Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit, which is the product of this gene, and the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the product of this gene, the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits ...
The role of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasorelaxation has been largely investigated in resistance vessels where iberiotoxin-sensitive MaxiK channels play a predominant role. However, the nature of the K+ channel(s) involved in the relaxation triggered by NO-releasing compounds [nitroglycerin, NTG; NOR 3 [(±)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide]] or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the conduit vessel aorta has remained elusive. We now demonstrate that, in rat aorta, the relaxation due to these vasorelaxants is not affected by the MaxiK channel blocker iberiotoxin (10-7-10-6 M) as was the control vascular bed used (mesenteric artery). The inability of iberiotoxin to prevent NO/ANP-induced aortic relaxations was not due to lower expression of MaxiK in aorta or due to the predominance of iberiotoxin-resistant channels in this conduit vessel. Aortic relaxations were strongly diminished by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (≥5 × 10-3 M) or by tetraethylammonium (,2 × 10-3 ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated kcnma1a primer pair, for the Zebrafish genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
As with other potassium channels, BK channels have a tetrameric structure. Each monomer of the channel-forming alpha subunit is the product of the KCNMA1 gene. Modulatory beta subunits (encoded by KCNMB1, KCNMB2, KCNMB3, or KCNMB4) can associate with the tetrametic channel.. K+ channels are formed as tetramers [557] of identical or similar subunits arranged in fourfold symmetry around the water-filled ion-conduction pathway (except for the 2P tandem channels, which are presumably dimers.) Common to all K+ channel subunits is a structural core consisting of two transmembrane helices, readily identified by hydrophobicity algorithms, separated by a re-entrant pore-loop carrying the signature sequence (Figure 1 in [556]).BK channels comprise seven transmembrane domains (S0-S6) placing the short NH2 terminus extracellularly and the COOH terminus (two-thirds of the protein) at the intracelular side of the membrane (see Figure 1 fo Berkefeld et al. 2010 [1457]). This intracelular domain contains four ...
Our previous study demonstrated that pregnancy increased large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel β1 subunit (BKβ1) expression and large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel activity in uterine arteries, which were abrogated by chronic hypoxia. The present study tested the hypothesis that promoter methylation/demethylation is a key mechanism in epigenetic reprogramming of BKβ1 expression patterns in uterine arteries. Ovine BKβ1 promoter of 2315 bp spanning from −2211 to +104 of the transcription start site was cloned, and an Sp1−380 binding site that contains CpG dinucleotide in its core binding sequences was identified. Site-directed deletion of the Sp1 site significantly decreased the BKβ1 promoter activity. Estrogen receptor-α bound to the Sp1 site through tethering to Sp1 and upregulated the expression of BKβ1. The Sp1 binding site at BKβ1 promoter was highly methylated in uterine arteries of nonpregnant sheep, and methylation inhibited transcription factor ...
Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are within the paper. generate outward potassium currents that bring the membrane potential back to resting levels and oppose vasoconstriction [2C4]. In vascular clean muscle, BK channels have been reported to consist of a pore-forming alpha subunit and two types of accessory subunits: beta1 protein (BK beta1 subunit) and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 26 (BK gamma subunit) [1, 5C6]. Accessory proteins cannot form functional channels, but enable BK channel activation at lower transmembrane voltages when compared to homomeric channels created by BK alpha subunit tetramers [7C8]. BK beta 1 subunits also improve the channels pharmacological profile by conferring, enhancing, or diminishing level of sensitivity to several endogenous and synthetic chemical regulators [9C13]. BK channels remain a constant focus of drug finding, including BK focusing on by newly developed compounds that modulate cerebral artery diameter and could potentially mitigate ...
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated potassium channel. Elicits a slowly activating, rectifying current (By similarity). Channel properties may be modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly.
Research on ion channels, BK channels, circadian regulation, and Kcnma1 conducted by Andrea Merediths Lab at the University of Maryland.
A service-level agreement is not the same as a service-level objective. Find out the difference between SLO vs. SLA, the attributes of each and why each is critical to managing service providers.
anti-Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, beta Member 1 (KCNMB1) antibody (Alexa Fluor 647) ABIN903516 from antibodies-online
The properties of single Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in neonatal rat intracardiac neurons were investigated using the patch-clamp recording technique. In symmetrical 140 mM K+. the single-channel slope conductance was linear in the voltage range -60/+60 mV, and was 207±19 pS. Na+ ions were not measurably permeant through the open channel. Channel activity increased with the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) with a Hill plot giving a half-saturating [Ca2+] (K0.5) of 1.35 μM and slope of ≅3. The BK channel was inhibited reversibly by external tetraethylammonium (TEA) ions, charybdotoxin, and quinine and was resistant to block by 4-aminopyridine and apamin. Ionomycin (1-10 μM) increased BK channel activity in the cell-attached recording configuration. The resting activity was consistent with a [Ca2+]i |100 nM and the increased channel activity evoked by ionomycin was consistent with a rise in|[Ca2+]i to ≥ 0.3 μM. TEA (0.2-1 mM) increased the action potential duration 1.5-fold and
View mouse Kcnmb4 Chr10:116417861-116473542 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Characterisation and interaction between β₂ adrenoceptor (AR) and the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK_C_a) channel in human myometrium during pregnancy ...
KCNMB2 antibody (potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 2) for IHC, WB. Anti-KCNMB2 pAb (GTX16645) is tested in Human, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Expression of KCNMB3 (KCNMB2, KCNMBL) in oral mucosa tissue. Antibody staining with HPA015665 and HPA019185 in immunohistochemistry.
mSlo gating capacitance. (A) Voltage-dependent membrane capacitance (Cg) is plotted versus voltage for patches excised from HEK 293 cells that expressed mSlo ch
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KCNN3兔多克隆抗体(ab28631)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Resveratrol has been reported to stimulate BKCa currents in human vascular endothelial cells and human cardiac fibroblasts [24, 51], which might be associated with its cardioprotective effect. The present study demonstrated that resveratrol could stimulate the activities of BKCa channels in cortical neurons. In fact, BKCa channel is considered to be one of the intrinsic molecular determinants for the control of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system and play a role in the etiology of some neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the implication of BKCa channels in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) pathology [22]. In fact, a selective BKCa channel opener molecule (BMS-204352) rescues a broad spectrum of behavioral impairments (social, emotional and cognitive) in an animal model of FXS [17]. Resveratrol might be also beneficial to patients with FXS.. BKCa channels also play an important role in seizure etiology. Loss-of-function BKCa channel mutations can lead to temporal lobe ...
Hypoxic inhibition of K+ channels in type I cells is believed to be of central importance in carotid body chemotransduction. We have recently suggested that hypoxic channel inhibition is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here, we have further explored the modulation by AMPK of recombinant K+ channels (expressed in HEK293 cells) whose native counterparts are considered O2-sensitive in the rat carotid body. Inhibition of maxiK channels by AMPK activation with AICAR was found to be independent of [Ca2+]i and occurred regardless of whether the α subunit was co-expressed with an auxiliary β subunit. All effects of AICAR were fully reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. MaxiK channels were also inhibited by the novel AMPK activator A-769662 and by intracellular dialysis with the constitutively active, truncated AMPK mutant, T172D. The molecular identity of the O2-sensitive leak K+ conductance in rat type I cells remains unclear, but shares similarities with TASK-1 and TASK-3. Recombinant
Recently, we reported that the activities of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+(BK) channels are inhibited by caveolae microdomain targeting in vascular endothelial cells. The molecular mechanism of this negative regulation of BK channels by caveolae is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that BK channels are inhibited by physical interaction with the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1, which alters the properties of the channel. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing hSlo (which encodes human BK channels) with and without transient transfection with caveolin-1, We found that hSlo channels were enriched in the low buoyant density fraction when co-expressed with caveolin-1 and the channels were co-immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 antibodies. Co-expression of caveolin-1 resulted in inhibition of whole-cell hSlo current densities from 77.0±18.0 pA/pF in control (HP=−60 mV, TP=+80 mV, 1 μM free Ca2+, n=10) to 12.0±3.9 pA/pF (n=8, p,0.01 vs. control). In contrast, co-expression of ...
Large-conductance calcium-activated (maxi-K, BK) potassium channels are widely distributed in the brain. Maxi-K channels function as neuronal calcium sensors and contribute to the control of cellular excitability and the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Little is currently known of any significant role of maxi-K channels in the genesis of neurological disease. Recent advances in the molecular biology and pharmacology of these channels have revealed sources of phenotypic variability and demonstrated that they can be successfully modulated by pharmacological agents. A potential role is suggested in the treatment of conditions such as ischemic stroke and cognitive disorders ...
KCNMB3 - KCNMB3 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M beta member 3 (KCNMB3), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK, KCa1.1, MaxiK) are important regulators of urinary bladder function and may be an attractive therapeutic target in bladder disorders. In this study, we established a high-throughput fluorometric imaging plate reader-based screening assay for BK channel activators and identified a small-molecule positive modulator, NS19504 (5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-amine), which activated the BK channel with an EC50 value of 11.0 ± 1.4 µM. Hit validation was performed using high-throughput electrophysiology (QPatch), and further characterization was achieved in manual whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp studies in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing hBK channels: NS19504 caused distinct activation from a concentration of 0 ...
Kun, Attila (2013) A MAGAS KONDUKTANCIÁJÚ CA2+ AKTIVÁLTA K+ CSATORNÁK BEFOLYÁSOLÁSA A DIABETESES ÉRSZÖVŐDMÉNYEK KEZELÉSÉRE = MODULATION OF LARGE-CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-ACTIVATED K+ CHANNELS TO TREAT DIABETIC VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION. Project Report. OTKA. Varró, András and Acsai, Károly and Baczkó, István and Biliczki, Péter and Bitay, Miklós and Farkas, Attila and Farkas, András and Hála, Ottó and Jost, Norbert László and Koncz, István and Kormányos, Zsolt and Kovács, Mária and Krassói, Irén and Kun, Attila and Lengyel, Csaba Attila and Leprán, István and Márton, Zoltán and Nagy, Zsolt Ákos and Ördög, Balázs and Papp, Gyula and Papp, Rita and Pataricza, János and Prandovszky, Emese and Prorok, János and Sághy, László and Szuts, Viktória and Tóth, András and Vajda, Szilvia and Ványi, József and Végh, Ágnes and Virág, László (2009) A szívritmuszavarok és a myocardiális repolarizáció mechanizmusainak vizsgálata; antiaritmiás és proaritmiás ...
MMPokerNab: https://i.imgur.com/NLsxM.jpg While I discovered StarCraft Broodwar back in 2008, it seems people found online poker. And while I spent my time
Spider venoms are actively being investigated as sources of novel insecticidal agents for biopesticide engineering. After screening 37 theraphosid spider venoms, a family of three new short-loop inhibitory cystine knot insecticidal toxins (kappa-TRTX-Ec2a, kappa-TRTX-Ec2b, and kappa-TRTX-Ec2c) were isolated and characterized from the venom of the African tarantula Eucratoscelus constrictus. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons revealed that, despite significant sequence homology with other theraphosid toxins, these 29-residue peptides lacked activity on insect voltage-activated sodium and calcium channels. It is noteworthy that kappa-TRTX-Ec2 toxins were all found to be high-affinity blockers of insect large-conductance calcium-activated K+ (BKCa) channel currents with IC50 values of 3 to 25 nM. In addition, kappa-TRTX-Ec2a caused the inhibition of insect delayed-rectifier K+ currents, but only at significantly higher concentrations. kappa-TRTX-Ec2a ...
Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1, Potassium Calcium-Activated Channel Subfamily M Alpha 1 or Slo1/BKalpha is encoded by the gene KCNMA1. BKalpha binds to one of 4 different beta subunits to form a channel in the calcium activated large conductance (MaxiK channel) family. This potassium channel is activated by membrane depolarization or an increase in cytosolic ca2+ and mediated the export of K+. BKalpha is involved with various cell processes including contraction of smooth muscle, regulation of transmitter release, innate immunity and regulation of membrane potential. Diseases associated with KCNMA1 include forms of Epilepsy and Developmental Delay Cerebellar Atrophy and Seizures.. ...
Gene Information Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release heart rate insulin secretion neuronal excitability epithelial electrolyte transport smooth muscle contraction and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel voltage-gated subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit of a voltage-gated non-inactivating delayed rectifier potassium channel. It is activated at the onset of myoblast differentiation. The gene is highly expressed in brain and in myoblasts. Overexpression of the gene may confer a growth advantage to cancer cells and favor tumor cell proliferation. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Slowpoke Snail! Makes for great newborn photography shoots. Easy to read pattern, thoroughly tested. Picture tutorial included for help with shell. BASIC SKILLS NECESSARY slip stitch single crochet half double crochet double crochet surface slip stitch GAUGE 14 hdc x 15 rows = 4 inches ...
Notwithstanding the apparent CA tale above, the reality is that the rare problem is a tough nut to crack statistically. Suppose there is an issue in 1 in 10,000 Prius and that this issue only crops up on one in 10,000 rides on those cars. Thus, its a 1 in 100 million car rides in Prius. Even among those, it may be a very short-lived problem and not cause any injury or accident. Such a rare problem might be drowned out by other driver error problems, such as accidently hitting the gas instead of the break, perceiving that the car is accelarating when it is not, hitting both the gas and the break simultaneously in an attempt to hit the break. Each of these things can be exceedingly rare (1 in a million) and still be 100 times as common as the real problem ...
and LSU comes away with a big Sugar Bowl win. LSU defeated Notre Dame 41-14 in the Sugar Bowls return to the Superdome, and handed Notre Dame its ninth straight bowl loss which
BK channels are critical regulators of neuronal activity, controlling firing, neurotransmitter release, cerebellar function, and BK channel mutations have been linked to seizure disorders. Modulation of BK channel gating is well characterized, regulated by accessory subunit interactions, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane potential. In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. Fluorogen activating peptides (FAPs) are well-suited for trafficking and physiological studies due to the binding of malachite green (MG) based dyes with sub-nanomolar affinity to the FAP, resulting in bright, photostable, far-red fluorescence. Cell-excluded MG dyes enable the selective tagging of surface protein and tracking through endocytic pathways. We used CRISPR to insert the FAP at the extracellular N-terminus of BKα in the first exon of its native locus, enabling regulation by the native promoter elements and
CBSs post-Super Bowl airing of Elementary scored a 12 rating/24 share in metered markets Sunday, faring nowhere near as well as NBCs The Voice did in the spot after the Super Bowl last year.
Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and voltage-dependent K+ channels in rat coronary artery smooth muscle cells.: D
This gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of a voltage gated calcium channel. The encoded protein is a member of a subfamily of calcium channels referred to as is a low voltage-activated, T-type, calcium channel. The channel encoded by this protein is characterized by a slower activation and inactivation compared to other T-type calcium channels. This protein may be involved in calcium signaling in neurons. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Drosophila SLOWPOKE (SLO) is a voltage and calcium dependent, large conductance potassium channel important for action potential repolarization, neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and hormone secretion. SLO binding protein (SLOB) binds to and modulates SLO activity. We have shown previously that modulation of SLO by SLOB has profound effects on SLO channel currents, synaptic transmisison, and metabolism. Multiple isoforms of SLOB exist and are encoded by multiple transcripts; the isoforms are named based on their predicted protein molecular weights, in kilodaltons. In the Drosophila brain, SLOB57/51 proteins are expressed especially prominently in insulin producing neurons of the pars intercerebralis, while SLOB71/65 proteins are enriched in the lateral neurons that participate in the generation of circadian rhythms. Here we sought to determine the transcription initiation sites in the slob gene and investigated promoter elements responsible for expression of the different slob
Expression of KCNMB3 (KCNMB2, KCNMBL) in salivary gland tissue. Antibody staining with HPA015665 and HPA019185 in immunohistochemistry.
A number of interesting and related observations were made. First the authors show that STOC activity at depolarized potentials was enhanced in terms of amplitude, duration, and charge transfer in isolated mesenteric arterial SMCs (ASMCs) from HS rats. Frequency of Ca2+ sparks remained unchanged whereas mean amplitude was increased. In examining the relationship between current and Ca2+ spark amplitude (Figure 2C), the authors convincingly showed that Ca2+ spark-STOC coupling efficiency increased as did the Ca2+ sensitivity of BKCa at micromolar Ca2+ levels in isolated patches. This latter result is expected, given that high Ca2+ promotes a functional interaction between α- and β1-subunits.16,17 Coupled to Western blotting and immunostaining experiments showing β1 but not the α-subunit protein was elevated in HS, are all observations entirely consistent with their hypothesis. Another prediction is that the activation/deactivation kinetics of BKCa would be slowed if β1-subunit levels had a ...
Background: Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K) channels are implicated in the modulation of human uterine contractions and myometrial Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s) governing ...
There is so many tutorials out there for rope bowls. I learned how to make them from an online class by Alisa Burke. She has clever ideas about decorating rope bowls. I highly recommend her class. Once you learn the basic technique of stitching the rope to form a bowl, the possibilities to decorate it…
In 1993, Michael Jackson created the Super Bowl halftime show as we know it today. Vulture ranks every performance up to Adam Levines 2019 halftime show, from the worst to the best.
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Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization. Thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic afterhyperpolarization. The channel is blocked by apamin (By similarity).
There is ample evidence that ion channel modulation by accessory proteins within a macromolecular complex can regulate channel activity and thereby impact neuronal excitability. However, the downstream consequences of ion channel modulation remain largely undetermined. The Drosophila melanogaster large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SLOWPOKE (SLO) undergoes modulation via its binding partner SLO-binding protein (SLOB). Regulation of SLO by SLOB influences the voltage dependence of SLO activation and modulates synaptic transmission. SLO and SLOB are expressed especially prominently in median neurosecretory cells (mNSCs) in the pars intercerebralis (PI) region of the brain; these cells also express and secrete Drosophila insulin like peptides (dILPs). Previously, we found that flies lacking SLOB exhibit increased resistance to starvation, and we reasoned that SLOB may regulate aspects of insulin signaling and metabolism. Here we investigate the role of SLOB in metabolism and find that
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Size: 5.5" x 1.5". Weight: 293g. Perfect for placing directly on the body, this smaller sized bowl makes a perfect fit for many parts of the body. Very useful as a gong or bell type bowl, this bowl is also very easily sung. Using various techniques and striker tools this versatile bowl can produce multiple tones. The bottom of the bowl is hammered out smooth and thin and can be cupped rythmically to modulate the tone. This bowl is capable of massive vibrations and a premium long lasting sustain. This bowl is also useful as a passive radiator, meaning its walls will pick up the vibrations of other nearby bowls that are played, causing this strategically placed bowl to sympathetically vibrate, although with this bowl only bowls of larger diameter can really make it start to vibrate as the walls are a little thicker than some of the others in its series. In this use it becomes a very directional, on the spot vibration tool that can be used to pinpoint areas needing direct sound and or vibrational ...