Download Video Enzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot 1080p 720p 480p MP4 FLV 3GP MP3, Download LaguEnzymes (Part 3 Of 5) - Lineweaver Burk Plot - Double Reciprocal Plot Lengkap Terbaru
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein coordination to manganese determines the high catalytic rate of dimanganese catalases. Comparison to functional catalase mimics. AU - Shank, Mary. AU - Barynin, Vladimir. AU - Dismukes, G Charles. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide dismutation by the dimanganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus has been measured and found to obey Michaelis-Menton kinetics with no evidence for substrate inhibition at concentrations up to 0.45 M H2O2. Comparison among three dimanganese catalases (Thermus thermophilus. Thermoleophilium album, and Lactobacillus plantarum) reveals that their apparent second-order rate constants, kcat/Km, differ by at most a factor of 5, even though the individual kinetic constants differ by as much as a factor of 20. This similarity suggests that all three enzymes may have the same rate-determining step. For T. thermophilus catalase we find that kcat/Km ∼ kbi, the bimolecular rate constant at limiting substrate concentrations. Thus, ...
Although the above phenomena are commonly seen in kinetic profiles, they are not always appreciated by the investigators, and several examples exist of standard Michaelis-Menten hyperbolic curves forced through the data rather than the adoption of more suitable models. In other cases the paucity of data points precludes any meaningful selection of an alternative model. What will the consequences be of ignoring the nonhyperbolic nature of a kinetic profile and fitting the Michaelis-Menten equation? The extent of error and the consequences when scaled for in vivo prediction can be considered for three situations:. 1. For substrate inhibition, the consequences are clear in Fig. 1B. Substantial underestimation of Vmax will occur by merely ignoring the high concentration data points and forcing a standard Michaelis-Menten model through the remaining lower substrate concentration data. Also, Km would be poorly estimated. Thus there is a need for full description of the profile to allow for the impact ...
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Due to their long lifetime, triplet, redox and other transient states of fluorophores are highly sensitive to the micro-environment. Imaging their spatial distribution in biological samples can therefore help answer interesting questions about the metabolism, molecular interactions and dynamics in living cells. However, as these states are at best weakly luminescent, they have up to now only been used to a limited extent in life sciences. In Transient State (TRAST) imaging, the characteristic build up of transient states is instead monitored via fluorescence, as the excitation is modulated. When the illumination pulse width is step-wise increased, transient states are progressively populated. The resulting depletion of the singlet excited state can be monitored via time-averaged fluorescence. This fluorescence decay is characteristic for the transient state kinetics of the fluorophore in a given environment. Traditional fluorescence parameters can only be influenced within the lifetime of the ...
Ligand uptake and release by the haemoglobin contained within adult mouse erythrocytes was studied by using dual-wavelength stopped-flow techniques. The rate of O2 uptake is very much lower than that expected for an equivalent concentration of haemoglobin in free solution. The O2-concentration-dependence found in uptake experiments is greater than first-order. CO uptake shows the same pattern of reactivity as does O2, but the associated rates of uptake are lower and the concentration-dependence of the CO rates is first-order. O2 release from the adult erythrocytes was measured by stopped-flow mixing with Na2S2O4. Under these circumstances the deoxygenation of intracellular haemoglobin shows accelerating time courses. The apparent rate-constant-dependence on dithionite concentration shows a rate limit at high reductant concentrations. Computer simulations of both ligand uptake and release processes were carried out by using a three-dimensional model. The simulations clearly indicate that in ...
Synonyms for Ping Pong Bone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Ping Pong Bone. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for Ping Pong Bone?
A reaction mixture at equilibrium at 175 K contains P(H2)=0.958 atm, P(I2)=0.877 atm, and P(HI)=0.020 atm. A second reaction mixture, also at 175 K, contains P(H2)=P(I2)=0.616 atm, and P(HI)=0.106 atm. What will the partial pressure of HI be when the reaction reaches equilibrium at 175 K? ...
where first term is the rate of dissapearance of substrate S and second term is the rate of appearance of product P (both S and P are in concentration).. Behavior of Initial Rates. The initial rate (Vo) is determined by extrapolating the slope of the time course of the substrate or product concentration to time zero (Fig. 3.5). The dependence of Vo on the substrate concentration, S (at constant enzyme concentration), is shown in Fig. 3.6. It reflects the typical substrate saturation. At first, Vo increases proportionally to the amount of substrate. Upon further enhancement of substrate concentration Vo levels off. The curve asymptotically approaches a maximum value, Vmax. When this plateau is reached, a change of S does not lead to a measurable change of Vo: the enzyme is saturated by substrate and has thus reached the limit of its efficiency.. Micahaelis-Menten Kinetics. These kinetics result from the fast and reversible formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, ES, which dissociates in a ...
If the kinetic data for an inhibitor do not match any of the above patterns, the inhibitor may act in a mode referred to as mixed inhibition. In this scenario, the inhibitor can bind to both E and ES, but with different affinities. In this case, there are two Kis (one for the dissociation of EI and one for the dissociation of ESI) that are related to each other by a variable, α. In cases of mixed inhibition, the Km is usually increased and the Vmax is usually decreased in comparison to the values for the uninhibited reaction. A typical Lineweaver-Burk plot for mixed inhibition is shown on the right below. It is not possible to calculate a Ki value for this type of inhibition with the data gathered in this lab. If you think your data suggest a mixed inhibition mechanism, you should determine with which of the other modes of inhibition they are most consistent and use that formula to calculate a Ki value. Notice that, when the variable α is very large, the mechanism of inhibition approaches ...
A continuous-flow apparatus is described for automatically plotting substrate saturation curves, and is suitable for use with a variety of enzymes. A linear concentration gradient of the variable substrate is combined with a fixed proportion of the other substrates and the enzyme, and after passing through a reaction coil the product concentrations are measured spectrophotometrically. Use of a 4cm. flow cell and modified spectrophotometer permits accurate measurement of NADH concentration in the region of 0·1μm. Precise control over reaction times and substrate concentration is achieved by using power-driven syringes with an integral mixer. Specimen results are given for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.. ...
1FKG: DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH-AFFINITY FKBP LIGANDS, AND THE X-RAY CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF THEIR COMPLEXES WITH FKBP12
Applications of accelerated molecular dynamics in materials science: Insights into kinetic processes in complex materials by Blas Uberuaga Los Alamos National Laboratory Materials Science and Technology Division
Subjects were randomised to one of three possible dose levels (low, middle or high) and to one of two treatment sequences. A treatment sequence consisted of 2 periods of each 13 days. One dose once daily. The trial products were administered subcutaneously (under the skin ...
Plzz DERIVE the integrated rate law in detail for Pseudo first order and second order reactions!! ASAP!! - Chemistry - Chemical Kinetics
When suspensions involving rigid rods become too concentrated, standard dilute theories fail to describe their behavior. Rich microstructures involving complex clusters are observed, and no model allows describing its kinematics and rheological effects. In previous works the authors propose a first attempt to describe such clusters from a micromechanical model, but neither its validity nor the rheological effects were addressed. Later, authors applied this model for fitting the rheological measurements in concentrated suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by assuming a rheo-thinning behavior at the constitutive law level. However, three major issues were never addressed until now: (i) the validation of the micromechanical model by direct numerical simulation; (ii) the establishment of a general enough multi-scale kinetic theory description, taking into account interaction, diffusion and elastic effects; and (iii) proposing a numerical technique able to solve the kinetic theory description. This paper
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Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of processive DNA replication including complete characterization of an exonuclease-deficient mutant., Polymerase: T7
The biological sciences have a uniquely intertwined yet strangely dysfunctional relationship with the bioinformatics and visualization sciences. Bio/Life Sciences researchers and practitioners regularly rely on visualization techniques for solving a large range of problems, including use of charts, graphs and interactive displays. They frequently prefer these visualization techniques to analytical techniques, methods of a computational and/or statistical nature, even when the analytical techniques produce more accurate results. For example every biochemistry student knows how to calculate rate constants for Michaelis-Menten [1] enzyme kinetics based on extracting the slope and intercept from a hand fitted double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot [2]. Despite years of understanding that the double reciprocal plot distorts errors, making accurate hand fitting of the data almost impossible [3], this and other problematic graphical linearizations are still in use. At the same time, most students would ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms and kinetics models for hydrocarbon pyrolysis. AU - Savage, Phillip E.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Kinetics models based on the governing mechanism for a multi-step chemical reaction provide insight into the underlying chemistry and they can be extrapolated more confidently than can empirical kinetics models. The field of thermal hydrocarbon chemistry is sufficiently mature that the types of free-radical reactions that are important have been reasonably well elucidated. Moreover, rate constants for many elementary reactions have been measured experimentally, and rate constants for other reactions can be estimated from thermochemical kinetics considerations. These circumstances facilitate the development of quantitative mechanism-based mathematical models for hydrocarbon pyrolysis. This paper provides an overview of the current approaches for mechanistic modeling of hydrocarbon pyrolysis. The steps involved in developing both analytical and numerical models are ...
Kinetic Features of PCDD Adsorption in Carbon Beds, Vincenzo Piemonte, Mauro Capocelli, Marina Prisciandaro, In this paper, starting from the knowledge of thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of toxic dioxins is studied in the conditions typically en
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracting kinetic information from human motor cortical signals. AU - Flint, Robert D.. AU - Wang, Po T.. AU - Wright, Zachary A.. AU - King, Christine E.. AU - Krucoff, Max O.. AU - Schuele, Stephan U.. AU - Rosenow, Joshua M.. AU - Hsu, Frank P.K.. AU - Liu, Charles Y.. AU - Lin, Jack J.. AU - Sazgar, Mona. AU - Millett, David E.. AU - Shaw, Susan J.. AU - Nenadic, Zoran. AU - Do, An H.. AU - Slutzky, Marc W.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Eric Lindberg, Carolina Carmona, Jun Yao, and Michael Scheid for their assistance in collecting data, and Jules Dewald for providing the force transducer. We also thank Micheal Macken and Elizabeth Gerard for assisting subject recruitment at Northwestern. Finally, we greatly appreciate the assistance of our technicians and of course our subjects for participating in this study. This study was supported by the Brain Research Foundation ( BRF SG 2009-14 ), the Northwestern Memorial Foundation Dixon Translational Research Grant Program ...
MCLAUGHLIN, K., BERTOLUCCI, C., PIERSON, S., LATHAM, D. (1990). Fundamental Chemical Kinetics Study of Cayalytic Polymerizations: Influence of Reaction Mechanism on Product Distribution for Ziegler-Natta Catalysis. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 200, 228-POLY ...
A possible physiological role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism ofbrown-fat mitochondria in the mediation of alpha 1-adrenergic signals. ...
Start to kinetics experiment from the second window and type multi_zgvd to start acquisition. This command will start the acquisition and ask you for a) the number of spectra, b)?? and c)??. Each of your spectra will be recorded in a diffent window using consecutive filenames. Keep in mind that you can accumulate huge amounts of data in this type of experiment ...
BGs often show a complex kinetics, including inhibitory effects of substrate and activating effects of inhibitors. The substrate inhibition caused by the competing hydrolysis and transglycosylation to substrate reactions is well recognized [8-10]. This type of substrate inhibition is easily detected because of the breakdown of Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Another inhibitory effect of substrate can be seen in nonproductive binding, which competes with the productive binding of substrate. Since, in this case, the Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics holds, the effects of nonproductive binding are often overlooked. A kinetic peculiarity of many BGs is the activation of enzyme by inhibitor at low-to-moderate concentrations followed by inhibition at high concentrations. The most common explanation to this phenomenon is the transglycosylation to inhibitor, and, indeed, in many cases, the transglycosylation products are observed in reactions containing inhibitor [19, 26]. However, the ...
Looking for bimolecular reaction? Find out information about bimolecular reaction. A chemical transformation or change involving two molecules Explanation of bimolecular reaction
Can carry out several experiments and measure the initial rate, keeping the concentration of one of the reactants constant.. Or can carry out the experiment with an excess amount of the reactant so that over the course of the experiment, its concentration does not change significantly.. The progress curve method. Shows how the concentration of a reactant/product changes as the reaction proceeds.. Draw tangents to the curve at particular concentrations , gradient gives rate of reaction for that concentration , then find the order with the initial rates method.. Initial rates method: draw tangents at the origin of different progress curves , then draw graph of intial rates against concentration.. , Straight line = first order reaction. , If graph of intial rate against (concentration)² is a straight line = second order reaction. , If rate does not change with changing concentration = zero order reaction. ...
Konermann, L. ; Douglas, D. J. Pre-Steady-State Kinetics Of Enzymatic Reactions Studied By Electrospray Mass Spectrometry With On-Line Rapid-Mixing Techniques. In Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Pt F: Detection and Characterization of Enzyme Reaction Intermediates; Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism, Pt F: Detection and Characterization of Enzyme Reaction Intermediates; Academic Press Inc: San Diego, 2002; Vol. 354, pp. 50-64. ...
We discuss a quantitative influence of macromolecular crowding on biological processes: motion, bimolecular reactions, and gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We present scaling laws relating diffusion coefficient of an object moving in a cytoplasm of cells to a size of this object and degree of crowding. Such description leads to the notion of the length scale dependent viscosity characteristic for all living cells. We present an application of the length-scale dependent viscosity model to the description of motion in the cytoplasm of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic living cells. We compare the model with all recent data on diffusion of nanoscopic objects in HeLa, and E. coli cells. Additionally a description of the mobility of molecules in cell nucleus is presented. Finally we discuss the influence of crowding on the bimolecular association rates and gene expression in living cells.
The minimum energy required to carry out the reaction is called the energy of activation, Ea. If a reaction requires higher activation energy, the rate of reaction is lowered. The presence of a catalyst lowers the activation energy and increases the rate of reaction. In biological systems, enzymes act as catalysts. Arrhenius equation. 3RT2T1 k2 Ea = ________ log ___ T2 - T1 k1 where k2 and k1 are the specific reaction rate constants at two different temperatures, T2 and T1, respectively. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is frequently expressed in terms of a temperature coefficient, Q10, which is the factor by which the rate of reaction increases when the temperature is raised by 10°C. 6 BIOCHEMICAL KINETICS The concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex influences the velocity of enzymatic reactions. The relationship between the velocity of a reaction and the concentration of substrates is described by the Michaelis-Menton equation: Vm[S] v = _________ Km + [S] where v is ...
The advantages of the induced fit mechanism arise due to the stabilising effect of strong enzyme binding. There are two different mechanisms of substrate binding; uniform binding which has strong substrate binding, and differential binding which has strong transition state binding. The stabilizing effect of uniform binding increases both substrate and transition state binding affinity and differential binding increases only transition state binding affinity. Both are used by enzymes and have been evolutionarily chosen to minimize the ΔG of the reaction. Enzymes which are saturated, ie. have a high affinity substrate binding, require differential binding to reduce the ΔG, whereas largely substrate unbound enzymes may use either differential or uniform binding. These effects have lead to most proteins using the differential binding mechanism to reduce the ΔG, so most proteins have high affinity of the enzyme to the transition state. Differential binding is carried out by the induced fit ...
By taking the EC solution as a reference, we evaluated MM and ECA kinetics for their abilities to represent several differently configured enzyme-substrate reaction networks. In applying the ECA and MM kinetics to microbial models of different complexities, we found (i) both the ECA and MM kinetics accurately reproduced the EC solution when multiple microbes are competing for a single substrate; (ii) ECA outperformed MM kinetics in reproducing the EC solution when a single microbe is feeding on multiple substrates; (iii) the MM kinetics failed, while the ECA kinetics succeeded, in reproducing the EC solution when multiple consumers (i.e., microbes and mineral surfaces) were competing for multiple substrates. We then applied the EC and ECA kinetics to a guild based C-only microbial litter decomposition model and found that both approaches successfully simulated the commonly observed (i) two-phase temporal evolution of the decomposition dynamics; (ii) final asymptotic convergence of the ...
Bistability (coexistence of two stable steady states in a dynamical system) is a key mechanism of cellular decision-making and has been observed in many biochemical reaction networks such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Theoretical studies have shown that bistability can arise in a single two-site MAPK phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycle. However, the bistable behavior mostly relies on the kinetic mechanisms and parameters of this two-site modification. In exploring the system-level properties of MAPK regulation, most models to date focus on two limiting reaction regimes, distributive and processive, and are characterized by high levels of parametric uncertainty. Here, we developed a combined kinetic method which applies a continuous spectrophotometric enzyme-coupled assay incorporated with the viscosity approach, to perform detailed kinetic analyses of p38α MAPK dual phosphorylation by MKK6. Almost all kinetic rate constants for the first and second ...
View Notes - prexam2 from PHY 206 at University of Miami. case. b) The partition is removed and the gases mix and reach equilibrium. Taking the molar heat capacity of the gas to be C (i.e. with units
Sequence requirements of the ATP-binding site within the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of mouse P-glycoprotein were investigated by using two recombinantly expressed soluble proteins of different lengths and photoactive ATP analogues, 8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (8N(3)-ATP) and 2,3,4-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-8-azidoadenosine triphosphate (TNP-8N(3)-ATP). The two proteins, Thr(1044)-Thr(1224) (NBD2(short)) and Lys(1025)-Ser(1276) (NBD2(long)), both incorporated the four consensus sequences of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters, Walker A and B motifs, the Q-loop, and the ABC signature, while differing in N-terminal and C-terminal extensions. Radioactive photolabeling of both proteins was characterized by hyperbolic dependence on nucleotide concentration and high-affinity binding with K(0.5)(8N(3)-ATP) = 36-37 microM and K(0.5)(TNP-8N(3)-ATP) = 0.8-2.6 microM and was maximal at acidic pH. Photolabeling was strongly inhibited by TNP-ATP (K(D) = 0.1-5 microM) and ATP (K(D) = 0.5-2.7
Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. ...
Biology Assignment Help, Reaction - processes in succession, Reaction - Processes in Succession This is the most important stage in succession. The mechanism of modification of environment, through the influence of living organisms on it is known as reaction. As a result of reaction, changes take place in
Inhibitory Properties of YM-244769. We first compared the inhibitory effects of YM-244769 on Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake (i.e., reverse mode) into CCL39 cells with a stable transfection of NCX1, NCX2, or NCX3. YM-244769 (0.003-1 μM) inhibited dose dependently the initial rates of 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 transfectants with IC50 values of 68 ± 2.9, 96 ± 3.5, and 18 ± 1.0 nM (n = 4), respectively (Fig. 2), indicating that YM-244769 is approximately four to five times more selective to NCX3 than other isoforms. In NCX3 transfectants, YM-244769 was more than 80 times more inhibitory than KB-R7943 [IC50 = 1.5 μM, as reported previously (Iwamoto and Shigekawa, 1998)]. To check whether YM-244769 competes with Ca2+o for the exchanger, the rate of Nai+-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into NCX1 transfectants was measured under standard conditions as a function of Ca2+o concentration (0.06-2 mM) in the presence or absence of 0.05 μM YM-244769. Their double reciprocal plots of uptake rate ...
Pre-steady state kinetics involve measuring of the formation of the enzyme/substrate complex. A stopped flow accessory can be added to the majority of these instruments. Other accessories include the TLC 50, Four cell Peltier turrets, and the Automated Enzyme Assay Device. The Olis CLARiTY chamber offers an exciting new possibility of measuring enzyme kinetics in highly scattering environments such as those in whole cell or mitochondria suspensions.. ...
The energy of motion is related to kinetics, which determines how fast the reaction will reach equilibrium, related to thermodynamics. The energy of motion (kinetics) added to a reaction causes the reaction to happen faster, using energy of heat as a way by which to accelerate the reaction
Inducing gene expression from an all-or-none promoter at subsaturating inducer concentrations results in a heterogeneous population of cells in which some are fully induced and others are induced very little, if at all. What is often confusing about this phenomenon in practice is that a population of cells will typically respond in a linear manner to increased concentration of inducer. What is really happening, though, is that more cells in the population are being turned on as inducer concentration is increased, but there are still some cells in the population that are not induced at all. The on phenotype is a result of inducer importers being turned on when a cell is exposed to the inducer, resulting in increased uptake of the inducer. At subsaturating inducer concentrations, there is not enough inducer to go around for all of the cells, so those that get their importer turned on first get all of the the inducer ...
Question:A second-order reaction 2A → B is taking place in a gas phase. The initial pressure in the system is P0 (compound B is absent). Find the overall pressure as a function of time. After what time the total pressure will decrease 1.5 times with respect to the initial pressure? What is a degree of completion of the
Many inhibitors affect enzyme activity • Competitive inhibition - inhibitor competes for the active sites on enzyme with the substrate • Non-competitive inhibition - inhibitor binds to an allosteric site and alters the active site configuration of the enzyme • Feedback inhibition - enzyme activity is inhibited by the end product (A enzyme-1 B enzyme-2 C enzyme-3 D) - here enzyme-1 may be inhibited by product D • Feedback inhibition regulates ATP, amino acid, numcleotide and vitamin synthesis Mechanism of enzyme action • Substrate specifically binds to the active site on the surface of the enzyme and as a consequence enzyme-substrate complex is formed - can result in change of structure of the enzyme • Substrate is transformed into product by - Rearrangement of existing atoms - Breakdown of substrate molecules - Combining with other substrate molecules • Resultant products do not fit the active site and thus are released and the enzyme site becomes free for ...
You Are Here: Kinetics study of the Ru/C-catalysed hydrogenolysis of polyols - insight into the interactions with the metal surface. ...
1 Answer to state whether the following reactions are spontaneous or non spontaneous at low temperature , high temperature or all temperature a) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)----PCl5(g) ?H=-87.9 KJ b) CO2(g)+H2(g)---CO(g) +H2O(l) ?H=+41.2 KJ c)NH4CO2NH2(s) ----2NH3(g)+CO2(g) ?H=+159.2 KJ
In my opinion, [tex]\frac{d[ES]}{dt}[/tex] means the rate of change of the concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex with time. Thats it. Not the formation, but actually any factor that contributes to the change in ES concentration should be considered in this equation. I dont understand the negative derivative; to me, it says simply the negative of the change in ES concentration. It doesnt even seem to be possible to argue that the textbook is saying that the rate of breakdown is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the rate of formation, because, although this is true under steady state conditions, the notation ITSELF doesnt make sense, AND the notation is supposed to extend beyond these conditions (hence why it is used to say that WHEN d[ES]/dt = -d[ES]/dt, then steady state is achieved; which, as I say, doesnt even seem to make sense ...
0.5 values for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate menadione and NADPH were determined to be 132 ΜM, 2.45 ΜM and 16 ΜM. The parallel set of lines in the Lineweaver-Burk plot, when either NADPH or menadione was varied at different fixed concentrations of the other substrate; non-competitive inhibition, when NADPH was varied at different fixed concentrations of NADP; competitive inhibition, when menadione was varied at different fixed concentrations of NADP and the absence of inhibition by NADP at saturating concentration of menadione, clearly established that the kinetic mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme was ping-pong.. ...
Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier to study the inhibition of the sodium permeability by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Equilibrium results could be excellently fitted on the assumption that a sodium channel is blocked when one toxin molecule binds to it, the equilibrium dissociation constant, KT of this reaction being 3.6 nM at 20 °G. Onset and offset of block could be quantitatively interpreted to be determined by the rates of the TTX-channel reaction whose average constants, at room temperature, were 3 x 106 m-1 s-1 for the association (k1) and 1.4 x 10-2 s-1for the dissociation (k2). The dependence of the constants on temperature could be described by Arrhenius plots yielding activation energies of 29.3, 85.5 and 41.0 (57.3) kJ/mol for KT, k2 and k1 (k1 derived from onset alone), respectively. At low pH the relative TTX effect was clearly less than at neutral pH. These results could be explained by a model involving the competition of TTX and protons for the samereceptor ...
Looking for online definition of ping pong infection in the Medical Dictionary? ping pong infection explanation free. What is ping pong infection? Meaning of ping pong infection medical term. What does ping pong infection mean?
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Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1bj9: Effect Of Unnatural Heme Substitution on Kinetics of Electron Transfer in Cytochrome C Peroxidase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of stress in the active site of myosin accompanied by conformational changes in transient state intermediate complexes using photoaffinity labeling and 19F-NMR spectroscopy. AU - Maruta, Shinsaku. AU - Henry, Gillian D.. AU - Ohki, Takashi. AU - Kambara, Taketoshi. AU - Sykes, Brian D.. AU - Ikebe, Mitsuo. PY - 1998/3/15. Y1 - 1998/3/15. N2 - Myosin forms stable ternary complexes with ADP and the phosphate analogues, fluoroaluminate (Al F4/-), fluoroberyllate (BeF(n)) or orthovanadate (Vi); these ternary complexes mimic transient intermediates in the myosin ATPase cycle. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that these complexes may mimic different myosin ATPase reaction intermediates corresponding to separate steps in the cross-bridge cycle [Maruta, S., Henry, G. D., Sykes, B. D. and Ikebe, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 7093-7100]. Park et al. suggested that the changing conformation of ATP during hydrolysis stresses the active site of myosin subfragment-1 (S-1) through ...
Ping pong, also called table tennis, is a sport similar to tennis, usually played indoors on a table divided into two sides by a net, making use of small wooden rackets and a miniature ball. Ping pong originated in England in the late 19th century. Certain circles of the upper class were familiar with the traditional game of lawn tennis and sought to play the game on a smaller scale indoors. They entirely improvised their equipment: stacks of books acted as nets and cigar box lids sufficed as paddles. Balls were made of string, rubber, or sometimes cork. Game manufacturers quickly stepped in to market and sell equipment for the game and thus standardized it. The name for the game, ping pong, came from the sound that early paddles made when striking the ball; other popular names included whiff whaff and gossima By the early 20th century, the game was enjoyed in both Europe and the United States and is now a popular sport on an international level. The equipment in ping pong consists of small ...
Contents: Chemical Kinetics in a Reentry Flow Field The Role of Chemical Kinetics The Principles of Chemical Kinetics Relaxation Processes The Chemical System of the Flow Field Reaction Rate Constants Dissociation Reactions Rearrangement Reactions Associative Ionization Collisional Ionization Charge Exchange Reactions Attachment Other Ion reactions Calculations Impurities and Other Chemical Systems The General Effect of Impurities Sodium Planetary Entry Table of Suggested Rate Constants(*REACTION KINETICS
Introduction: Kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic activity of the lower limb have been shown to be influenced by various footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations (e.g. soles. Insoles, orthoses). A novel biomechanical device comprising four modular elements attached onto foot-worn platforms was recently developed. Each element can be individually calibrated (Position, convexity, height and resilience) to induce a specific biomechanical challenge.. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of specific biomechanical challenges on Kinetics, kinematics and electromyographic activity of the lower limb.. Design: Prospective, case control Setting: Motion analyses will be conducted during level walking with (1) a three-dimensional motion analysis system and (2) ground reaction force analysis using force platforms (3) Electro-Myography system. Each subject will be examined in 16 different settings of the biomechanical system ...
Incubation of encapsulated cells of Cryptococcus neoformans in normal human serum leads to activation of the alternative complement pathway and deposition of opsonic fragments of C3 into the capsule. We determined whether the variation in capsular structure that occurs among the four major cryptococcal serotypes was reflected in the kinetics for activation and binding of C3. We also examined the effects on activation kinetics of de-O-acetylation or periodate oxidation of the capsule. Binding kinetics were characterized in terms of the time required to deposit 5% of the maximal amount of C3 on the yeast (t5%), the first-order rate constant for amplification of C3 deposition (k), and the maximum amount of C3 that could be deposited in the capsule (C3max). Our results showed that variations in the capsular structure that characterized each serotype had no significant influence on C3max but that the rate of C3 deposition depended significantly on the serotype. C3 accumulated at a higher rate on ...
The need to find kinetic rate constants for selected aluminas was generated from the alumina column test-results at Rocky Mountain Arsenal. The problem that had not been addressed was finding a means of calculating the initial fluoride removal by aluminas before the linear portion of the fluoride removal versus gallonage curve had been reached. It is important especially with alumina adsorption columns to define the above mentioned region. The reason is improper switching of alumina adsorption columns could result in a loss in efficiency. Information about the region--before linear fluoride removal was reached would reduce the loss inefficiency, accordingly, test runs were scheduled. Since it was not known which of the available aluminas would be used in the final design configuration, six aluminas were chosen for a pseudo-kinetic rate constant test runs. The--rate adsorption constants and rate expressions derived would allow the prelinear region to be approximated closely. The proper switching of
Ai Woon Yee, Martine Moulin, Nina Breteau, Michael Haertlein, Edward P Mitchell, et al.. Impact of Deuteration on the Assembly Kinetics of Transthyretin Monitored by Native Mass Spectrometry and Implications for Amyloidoses.. Angewandte Chemie (English Edition), John Wiley & Sons, 2016, 〈10.1002/anie.201602747〉. 〈hal-01341145〉 ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Kinetic evaluation of novel inhibitors of channel activating proteases: Implications for cystic fibrosis lung disease. AU - Douglas, Lisa. AU - Ferguson, Timothy. AU - Reihill, James. AU - Martin, Lorraine. PY - 2016/9/14. Y1 - 2016/9/14. M3 - Paper. T2 - 2nd International Symposium: Protease World in Health & Disease. Y2 - 14 September 2016 through 17 September 2016. ER - ...
Selenium (mainly in the forms of selenite (Se(IV)) and selenate (Se(VI)) is a regulated drinking water contaminant, but there is little information on the kinetics and mechanisms of Se(IV) oxidation during water treatment. Species-specific and apparent second-order rate constants for the oxidation of Se(IV) at pH 7.0 were determined in buffered solutions and they decrease in the order bromine (5.8 ± 0.3 × 103 M−1 s−1) , ozone (O3, 513.4 ± 10.0 M−1 s−1) , chlorine (61.0 ± 3.6 M−1 s−1) , permanganate (2.1 ± 0.1 M−1 s−1), monochloramine (NH2Cl, (1.3 ± 0.1) × 10−3 M−1 s−1), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, (2.3 ± 0.1) × 10−5 M−1 s−1). The reaction stoichiometries for the reactions of Se(IV) with bromine, O3, chlorine, NH2Cl, and H2O2 are 1:1. For Mn(VII), the stoichiometries varied with pH and were 5:2, 3:2, and 1:2 for acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions, respectively. Based on the reaction orders and stoichiometries, the corresponding Se(IV) oxidation ...
Introduction. THE DETERMINATION OF A RATE EQUATION Rate equation has the form rate = k [A]x[B]y which shows how the rate of a chemical reaction depends on the concentration of the reactants (A&B) and the rate constant k. The rate equation normally indicates what species are involved in the rate-determining step and how many species are involved. A rate equation is used to describe how the concentration of a product increases or the concentration of the reactants decreases with time, the equation also indicates how the concentration of one or more reactants directly affects the rate. Occasionally it can even be the concentration of a product that affects the rate. In general the rate equation for the reaction: A + B C + D Is found by experiment to follow simple kinetics with the rate equation being written as: Rate = k [A]x[B]y k = rate constant, x = order with respect to [A], y = order with respect with [B]. There are three orders of reactions, zero order, first order and second order. Zero ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of HPLC-ICP-MS to speciation of cisplatin and its degradation products in water containing different chloride concentrations and in human urine. AU - Hann, S.. AU - Koellensperger, G.. AU - Stefánka, Zs. AU - Stingeder, G.. AU - Fürhacker, M.. AU - Buchberger, W.. AU - Mader, R. M.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Cisplatin, mono- and diaquacisplatin were measured in aquatic samples and in diluted urine of a cancer patient by HPLC-ICP-MS. On-line IDMS was applied for accurate, species unspecific quantification. Limits of detection of 0.74, 0.69 and 0.65 μg L-1 (3 s criterion) were calculated for cisplatin, monoaqua- and diaquacisplatin, respectively. Degradation kinetics of 6 × 10-6 M cisplatin were determined over a period of 48 h in solutions containing 100, 50 and 0 mg L-1 chloride, showing the suitability of the HPLC-ICP-MS method for kinetic model studies. The first order rate constants k1 of cisplatin aquation for the three chloride concentrations were ...
A model for methadone N-demethylation by CYP2C19 was required to explain stereoselective metabolism, nonstereoselective enantiomeric interaction, and substrate inhibition, which occurred with lower concentrations of racemic methadone than with single enantiomers. The model best describing the data suggested that formation of homogenous ternary complexes (RER and SES) is less favorable than that of heterogenous (RES and SER) complexes. Substrate inhibition usually occurs when substrates have access to both the inhibitory and catalytic sites and when the substrate concentration exceeds the Ki (Lin et al., 2001). Substrate inhibition has been previously reported for CYP2C19 and meperidine and other drugs (Ramirez et al., 2004). This appears to be the first report of CYP2C19 substrate inhibition by methadone. Previously, methadone metabolism by CYP2C19 did not evaluate concentrations high enough to observe substrate inhibition and was analyzed by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Gerber et al., ...
The studies presented in this paper are performed in the general framework of future 3D kinetics capabilities of the ZEPHYR (Zero power Experimental PHYsics Reactor) ZPR currently being designed at the CEAs Cadarache Centre. Transient calculations with accurate neutron kinetics models are required to characterize spatial decoupling in the cores that are expected to be built for reactor physics purposes. An innovative fission matrix interpolation model has been implemented with a correlated sampling technique associated to the Transient Fission Matrix (TFM) approach and applied to the ZEPHYR reference fast/thermal coupled configuration. These studies are performed in the general framework of transient coupled calculations with accurate neutron kinetics models. Depending on the targeted accuracy, feedback can be limited to the reactivity for point kinetics (PK), or can take into account the redistribution of the power in the core for spatial kinetics (SK). The local correlated sampling technique for
You can now access full text articles from research journals published by CSIR-NISCAIR! Full text facility is provided for all nineteen research journals viz. ALIS, AIR, BVAAP, IJBB, IJBT, IJCA, IJCB, IJCT, IJEB, IJEMS, IJFTR, IJMS, IJNPR, IJPAP, IJRSP, IJTK, JIPR, JSIR & JST. NOPR also hosts three Popular Science Magazines viz. Science Reporter (SR), Vigyan Pragati (VP) & Science Ki Duniya (SKD) and a Natural Products Repository (NPARR ...
The Michaelis-Menten equation has been used to predict the rate of product formation in enzymatic reactions for more than a century. Specifically, it states that the rate of an enzymatic reaction will increase as substrate concentration increases, and that increased unbinding of enzyme-substrate complexes will decrease the reaction rate. While the first prediction is well established, the second is more elusive. Mathematical analysis of the effect of enzyme-substrate unbinding on enzymatic reactions at the single-molecule level has shown that unbinding of an enzyme from a substrate can reduce the rate of product formation under some conditions, but may also have the opposite effect. As substrate concentrations increase, a tipping point can be reached where an increase in the unbinding rate results in an increase, rather than a decrease, of the reaction rate. The results indicate that enzymatic reactions can behave in ways that violate the classical Michaelis-Menten equation, and that the role of ...
en] A new microcalorimetric method for recording the kinetic parameters k(cat)/K-m and K-i of alpha-amylases using polysaccharides and oligosaccharides as substrates is described. This method is based on the heat released by glycosidic bond hydrolysis. The method has been developed to study the active site properties of the cold-active alpha-amylase produced by an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium in comparison with its closest structural homolog from pig pancreas. It is shown that the psychrophilic a-amylase is more active on large macromolecular substrates and that the higher rate constants k(cat) are gained at the expense of a lower affinity for the substrate. The active site is able to accommodate larger inhibitory complexes, resulting in a mixed-type inhibition of starch hydrolysis by maltose. A method for recording the binding enthalpies by isothermal titration calorimetry in a low-affinity system has been developed, allowing analysis of the energetics of weak ligand binding using the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Kinetics on Electrodeposited Pt-M (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) Cathodes for Ammonia Electrolysis. AU - Palaniappan, Ramasamy. AU - Botte, Gerardine. AU - Ingram, David Christopher. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. M3 - Article. SP - E12-E22. JO - Default journal. JF - Default journal. SN - 0013-4651. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood and Urinary 18F Pharmaco kinetics Following Parenteral Administration in the Rat. AU - Whitford, Gary M.. AU - Patten, Jimmy R.. AU - Reynolds, Keith E.. AU - Pashley, David H.. PY - 1977/7. Y1 - 1977/7. N2 - Blood and urinary excretion time courses of 18F administered parenterally to rats were monitored for two hours. The intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes gave kinetically indistinguishable results after ten minutes following the dose. The blood time course during the first hour following intramuscular dosing showed a relative constancy and suggested a delayed absorption time.. AB - Blood and urinary excretion time courses of 18F administered parenterally to rats were monitored for two hours. The intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes gave kinetically indistinguishable results after ten minutes following the dose. The blood time course during the first hour following intramuscular dosing showed a relative constancy and suggested a delayed ...
Transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid and 2-deoxy-d-glucose in African green monkey kidney cells was measured 8 to 100 hr following permissive simian virus 40 infection. No differences in transport were detected during the time-period studies, and no significant differences were seen between the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of normal and virally infected cells. The absence of transport enhancement in permissive simian virus 40 infection suggests that the augmented transport of viral-transformed cell lines devolves upon altered host genome function.. ...
Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human ...
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Figure 1. Kinetic analysis of ribozyme Rz397. A: Hammerhead ribozyme 397 was designed to cleave following residue 397 in dog rhodopsin mRNA and in the analogous position (333) in mouse rhodopsin mRNA. B: Using an oligonucleotide substrate in tenfold excess of ribozyme, Rz397 reached a cleavage plateau at approximately 10 min in 5 mM MgCl2. The data points are from duplicate determinations that varied by less than 10%. C: Using 10 nM ribozyme, kobs was measured as a function of substrate concentration (from 0.1 to 15 μM). The data points are the average of duplicate determinations that varied by less than 10%. The Vmax was determined to be 19.5 nM/min and the KM was 910 nM using a double reciprocal plot of these data (not shown).. ...
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Xiang Wang, Hui Shi and János Szanyi, Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. Abstract - Understanding the critical steps involved in the heterogeneous catalytic CO2 reduction has attracted a lot of attention recently. In order to fully understand the mechanism of this reaction the determination of both the rate-determining steps and reaction intermediates are vital. Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis (SSITKA) is one of the most powerful techniques used to investigate the elementary steps under steady-state reaction conditions. This technique provides valuable information on mean resident lifetime of surface intermediates, surface concentrations of adsorbed reactant species and an upper bound of the turnover frequency. Coupling SSITKA with operando-FTIR spectroscopy allows us to discriminate between active and spectator species present on the catalytic surface under steady state reaction conditions. In the present work operando ...
Protein reaction kinetics in aqueous solution at room temperature are often simplified by the thermal averaging of conformational substates. These substates exhibit widely varying reaction rates that are usually exposed by trapping in a glass at low temperature. Here, it is shown that the solvent viscosity, rather than the low temperature, is primarily responsible for the trapping. This was demonstrated by placement of myoglobin in a glass at room temperature and subsequent observation of inhomogeneous reaction kinetics. The high solvent viscosity slowed the rate of crossing the energy barriers that separated the substates and also suppressed any change in the average protein conformation after ligand dissociation.. ...
Professor Guos research is concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of partial differential equations arising in various scientific applications. More specifically, he has been working on PDE arising in the kinetic theory of statistical physics, especially in connection with the nonlinear stability of their steady states. Kinetic theory is concerned with the study of the dynamics of a large ensemble of particles. Interestingly, such abstract particles can be tiny gas molecules, or enormous stars in a galaxy. The most fundamental equation in the kinetic theory for describing gas molecules is the celebrated Boltzmann equation. Many fundamental macroscopic fluid equations, such as the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, can be derived from the Boltzmann theory. He has been working on stability of Maxwellian states in the Boltzmann theory. In a kinetic theory of stars, collisions among stars are sufficiently rare to be ignored. Therefore, a galaxy or a globular cluster can be modeled as an ...
In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamica, which laid the basis for the kinetic theory of gases. In this work, Bernoulli posited the argument, still used to this day, that gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, that their impact on a surface causes the gas pressure that we feel, and that what we experience as heat is simply the kinetic energy of their motion. Bernoulli also surmised that temperature was the effect of the kinetic energy of the molecules, and thus correlated with the ideal gas law.[3]. The theory was not immediately accepted, in part because conservation of energy had not yet been established, and it was not obvious to physicists how the collisions between molecules could be perfectly elastic.[4]:36-37 A competing theory favored by Newton was the replussion theory, in which heat was a calorific fluid that repulsed molecules in proportion its quantity (i.e. heat) and the inverse square of the distances between molecules.[3]. Other pioneers of ...
BioAssay record AID 28475 submitted by ChEMBL: Hydrolytic parameter (K) was calculated at pH 7.4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (25 degrees Celsius).
Conversely, if one supposes that internalized receptor is immune to down-regulation and that down-regulation occurs proportionately to occupancy of receptor by agonist in the membrane, then again, down-regulation is greater at low fenoterol concentrations than the model predicts. As before this proposal cannot be saved by supposing a saturable process because the down-regulation is a first order process.. Kinetic models that are consistent with the data can be constructed if a pool of receptor in addition to the endocytosed pool can be invoked. Here we propose a scheme (Fig. 7A, model II), the key features of which are that down-regulation can occur by either of two pathways; one pathway involving a high agonist affinity component with a low capacity that is independent of internalization and a second pathway using a low-affinity, high-capacity event that is closely correlated with internalization. This scheme provides an explanation for the dissociation of internalization from down-regulation ...
Since over 40 enzymes will be investigated for their mRNA abundance, processing, and degradation kinetics, the less tedious and more accurate Next Generation Sequencing of the entire mRNA repertoire of the cell is employed. To optimise the proportion of useful sequence, while including RNA fragments that are products of of degradation, rRNA is depleted using the eukaryotic Ribominus kit (Ambion). Two biological replicates are treated with Sinefungin and Actinomycin D to inhibit RNA processing and transcription, for different time periods. RNA is collected before treatment, 5 min after the addition of Sinefungin, 5 min after addition of ActD (+Sin), then 10 min after, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. The samples are sequenced using the Illumina standard protocol, and the sequenced reads are aligned to the reference genome TREU927, and the number of reads aligned to each ORF are determined. ...
The correlation coefficients between the physical properties exhibited by these lipids in monolayers (which indicate the degree of molecular packing in membranes) and the molecular activity of the membrane-bound sodium pump are stronger than those generally observed between individual lipid composition parameters and sodium pump molecular activity.. The sodium pump occurs in a number of different isoforms that have been extensively studied in tissues of the rat, especially in kidney and brain (Sweadner, 1989), but there is no specific information of their relative tissue distribution (apart from the urinary bladder) in the cane toad. The ancestral catalytic subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase is thought to be similar to the α-1 isoform, which is common to all vertebrates (Horisberger, 1994) and is the isoform of Na+/K+-ATPase found in the kidneys of vertebrates (Sweadner, 1989). If, as is most likely, it is also the isoform present in the toad kidney, isoform differences are unlikely to explain the ...
This book offers a simplified physical treatment of the kinetic theory of gases and magnetoplasmas. The text uses mean-free-path arguments when applicable and identifies problem areas where existing theory has either failed or has fallen short of expectations. Examples are provided by strong shock waves, ultrasonic waves (high Knudsen numbers), and transport across strong magnetic fields.
Proteins within most macromolecular complexes or organelles continuously turn over. This turnover results from association and dissociation reactions that are mediated by each of the proteins functional domains. Thus, studying organelle or macromolecular formation from the bottom up using theoretical and computational modeling approaches will necessitate the determination of all of these reaction rates in vivo. Yet current methods for examining protein dynamics either necessitate highly specialized equipment or limit themselves to basic measurements. In this protocol, we describe a broadly applicable method based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) for determining how many reaction processes participate in the turnover of any given protein of interest, for characterizing their apparent association and dissociation rates, and for determining their relative importance in the turnover of the overall protein population. Experiments were performed in melanoma M2 cells expressing mutant
Read From the kinetic theory of active particles to the modeling of social behaviors and politics, Quality & Quantity on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallization kinetics in liquid crystals with hexagonal precursor phases by calorimetry. AU - Padmaja, Sunkara. AU - Ajita, Narayanan. AU - Srinivasulu, Maddasani. AU - Girish, Sriram Ramchandra. AU - Pisipati, Venkata Gopala Krishna Murthy. AU - Potukuchi, Dakshina Murthy. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Design and characterization of Schiff based liquid crystalline nO.m compounds exhibiting hexagonal smectic phases are reported. Crystallization kinetics investigations are carried out in the liquid crystals (LCs) exhibiting hexagonal ordered orthogonal and tilted precursor LC phases by calorimetry. The Avrami theory is referred and results are analyzed. Influence of molecular ordering, structure, and dimensionality of the LC precursor phase on kinetics is studied. Effect of shape and flexibility of the molecule for nucleation and growth processes is investigated. Varying rate of kinetics reflects upon the transit of the system from constant type to independent type of nucleation. ...
In recent years the nutrient levels of the Upper Floridan aquifer have been increasing (USGS, 2008). An example of this is found in Ocala, Florida where Silver Springs nitrate concentrations have risen from 0.5 mg/L in the 1960 s to approximately 1.0 mg/L in 2003 (Phelps, 2004). Because stormwater is a contributor to surficial and groundwater aquifer recharge, there is an increasing need for methods that decrease nitrogen and phosphorus levels. A laboratory column study was conducted to simulate a retention pond with saturated soil conditions. The objectives of the column studies reported in this thesis were to investigate the capabilities of a natural soil and soil augmentations to remove nitrogen and phosphorus for a range of concentrations at three different temperatures. An analytical attempt to model the columns through low order reaction kinetics and derive the corresponding temperature conversion constant to relate the rate constants is also presented. The Media Mixes were selected through a
The situation under which substrate cooperativity is apparent only in the presence of an inhibitor has been investigated. When a substrate and an inhibitor bind independently to a cooperative enzyme that conforms to the concerted Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, each of the two ligands must induce intersubunit transitions in the protein molecule in order to have their allosteric effects coupled to one another. The inhibitor exerts a heterotropic influence on the saturation function of the substrate and enhances the otherwise recondite homotropic effect of the latter. If the ligands bind competitively to the enzyme, however, intersubunit transitions in the enzyme need be induced only by the inhibitor. A sigmoidal substrate saturation curve is then obtained as a result of displacement of the inhibitor from the enzyme by the substrate. In this mechanism, the competitive inhibitor participates as a cofactor required for the expression of substrate cooperativity and the familiar ability of regulatory ...
An organic EL device includes a first substrate and a plurality of organic EL elements above a first portion of the first substrate. A first inorganic layer covers the plurality of organic EL elements. An active layer is above a second portion of the first substrate that is different than the first portion. The active layer comprises a material that is at least one of hygroscopic and oxidizable. A second inorganic layer covers the active layer. A second substrate is opposite the first substrate, with the plurality of organic EL elements being between the first and second substrates. A seal extends between the first and second substrates to define a sealed space between the first and second substrates. The second inorganic layer includes through-holes that expose the active layer to the sealed space that is defined by the first substrate, the second substrate, and the seal.
The spherulitic growth mechanism of lysozyme crystals from aqueous solutions was examined quantitatively by taking advantage of a buffer zone of liquid-liquid phase separation occurring in lysozyme aqueous solution. This buffer zone technique allows us to obtain constant concentrations in both liquid phases during the whole process of crystallization from solution. Under such a constant concentration (or supersaturation) condition, a constant growth rate along the radial direction of lysozyme spherulites was obtained for the spherulitic growth from solution. This evidently indicates that the growth of lysozyme spherulites is controlled by surface kinetics rather than by volume diffusion. In addition, it was found that microscopic droplets resulted from phase separation, and heterogeneous impurities normally serve as cores causing the formation of the radial pattern of spherulites. © 2002 American Institute of Physics ...
Chemical kinetics is the essential branch for the CSIR-UGC-NET, GATE & IIT JAM in Chemistry exam point of view. It is the most applicable branch to study the rate of chemical reaction. It is useful to investigate the mechanism and pathways of the reactions. Thus students having knowledge of Chemical Kinetics can score high in CSIR-UGC-NET, GATE in Chemistry and IIT JAM Exam in Chemistry.
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View Notes - Homework 7 from MSE 230 at Purdue. MSE 230 HW7 (due 03/04, 03/05) Spring 2010 1. (a) Using the recrystallization kinetics data for pure copper in Fig. 10.11, what is the