In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5 Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36 Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Meningiomatosis or meningioma en plaque. T2 - A reappraisal of the terminology. AU - Chu, Nai Shin. AU - Chen, Chi J.. PY - 2002/9. Y1 - 2002/9. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036711948&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036711948&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0036711948. VL - 11. SP - 166. EP - 168. JO - Acta Neurologica Taiwanica. JF - Acta Neurologica Taiwanica. SN - 1019-6099. IS - 3. ER - ...
In the first part of this study, we evaluated the capacity of Streptomyces strains for binding OTA on their surfaces after 0, 30 and 60 min of incubation with PBS solution supplemented with OTA. In the second part, we tested the ability of these strains, as well as their supernatants, to detoxify the ISP2 medium. Finally, we studied the effect of the Streptomyces cocultured with Aspergillus carbonarius on the expression of OTA biosynthesis genes. Results showed that, among the strains co-cultured with A. carbonarius, the strain G10 was able to reduce the expression of acpks, acOTApks, acOTAnrps and vea genes, thus reducing OTA from solid PDA medium to 13.50% of reduction. This strain was remarkably able to detoxify and bind OTA up to 47.07%. Strain AT8 was stronger in detoxifying OTA (52.61%), but had no significant effect on the studied gene expression. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. ...
3-hydroxy-2,4,5-trihydroxymethylpyridine: precursor substrate for pyridoxine synthesis by Kloeckera apiculate (yeast); RN given refers to parent cpd; structure
Penicillium verrucosum, P. nordicum and Aspergillus carbonarius are three important ochratoxin A producing species. P. verrucosum is in addition able to produce citrinin. It has been shown earlier that P. nordicum is adapted to NaCl rich environments like salt rich dry cured foods or even salines. In this organism, the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A plays an adaptive role in this habitat. P. verrucosum generally can be found on cereals, but occasionally also on salt rich dry cured foods. In contrast A. carbonarius usually cannot be found in NaCl rich environments, but it occurs in another environment with high concentration of solutes, e.g., in sugar rich substrates like grapes and grape juices. Usually osmotic challenging conditions activate the HOG MAP kinase signal cascade, which in turn activates various osmo-regulated genes. In the current analysis, it could be demonstrated that in case of P. nordicum and P. verrucosum the NaCl induced production of ochratoxin A is correlated to the phosphorylation
Vineyard, winery, barrel, and controlled temperature fermentation samples from a single commercial winery (Luna Vineyards) conducting fermentations with indigenous organisms were plated onto Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar (WL) to evaluate colony diversity. Seventeen unique colony morphologies were identified. Sequence analysis of the DNA encoding a portion of the large ribosomal 26S rRNA indicated that the colony types defined members of six genera: Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia kluyveri, Candida olephelia, and Metschnikowia. Distinct colony subtypes were identified within the pulcherrimin producers traditionally classified as a single species, Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rDNA of these biotypes showed a high degree of divergence, suggesting that these organisms might define separate species. Analysis of fermentations revealed that colony type as indicated on this medium ...
This study is intended to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus carbonarius S402 using essential oils (EOs) and total phenolic compounds extracted from plants and herbs. The EOs used in this study are the following : bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, and sage. As for the phenolic compounds, they were extracted from bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, sage, anise, chamomile, fennel, rosemary, and thyme. The experiments were conducted on Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM) medium at 28 ◦C for 4 days. OTA was extracted from the medium with methanol and quantified using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Results showed that EOs had a greater impact than the total phenolic extracts on the OTA production ...
This study is one of the first to attempt to relate phenotypic mycotoxin production to key TRI cluster gene expression in relation to a matrix of interacting environmental factors for strains of mycotoxigenic fungi. The growth of both strains was shown to be optimum at 30°C and between 0.98 and 0.995 aw. However, DON production was optimum at 20-25°C over the 9 day experimental period. This is consistent with some of the previous studies relating aw × temperature effects to growth and DON production for F. culmorum and F. graminearum strains from Europe and Argentina [3,4,17]. Marin et al. [18] showed that the temperature × aw profiles for germination, growth and phenotypic fumonisin production by strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were also different. Similarly, for mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus carbonarius, ochratoxin A production differences were observed with optimum growth at 30-35°C and 0.98 aw while toxin production was optimum at 15-20°C and 0.98-0.95 aw ...
The DNA from the mycelium was extracted for PCR by the method of Lee et al (1998). Amplification was performed in total reaction volume of 25 ul, which contained IX PCR buffer (lOmM Tris-HCl, pH9.0, 50mM KC1, 1.5mM MgC12, 0.01% gelatin), 12.5 uM each of deoxynucleotide phosphate, 10 pmol of each primer, and one unit of Taq DNA Polymerase, lOng template DNA and sterile ultra filtered water. Template DNA was initially denatured at 95 °C for 5 minutes. Subsequently a total of 30 amplification cycles was carried out in a programmable thermocycler with an initial 8 cycles each with a denaturation for 30 sec at 94°C, primer annealing for 45 seconds at 70°C, extension for 75 seconds at 72°C followed by 22 cycles each with a ienaturation for 30 sec at 94°C, primer annealing for 45 seconds at 60°C, extension for 75 seconds at 72°C and final extension for 8 minutes at 72°C. PCR products were analyzed by standard procedure using agarose gel electrophoresis. Gel was stained with ethidium bromide ...