuli. Arguably, this design is problematic because participants may potentially
There are several different learning styles you can use for teaching your child! Check out the multiple WAYS your child can learn!
Following a 1994 study that found that errorless learning was better than trial-and-error learning for amnesic patients and older adults, errorless learning has been widely adopted in the rehabilitation industry. Errorless learning involves being told the answer without repeatedly trying to answer the question and perhaps making mistakes. For example, in the 1994 study, participants in the trial-and-error condition could produce up to three errors in answer to the question I am thinking of a word that begins with QU, before being told the answer was QUOTE; in contrast, participants in the errorless condition were simply told I am thinking of a word that begins with QU and it is QUOTE.. In a way, it is surprising that errorless learning should be better, given that trial-and-error produces much deeper and richer encoding, and a number of studies with young adults have indeed found an advantage for making errors. Moreover, its well established that retrieving an item leads to better ...
It is well established that the primary motor cortex (M1) plays a significant role in motor learning in healthy humans. It is unclear, however, whether mechanisms of motor learning include M1 oscillatory activity. In this study, we aimed to test whether M1 oscillations, entrained by transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) at motor resonant frequencies, have any effect on motor acquisition and retention during a rapid learning task, as assessed by kinematic analysis. We also tested whether the stimulation influenced the corticospinal excitability changes after motor learning. Sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Participants performed the motor learning task in three experimental conditions: sham-tACS (baseline), β-tACS and γ-tACS. Corticospinal excitability was assessed with single-pulse TMS before the motor learning task and 5, 15, and 30 min thereafter. Motor retention was tested 30 min after the motor learning task. During training, acceleration of the practiced movement
Watkins, LeCompte, and Kim (2000) suggested that the recall advantage for rare words in mixed lists is due to a compensatory study strategy that favors the rare words. They found the advantage was reversed when rare and common words were studied under incidental learning conditions. The present study investigated the possibility that the rare-word advantage in recognition memory is also the result of a compensatory study strategy. Experiment 1 replicated the findings of Watkins et al. that the rareword advantage in recall is eliminated under incidental learning conditions. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that the rare-word advantage in recognition memory is maintained under both intentional and incidental learning conditions. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiments 1 and 2 using different stimuli and a different orienting task. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that the rare-word advantage in recognition is maintained with pure lists. These findings show that the rare-word advantage in ...
An adaptive learning system is an effective educational tool that meets the individual needs of students, but it is limited in fostering student learning by itself. With active engagement, students learn better than with adaptive learning systems alone. In this study, we investigate the impact of an adaptive learning system with active learning projects on student learning in general education information technology courses. We believe that todays classroom calls for adaptive learning to serve the needs of diverse student populations. Active learning through real-life hands-on learning activities can enhance student learning by allowing them to apply their knowledge to authentic projects. In the classroom, we often find that learning computing with authentic hands-on activities is not only useful, but it contributes to improving student motivation and confidence.
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Machine learning uses algorithms to build analytical models, helping computers learn from data. It can now be applied to huge quantities of data to create exciting new applications such as driverless cars. This Conclusions Paper, based on a presentation at the Analytics 2014 conference, introduces key machine learning concepts and describes new SAS solutions that allow data scientists to perform machine learning at scale. In the presentation, Viseca Card Services shares its experiences using machine learning to differentiate a new customer loyalty program.. ...
Teaching and Learning at a Distance by Michael Simonson, 9780130946294, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Virology Distance Learning at Liverpool John Moores University, listed on FindAMasters.com - a comprehensive database of Masters, MSc, MA, MPhil & MRes courses in the UK & Ireland
Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2001 Expansive Learning at Work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization YRJÖ ENGESTRÖM University of California, San Diego, USA & Center for Activity
Research into the benefits of cooperative learning has focussed most attention onto a social psychological perspective with the result that the putative cognitive benefits of these strategies have not been thoroughly researched and clearly delineated. One consequence of this research focus has been that cooperative learning strategies are not always adopted by teachers and included permanently into their regular classroom practice, thereby possibly denying some students the potential for cognitive gain. This study was conceived originally as an investigation into the claimed cognitive benefits of small-group cooperative learning from a cognitive perspective but the investigation of the cooperative learning literature also led to an investigation of the general learning literature base. Recent research suggested that human learning might not have been described adequately by the earlier perspectives. Some authors contended that a fourth metaphor of human learning may be emerging from the socio-cultural
In 1999 Marcus et al. claimed, based on a series of artificial grammar learning experiments, that infants must have not only a statistical learning mechanism, but also an algebra-like rule learning system at their disposal. They were led to this conclusion by the finding that a simple recurrent network model (as an example of a purely statistical learning system) was not able to simulate the rule-like learning behaviour of 7-month-old infants. That is, the model was able to learn to predict the next word in a sequence when trained on a certain pattern, but it was not able to generalize this ability to novel words, whereas the infants were. Therefore, Marcus et al. claimed that infants must have a different, more algebraic rule-like way of representing these grammatical patterns. The fundamental argument behind this conclusion is that neural network models are by definition not able to generalize the patterns they have learned to stimuli on which they were not trained. In other words, that ...
What do we know about the brains day-to-day functions?. What does neuroscience tell us about how we learn?. How can we make sense of the complex interconnections of billions of neurons in the human brain?. Just as educators divide many subjects into parts, goals, and learning objectives, we can begin to understand the workings of the human brain by focusing on five learning systems: emotional, social, cognitive, physical, and reflective. In Teaching to the Brains Natural Learning Systems, Barbara K. Given has investigated brain structures and functions of these five systems and applied findings from neurobiology to education without making leaps of judgment or unfounded claims. In this book, she translates neuroscience into an educational framework for lesson planning, teaching, and assessment.. Educators can use details from each chapter to add to their repertoire of teaching strategies and instructional approaches. For example, understanding the five learning systems promotes effective, ...
This report examines the Deep Learning System market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Deep Learning System market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Deep Learning System…
Background: Advanced cognitive abilities are widely thought to underpin cultural traditions and cumulative cultural change. In contrast, recent simulation models have found that basic social influences on learning suffice to support both cultural phenomena. In the present study we test the predictions of these models in the context of skill learning, in a model with stochastic demographics, variable group sizes, and evolved parameter values, exploring the cultural ramifications of three different social learning mechanisms. Results: Our results show that that simple forms of social learning such as local enhancement, can generate traditional differences in the context of skill learning. In contrast, we find cumulative cultural change is supported by observational learning, but not local or stimulus enhancement, which supports the idea that advanced cognitive abilities are important for generating this cultural phenomenon in the context of skill learning. Conclusions: Our results help to explain ...
Background: This intensive longitudinal study examined effects of health behaviors on affect experience and academic performance, indicators of mental health and cognitive functioning. Methods: Over the freshman year, 282 university students answered 65 online-assessments about sleep quality, eating behavior, physical activity, affect, learning behavior, and exam grades. Findings: Multilevel structural equation models over the first year, showed that subjects with on average better sleep quality and regular eating behavior but not physical activity predicted better learning behavior, which in turn was associated with passing exams Relations of all health behaviors with learning behavior were mediated by affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality and eating behavior but not physical activity, participants reported better learning behavior. Daily affect mediated the relations of all health behaviors with learning behavior. Discussion: Results provide a first ...
Managing your childs learning at home in this era of distance learning can be challenging; this course is designed to help. Not specific to any content area or grade level, Remote Learning: How Parents Can Help describes systems and structures caregivers can use with children at all levels to facilitate productive learning at home. This course is entirely online and self-paced.. ...
Blahous, Charles( February 24, 2012). The old shop Success as an Online Student: Strategies for Effective Learning of the Payroll Tax Cut . clear from the shop Success on October 16, 2013.
This highly respected, market-leading textbook on learning theories applied to education prepares pre-service teachers and other educators with a unique and meaningful learning experience. The sixth edition of Human Learning covers a broad-range of learning theories and key perspectives on learning related to education, including: behaviorist, cognitive, social cognitive, contextual, and developmental theories, always highlighting relationships between concepts. Additionally, the text details associationistic processes (e.g., classical and instrumental conditioning), and more complex and distinctly human processes (e.g. metacognition, self-regulated learning, critical thinking). Every chapter features key pedagogical concepts with specific applications to classroom practice, numerous concrete examples that illustrate key concepts, principles, and recommendations and dozens of proven examples help make the fundamentals of these theories comprehensible to students with little or no prior coursework in
Perceptual learning is learning better perception skills such as differentiating two musical tones from one another or categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns relevant to real-world expertise as in reading, seeing relations among chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor. Sensory modalities may include visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and taste. Perceptual learning forms important foundations of complex cognitive processes (i.e., language) and interacts with other kinds of learning to produce perceptual expertise. Underlying perceptual learning are changes in the neural circuitry. The ability for perceptual learning is retained throughout life. Laboratory studies reported many examples of dramatic improvements in sensitivities from appropriately structured perceptual learning tasks. In visual Vernier acuity tasks, observers judge whether one line is displaced above or below a second line. Untrained observers are often already very good with this task, but ...
The Early Learning goal is to provide opportunities for young children to maximize their potential to succeed in school. Early Learning programs are intended to: increase access and quality to early care and education; increase early screening and assessments; increase caregiver knowledge and skills, and improve transitions of children from preschool to kindergarten. More than $6.4 million of First 5 Orange Countys budget was allocated to Early Learning programs in Fiscal Year 2017/18. An additional $750,000 in catalytic expenditures were made to support Early Learning programs.. ...
Motor learning is driven by movement errors. The speed of learning can be quantified by the learning rate, which is the proportion of an error that is corrected for in the planning of the next movement. Previous studies have shown that the learning rate depends on the reliability of the error signal and on the uncertainty of the motor systems own state. These dependences are in agreement with the predictions of the Kalman filter, which is a state estimator that can be used to determine the optimal learning rate for each movement such that the expected movement error is minimized. Here we test whether not only the average behaviour is optimal, as the previous studies showed, but if the learning rate is chosen optimally in every individual movement. Subjects made repeated movements to visual targets with their unseen hand. They received visual feedback about their endpoint error immediately after each movement. The reliability of these error-signals was varied across three conditions. The results are
WK7 - Hebbian Learning. CS 476: Networks of Neural Computation WK7 - Hebbian Learning Dr. Stathis Kasderidis Dept. of Computer Science University of Crete Spring Semester, 2009. Contents. Introduction to Hebbian Learning Definitions on Pattern Association Pattern Association Network Slideshow 6779351 by sylvana-silas
Entwistle (1991) argues that teachers should: take account of the range of learning styles their students will inevitably exhibit, recognise that their own learning style is likely to be reflected in their teaching and acknowledge the dangers of allowing one particular approach to teaching to exclude the voice of others. To present apposing view to that of the few authors we reviewed, some researchers in fields like Adaptive hypertext seem to claim that different learning modes and learning path should be proposed to each learner. Papanikolaou et al. (2006, p. 358) suggest that it is more useful to recommend educational interactions based on the learners observable behaviour, allowing learners to make the final choice, selecting amongst alternative approaches. The system should adapt to the learners actual behaviour rather than the what is inferred from learning style evaluations. The system should be designed to accomodate a variety of learning styles, but should propose interactions based ...
Stimulation of a certain population of neurons within the brain can alter the learning process, according to a team of neuroscientists and neurosurgeons at the University of Pennsylvania. A report in the Journal of Neuroscience describes for the first time that human learning can be modified by stimulation of dopamine-containing neurons in a deep brain structure known as the substantia nigra.
Although there is no way of restoring lost memory capabilities, there are techniques that can make getting information into memory more efficiently. These are errorless learning, mnemonics and PQRST.. Errorless learning: People with an injured brain tend to make the same mistakes over and over again, which can be really frustrating. Therefore, it is important that no mistakes are made when teaching them new information. An effective way to do this is to guide the person several times and then gradually decrease the amount of help given. Errorless learning is a difficult technique and requires working with a trained professional such as a neuropsychologist. It requires adjusting expectations, making sure the person completely understands what is expected of them, working together on the task. Make the task do-able and repeat several times, providing cues, when necessary. Mnemonics: these are visual and verbal aids to learning such as rhymes, sayings or drawings to learn new information. It can be ...
A conversation with the GTUs Director of Digital Learning, Diandra Erickson, who reflects on online learning opportunities at the GTU, including our new Interreligious Studies Certificate--the first fully online program at the GTU.
Three children doing group work together. Credit: Anthea Sieveking/ Wellcome Images Before becoming a writer, I spent a year-and-a-half training as a science teacher and then working at a secondary school in Croydon. During my short stint in education, the biggest buzzword was differentiation. We were told that any given class contains pupils with a range of abilities, and that different children have different learning styles.. This second idea was drilled into us over and over again. Some children are visual learners, who acquire and process information best through images; others are auditory learners, who learn best by listening; and yet others are kinaesthetic learners, who learn best by doing physical activities. To be effective teachers, we had to try to establish each childs preferred learning style, so that we could tailor our teaching style and materials accordingly.. The idea of learning styles is based on the theory of multiple…. ...
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The largest early learning forum with over 20,000 members that actively discuss little reader, your baby can read, tweedlewink, signing time, and other early learning products as well as general discussions on early learning.
Understanding Student Learning Behavior and Predicting Their Performance: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9031-6.ch001: Despite the increase in the adoption of online educational platforms, student retention is still a challenging task with a number of students having low
Impact On Learning. Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating has a positive effect on a cognitive and spatial memory capacity, potentially increasing a students potential to process and retain academic information.. Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed food service contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions. Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. Better nourished children often perform significantly better in school, partly because they enter school earlier but mostly because of greater learning productivity per year of schooling. There is limited research available that directly links a students Grade Point Average (G.P.A.) to their overall nutritional health. Additional substantive data is needed to ...
Welcome to the CCCU Research Space Repository. The Research Space Repository contains research produced by Canterbury Christ Church University researchers, including over 9,000 journal articles, conference papers, videos and more. The repository provides full text access where permitted, and full citation details where restrictions apply. Please contact [email protected] for any repository-related queries.
Encoding and retrieving memories. For their studies with rats, researchers adapted a standardised word-based memory test for humans, using however scents instead of words. The researchers hid small treats in sand-filled cups. In addition, each cup also contained a different scent, such as thyme or coriander which could be smelled by the rats when searching for the treats. Each training unit consisted of three phases. During the learning phase, researchers presented several scents to the animals. A pause followed, and subsequently a recognition phase. In the latter, the animals were presented the scents from the learning phase as well as other smells. The animals demonstrated that they recognised a scent from the learning phase by running to the back wall of their cage, where they were rewarded with food for the correct response. If, on the other hand, they recognised that a scent had not been presented during the learning phase, they demonstrated it by digging in the sand with their front paws. ...
The Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge (ELC) represents an important federal initiative to support the development of early learning systems in states. The systemic approach reflects and supports the need for infrastructure - strong state frameworks that make feasible the integrated, efficient, coherent delivery of a continuum of services for young children and their families. The BUILD Initiative applauds the spirit and systemic direction of the Challenge; working from our key principles, we are committed to supporting states as they use this significant opportunity to advance their systems planning and implementation.. The Obama administration has received accolades for the commitment to partnership among leaders in the US Departments of Education and Health and Human Services, a commitment exhibited most strategically through the appointment of a high level representative to purposefully align efforts across the Departments. This recognition of the importance of cross-departmental ...
The Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge (ELC) represents an important federal initiative to support the development of early learning systems in states. The systemic approach reflects and supports the need for infrastructure - strong state frameworks that make feasible the integrated, efficient, coherent delivery of a continuum of services for young children and their families. The BUILD Initiative applauds the spirit and systemic direction of the Challenge; working from our key principles, we are committed to supporting states as they use this significant opportunity to advance their systems planning and implementation.. The Obama administration has received accolades for the commitment to partnership among leaders in the US Departments of Education and Health and Human Services, a commitment exhibited most strategically through the appointment of a high level representative to purposefully align efforts across the Departments. This recognition of the importance of cross-departmental ...
The Finance Research Practicum and Finance Proseminars are Action Learning opportunities offered by the Master of Finance program
Students enrolled in the Masters of Arts in Curriculum Studies and Teacher Development program are required to complete one research methods course from this approved list. Doctoral students are expected to complete one course from this list if they did not complete it at the masters level. Note that not all the courses are offered every year. Please consult the OISE Registrars Office website for courses available in any given term. Please consult the OISE Bulletin course list for the CTL1799 and CTL1999 special research methods courses for this particular year. ...
At Northwestern, the assessment of students learning serves multiple purposes. First and foremost, we consider assessment a systematic approach used to understand students learning so that our institution can evaluate and enhance its learning contexts. Evidence related to students learning allows us to leverage and celebrate our institutions strengths and informs decisions to change or refine elements related to students learning experiences. Second, we use evidence related to students learning to articulate to others (i.e., students, parents, employers, funding and accreditation entities) the rationale, expectations, and quality related to Northwesterns educational opportunities.. The following principles guide the purposes and processes related to the assessment of students learning at Northwestern:. ...
Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Procedural Memory Procedural memory is a form of long-term memory that enables people to learn and execute tasks. Interested educators should contact their APA Partnership Manager or email . SRT learning remains intact in amnesics (Nissen and Bullemer, 1987). Encyclopedia.com. Other structures, such as the cerebellum, may also play a role in some forms of procedural learning. The work withH umansis concerned with how patients with various types of brain damage learn new skills. (2001). One of the most popular tests of perceptual-skill learning is reading mirror-reversed text. There is evidence that not only motor-skill learning (as tested by the mirror drawing task) but also perceptual and cognitive-skill learning can also proceed in the absence of declarative memory. (1995). ...
14.1, 2001) is very similar to some of the other Engestrom articles and chapters Ive reviewed recently. In fact, it shares some passages with Developmental work research as educational research. But it covers some different ground as well. For instance, in its brief history of activity theory, it acknowledges the deep-seated insensitivity of the second generation activity theory toward cultural diversity originally pointed out by Michael Cole (p.135), and says that the internationalization of AT meant that questions of diversity and dialogue between different traditions or perspectives became increasingly serious challenges (p.135). Ah. So is this why Bakhtins dialogism has become so interesting to third-generation activity theorists?. Engestrom then lays out the working of an activity network, including a diagram on p.136 in which the objects of two activity systems form a third object -- a Venn diagram portraying the intersection of the separate objects. He differentiates among - ...
Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for detecting tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs. Materials and Methods Four deidentified HIPAA-compliant datasets were used in this study that were exempted from review by the institutional review board, which consis …
BIO: Martine van de Merwe is a security awareness trainer in healthcare / IT and founder of PrivacyLab. Martine believes privacy is essential to freedom. The more someone knows about you, the more power he has over you. People are key to ensure privacy. Although you can have a lot of technical controls, if the people dont get it, it wont work. Thats why Martine decided in 2014 to focus on security awareness in healthcare and started her own business PrivacyLab. The PrivacyLab approach focuses on engaging training methods so people really get involved in information security. With some decades of experience in IT advisory and IT auditing Martine knows what shes talking about. Martine is co-founder of the Dutch security awareness community (with over 170 members) serving both the SANS Securing the Human community in the Netherlands and the Dutch Security Culture Framework User Group as well as any other security awareness professional who wants to be inspired by knowledge sharing colleagues. ...
For more than 40 years, the College of Medicines vital and still-growing humanities program has equipped students with greater insight about the world outside of the examination room.
Linkages to Learning is a school-based collaboration among the Montgomery County Department of Health and Human Services, the Montgomery County Public Schools and non-profit, community based service providers. The program provides accessible services to at-risk children and their families to improve adjustment to and performance in school, home, and community. Prevention and early intervention services include health, mental health, social services and educational support.. ...
Resources for parents to help avoid paralysis by choice and assure the information is correct and supportive of Alberta Students and Families. ...
There remains quite a bit of controversy, among researchers and clinicians alike, regarding the role of classical conditioning in the development of anxiety disorders.