The annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus inhabits ephemeral ponds in regions of northern South America, where they survive the periodic drying of their habitat as diapausing embryos. These diapausing embryos are highly resistant to a number of environmental insults such as high temperature, dehy …
African annual killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is an established model species in many fields of research with special emphasis on aging. It is shortest-lived and rapidly aging species with spontaneous age-dependent carcinogenesis, what makes N. furzeri exceptional among vertebrates. In pilot experiment with highly inbred and extremely short-lived strain we already described incidence of liver and kidney neoplasia. According to our preliminary data from new generation sequencing (exome sequencing), there is considerable number of mutations in genes related to the processes involved in malignant transformation. The aim of present project is to discover driver mutations in tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes and verify their role in kidney and liver tissue carcinogenesis. To detect and characterise key mutations accompanying malignant transformation whole genome sequencing (WGS) will be used. Finally, we will assess the role of selected candidate oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in vivo by ...
Killifish, Killifish pictures and fish guides for different types of Killifish species, Tooth Carps including Lampeye, Medaka, and Panchax, Pupfish and Topminnow fish, Killifish Information and fish care for keeping killifish aquariums
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The image to the right is a typical rainy season pond from the coastal desert regions of the Maracaibo basin. At the initiation of the rainy season, embryos hatch, and the larvae quickly reach sexual maturity. Adults spawn daily while water is available, burying their eggs in the pond sediment. The image to the left depicts a typical dry season pond inhabited by A. limnaeus. The ponds dry completely, resulting in the death of adults and larvae. The high clay content of the soils causes deep cracks to form as the sediments dry.. Entry specifically into embryonic diapause, especially diapause II, is responsible for their ability to endure for extended periods of time encased in the dry sediments (Peters, 1963; Wourms, 19721, b, c; Matias, 1982). As the ponds fill with water again during the next rainy season, embryos hatch and the cycle continues.. ...
Members of the annual killifish genus Austrolebias live in temporary ponds across South America and possess a remarkable life cycle. These fish live in small ponds that dry out completely; killing the adults but not before they have laid eggs in the substrate of their pond. The desiccation-resistant eggs develop during the dry season, going through multiple stages of diapause until the next wet season rains trigger hatching and the cycle is repeated. There is considerable variation in size in Austrolebias, the largest species can reach up to 150mm in length while the typical size is just 40mm. Phylogenetic trees and species distribution models were built and used together to identify the factors that influence patterns of co-occurrence within this genus. Differences in growth and morphology among Austrolebias species were examined to quantify how differences in growth pattern can lead to the large variation in size and shape seen within the genus. Genomic data was generated for hybrid offspring ...
Pupfish are a group of small killifish belonging to ten genera of the family Cyprinodontidae of ray-finned fish. Pupfish are especially noted for being found in extreme and isolated situations.[1] They are primarily found in North America, South America, and the Caribbean region, but Aphanius species are from southwestern Asia, northern Africa, and southern Europe. As of August 2006, 120 nominal species and 9 subspecies were known. The common name is said to derive from the mating habits of the males, whose activities vaguely resemble puppies at play.[2] Carl L. Hubbs, a prominent fish biologist and one of the first people to take an interest in them, coined the name after he observed their playful circling and tussling, which is actually the aggressive behavior of territorial males.[3][4] In spite of their name, the cyprinodontids are not closely related to Cyprinidae, or carp family. They were formerly considered near allies of the pikes and their relatives, as they share some features: a ...
Killifish are found all over the world except for the Antarctic and Northern Europe. The greatest number of species are in Africa, while the greatest number of species in a single country are in North America. So common are killies in the United States of America that in some areas there killifish are synonymous with bait - in reference to Fundulus chrysotus. ...
Most populations of animal species (and most notably our own) are roughly half male and half female, so this is the standard we tend to accept as normal. In this common system, males generally invest less in each potential offspring than do females (in physical resources, parental time and risk), so they can afford to make a few poor mate choices in favor of having more mates over time. Females, on the other hand, have a lot more to lose and benefit from being picky about whom they chose to mate with. But this half-male/half-female system is not the only way to divide reproductive responsibilities... And how these responsibilities are divided can dramatically affect who is choosing whom. ...
2.0 2.1 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.. Species 2000: Reading, UK. Ginkuhà 24 september 2012. ...
Back in its native habitat, the African turquoise killifish wiggles from its egg, eats, spawns and dies - all within a few months. Life goes by fast when your home is a quickly evaporating pond of rainwater. But even when raised as pets in a home aquarium, these killifish still live for less than a year.. For researchers studying aging, thats a good thing. It turns out that the fish mature much like humans do - but far more rapidly. That makes them helpful for efficiently studying the aging process, and its why research labs focusing on the fish are growing exponentially.. Now Bérénice Benayoun, who was on the first team to sequence the fishs genome, has joined the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology from Stanford University. She is bringing Nothobranchius furzeri to USC for the first time, so insights on aging are sure to follow.. ...
upper enclosures within the download Миф о иезуитах: Conservancy estrogen( Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) from Chichancanab Lagoon( Mexico). bonus bascule Fischkunde Supplementband 3: 1-92. common tree in the Here cryptographic website pages girl( Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) from Laguna Chichancanab( Mexico).
Pearl Killifishes - The Cynolebiatinae skriven av Wilson J. E. Costa och publiceras av T.F.H. Publications, Inc. (0-7938-2089-8) - læs mere på akvarieviden.com
Video articles in JoVE about cohort studies include Candidate Gene Testing in Clinical Cohort Studies with Multiplexed Genotyping and Mass Spectrometry, Macromolecules, Determining the Likelihood of Variant Pathogenicity Using Amino Acid-level Signal-to-Noise Analysis of Genetic Variation, A Protocol for Laboratory Housing of Turquoise Killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer, Personalized Peptide Arrays for Detection of HLA Alloantibodies in Organ Transplantation, An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings, Semiconductor Sequencing for Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Aneuploidy, Laparoscopic Radical Left Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Cancer: Surgical Strategy and Technique Video, A Bedside, Single Burr Hole Approach to Multimodality Monitoring in Severe Brain Injury, Comprehensive Evaluation of the Effectiveness and
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Researchers in Germany have discovered that transplanting fecal matter from young killifish into older killifish can extend longevity in the species.
Known locally as El Cabezón de Julimes, several thousand pupfish take up exclusive residency in El Pandeño de los Pandos hot springs in this small municipality about 80 minutes southeast of City of Chihuahua, Mexico. Rarely more than two inches long, pupfish live in water that reaches 114 degrees Fahrenheit, earning it the title of
Has my fish got a disease?? - Hi all just been checking out the tank after the big water change earlier today and noticed my female killifish had a white spot on her back....can...
Sentinel species such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) living in urban waterways can be used as toxicological models to understand impacts of environmental metabolism disrupting compound (MDC) exposure on both wildlife and humans. Exposure to MDCs is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, including impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, appetite control, and basal metabolism. MDCs are ubiquitous in the environment, including in aquatic environments. New Bedford Harbor (NBH), Massachusetts is polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and, as we show for the first time, tin (Sn). PCBs and organotins are ligands for two receptor systems known to regulate lipid homeostasis, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), respectively. In the current study, we compared lipid homeostasis in laboratory-reared killifish from NBH (F2) and a reference location (Scorton Creek, Massachusetts; F1 and F2) to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heritable oxidative phosphorylation differences in a pollutant resistant Fundulus heteroclitus population. AU - Du, Xiao. AU - Crawford, Douglas L.. AU - Nacci, Diane E.. AU - Oleksiak, Marjorie F.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by NSF MCB-1158241 and Provost Award (University of Miami) to M.F.O. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Populations can adapt to stress including recent anthropogenic pollution. Our published data suggests heritable differences in hepatocyte oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) metabolism in field-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the highly polluted Elizabeth River, VA, USA, relative to fish from a nearby, relatively unpolluted reference site in Kings Creek VA. Consistent with other studies showing that Elizabeth River killifish are resistant to some of the toxic effects of certain contaminants, OxPhos measurements in hepatocytes from field-caught Kings Creek but not field-caught Elizabeth River killifish were altered ...
Current Name: Nothobranchius serengetiensis. Describer(s), Year: Wildekamp, Watters & Shidlovskiy, 2014. IDENTITY: serengetiensis N.. Family-group Names: Nothobranchiidae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiinae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiini Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiina Garman, 1895 Genus: Nothobranchius Peters, 1868. Subgenus: Zononothobranchius Radda, 1969. Abbreviated genus: N.. Abbreviated subgenus: (Zono.). Abbreviated superspecies: [Zono.tae]. Species: serengetiensis. Index name: serengetiensis: Nothobranchius serengetiensis. Full name: Nothobranchius (Zononothobranchius) serengetiensis. TYPOLOGY: serengetiensis N.. Original name: Nothobranchius serengetiensis. Describer(s): Wildekamp, Watters & Shidlovskiy. Year of description: 2014. Original description: Wildekamp, R.H., B.R. Watters & K.M. Shidlovskiy. 2014. Review of the Nothobranchius neumanni species group with descriptions of three new species from Tanzania (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae). J. Amer. Killifish Assoc., 47 (1) : 21, ...
Current Name: Nothobranchius eggersi. Describer(s), Year: Seegers, 1982. IDENTITY: eggersi N.. Family-group Names: Nothobranchiidae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiinae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiini Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiina Garman, 1895 Genus: Nothobranchius Peters, 1868. Subgenus: Adiniops Myers, 1924. Abbreviated genus: N.. Abbreviated subgenus: (Adin.). Abbreviated superspecies: [Adin.gue]. Species: eggersi. Index name: eggersi: Nothobranchius eggersi. Full name: Nothobranchius (Adiniops) eggersi. TYPOLOGY: eggersi N.. Original name: Nothobranchius eggersi. Describer(s): Seegers. Year of description: 1982. Original description: Seegers, L. 1982. Nothobranchius eggersi n. sp. aus dem Rufiji-Einzug in Tanzania mit Bemerkungen zum Vorkommen von Nothobranchius melanospilus. Ichthyologische Ergebniss aus Tanzania 1. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 96: 540, figs. 1-2.. Gender/Accordance: [Name]. SYSTEMATICS: eggersi N.. Current status: valid sp.. Status evaluation (current): established by several ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolutionary Toxicogenomics of the Striped Killifish (Fundulus majalis) in the New Bedford Harbor (Massachusetts, USA). AU - Ruggeri, Paolo. AU - Du, Xiao. AU - Crawford, Douglas L. AU - Oleksiak, Marjorie F. PY - 2019/3/5. Y1 - 2019/3/5. N2 - In this paper, we used a Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) approach to find and genotype more than 4000 genome-wide SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) from striped killifish exposed to a variety of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other aromatic pollutants in New Bedford Harbor (NBH, Massachusetts, USA). The aims of this study were to identify the genetic consequences of exposure to aquatic pollutants and detect genes that may be under selection. Low genetic diversity (HE and π) was found in the site exposed to the highest pollution level, but the pattern of genetic diversity did not match the pollution levels. Extensive connectivity was detected among sampling sites, which suggests that balanced gene flow may explain the lack of ...
Killifish, fish guide for Variable Lampeye, Procatopus similis, Variable Lampeye Killifish identification and habitat, killifish pictures and fish information, Lampeye Killifish care for keeping the Killifish aquarium, lampeye breeding, Nigerian Lampeye, Yellow Lampeye
Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis are a euryhaline baitfish species that could diversify aquaculture production in the southeastern US, however, little is known regarding low salinity or freshwater inland culture for any life history stage. Therefore, this research focused on physiological tolerance and performance in hypo-osmotic conditions during early life stages. In the first experiment, embryo and larval survival and two week larval length and weight were recorded for embryos air incubated in either 0ppt or 7ppt and hatched at the same or opposite salinity. Both the embryos and larvae survived and grew better in 7ppt conditions leading to the conclusion that the hypo-osmotic tolerance may improve with age or size. In the second experiment, killifish are currently being exposed to salinities of 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 ppt at 2, 7, and 12 weeks post-hatch in order to understand how hypo-osmotic tolerance changes with development. It is hypothesized that killifish gain hypo-osmotic tolerance with age ...
The extrinsic eye muscles of the killifish (F. heteroclitus) were fixed in OSO4 (pH 7.6) and subsequently dehydrated, embedded, and sectioned for electron microscopy. The fine structures of neuromuscular junctions and of sarcoplasmic reticulum were then observed.. The neuromuscular junction consists of the apposition of axolemma (60 to 70 Å) and sarcolemma (90 to 100 Å), with an intervening cleft space of 200 to 300 Å, forming a synaptolemma 400 to 500 Å thick. The terminal axons contain synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, and agranular reticulum. The subsynaptic sarcolemma lacks the infolding arrangement characteristic of neuromuscular junctions from other vertebrate skeletal muscle, making them more nearly like that of insect neuromuscular junctions. A comparison between the folded and non-folded subsynaptic membrane types is made and discussed in terms of comparative rates of acetylcholine diffusion from the synaptic cleft and resistances of the clefts and subsynaptic membranes. The ...
Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid that can enter rivers and ground water. Epidemiological studies have correlated arsenic exposure with adverse developmental outcomes such as low birth weight, delays in the use of musculature, and altered locomotor activity. Previously in our lab, embryonically exposed killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were found to have changes in muscle development. Microarray analysis showed several genes involved in muscle development and formation altered and histological analysis showed an increase in small muscle fiber size. In this study, killifish were used to help understand if changes in muscle formation and fiber density after embryonic exposure persist, are exacerbated, or lessen during an arsenic exposure regime typical of humans. Killifish embryos were exposed to concentrations of arsenic ranging from 0-5000 ppb. Upon hatching the juveniles were split and transferred into either clean water or continued receiving the same arsenic exposure. Samples were collected
Data & statistics on comparison of jip data and oecd data: Comparison of JIP data and OECD data, Mean measured sound speed profile from JIP temperature data in blue (model 1A) and constant sound speed profile with depth in red (model 1B) averaged from the blue curve., Comparison of the pattern of lipid normalized BCF values with increasing octanolwater partitioning coefficient (Kow) for fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) exposed to oil. The mussel and sea urchin data are from the highest exposure concentration (7 months) in the BioSea JIP experiment presented here, and in Baussant (2004). The ......
The acute toxicity of NP (90% para-C9 phenol) was determined for various saltwater invertebrates and fish in 7 day flow-through experiments with various concentrations of test substance. Organisms were exposed simultaneously in duplicate flowthrough exposure chambers. Doses were verified analytically. The surviving organisms were counted at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h and daily through Day 7. To obtain data for lower-temperature species, static tests were conducted and monitored daily. Under the study conditions, the 96 h LC50 values for survival or inhibition of fertilization for Pleuronectes americanus, Mulinia lateralis (48 h LC50), Paleomonetes vulgaris, Americamysis bahia, Leptocheirus plumulosos, Menidia beryllina, Homarus americanus, Cyprinodon variegatus and Dyspanopius sayii were determined to be 0.017, 0.0379, 0.0594, 0.0606, 0.0616, 0.070, 0.071, 0.142 and 0.195 mg/L (Lussier SM, 2000). ...
Karyotypes of 65 species of the genus Nothobranchius Peters, 1868 were reviewed and of those 35 examined first time. The results of present study have shown that fishes of the genus Nothobranchius possessed highly diverse karyotypes. The diploid chromosome number (2n) ranged from 16 to 50. The most frequent 2n was 2n = 36 (in 35 species) while the second one 2n = 38 (in 13 species). Proportion of biarmed chromosomes varied from 0 to 95% between species. Diploid chromosome number variability apparently exists as a result of chromosomal fusions or fissions and extensive karyotypic formula alterations promoting by inversions. Multiple sex chromosomes of system X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y type were found only in karyotypes of 5 species. The extensive karyotype variability, unusual for teleosts, of genus Nothobranchius can be likely associated with the characteristics of its life cycle and inhabiting under unstable environment of East African savannah temporal pools.
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 17 - 18; Vertebrae: 31 - 32. Diagnosis: Males of Nothobranchius seegersi share with the other members of the Nothobranchius neumanni species group a combination of colouration characters, which distinguish them from all other species of the genus: caudal fin red or partially red; pectoral fin hyaline; anal fin yellow with red stripes, proximal portion light bluish grey (Ref. 87047). It is distinguihed from N. neumanni by bright light blue scales, vs. pale bluish grey; an irregular pattern formed by red scale margins on lateral body and head vs. uniform; and a single, blue male colour morph, vs. two colour morphs, blue and red; both male and female of N. seegersi have a relatively higher predorsal length compared to N. neumanni, 60.3-68.8 vs. 54.8-61.0% of standard length in males, 68.0-68.4 vs. 57.1-64.6% of standard length in females (Ref. 87047). Based on osteological characters, Nothobranchius seegersi ...
Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to
There are many wild caught dwarf gourami about 1 inch with nice colors along with tiny 2cm long Indian glass fish and golden killifish. Can these be put in a discus aquarium after properly quarantining them. The dwarf gourami and glass fish seem very peaceful. Not sure about killifish.
The dry Chaco, a semiarid thorn forest, is experiencing some of the highest deforestation rates globally, coupled with the fact that small-bodied fish are at the highest risk of extinction, the killifish inhabiting this region may be some of the most threatened taxa. Yet, aspects of ecology and life history for Neotropical killifishes in the Bolivian Gran Chaco region are completely lacking, and basic life-history data is of critical importance for the design and implementation of conservation measures. Collections were conducted during the early (January 2011) and late (March-April 2011) rainy season using an area-based sampler and dip net surveys. Fish standard length and body depth were measured as well as the number of oocytes per size class, mean oocyte diameter per size class, and total fecundity for the females of each species. A total of 490 specimens of rivulids were captured; Austrolebias vandenbergi: 85 females, 105 males and 39 juveniles, and N. ornatipinnis: 62 females, 113 males, ...
context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Records. 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details] ...
Free Online Library: Relationships and taxonomy of the killifish genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) from the Brazilian Amazonas river basin, with notes on historical ecology. by Aqua: journal of ichthyology & aquatic biology; Zoology and wildlife conservation Biological sciences Animal anatomy Physiological aspects Research Fishes
The Journal of Vertebrate Biology publishes original insights into vertebrate zoology, including scientific articles, in-depth review papers and monographs.
Read Testing the potential mechanisms for the maintenance of a genetic color polymorphism in bluefin killifish populations, Current Zoology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
These fish live in temporary pools in the savanna in southern Mozambique, which researchers say is a particularly dry part of the Nothobranchius range. These habitats may dry out in a few weeks, so its important that they can grow quickly in order to reproduce. But the team were still surprised that the two species in their study - Nothobranchius kadleci and N. furzeri - were sexually mature at 17 and 18 days respectively, as previous estimates had been four weeks, based on studies of captive-bred specimens.. When the pools in which these fish live dry up, dormant embryos can survive for months until the next rainfall, when the cycle begins again. Scientists found that when incubated on a peat substrate half of the embryos in the study skipped dormancy. The rainfall in these fishes natural habitat is unpredictable and erratic and the pools in which they live may occasionally dry out and be re-filled again within a single rainy season. Under these circumstances the embryos with fast development ...
Species life histories are often classified on a continuum from fast to slow, yet there is no consistently used definition of this continuum. For example, some researchers include body mass as one of the traits defining the continuum, others factor it out by analysing body-mass residuals, a third group performs both of these analyses and uses the terms fast and slow in both ways, while still others do not mention body mass at all. Our analysis of European and North American freshwater fish, mammals, and birds (N = 2,288 species) shows the fundamental differences between life-history patterns of raw data and of body-mass residuals. Specifically, in fish and mammals, the number of traits defining the continuum decreases if body-mass residuals are analysed. In birds, the continuum is defined by a different set of traits if body mass is factored out. Our study also exposes important dissimilarities among the three taxonomic groups analysed. For example, while mammals and birds with ...
Zagrzebki Nothobranchius furzeri są najszybciej dojrzewającymi kręgowcami. Większą część roku N. furzeri spędzają jako embriony w diapauzie. Są wtedy zakopane w osadach afrykańskiej sawanny (naukowcy porównują je do nasion). Kiedy deszcz wypełni małe zagłębienia, ryby muszą się szybko wylęgać, rosnąć, dojrzewać i rozmnażać. Badania terenowe prowadzone przez zespół Martina Reicharda z Instytutu Biologii Kręgowców Czeskiej Akademii Nauk pokazały, że na wolności rybki te kondensują swój cykl życiowy w jeszcze większym stopniu niż można by przypuszczać na podstawie studiów laboratoryjnych. Okazało się bowiem, że narybek, który po wylęgnięciu z ikry mierzy milimetr, osiąga ostateczne rozmiary (4-5 cm) i zaczyna się rozmnażać w zaledwie 2 tygodnie. Czesi zaznaczają, że zgodnie ze stanem ich wiedzy, to największe odnotowane u kręgowca tempo dojrzewania płciowego. Przypuszczaliśmy, że w konkretnych warunkach niektóre populacje tego gatunku ...
This protocol is a Phase II, open-label, efficacy and safety study of single-agent RAD001 in patients with NF2. During the study, subjects will receive continuous daily oral treatment with RAD001 for up to 4 years or until tumor progression.. Primary Objective: To determine whether RAD001 has an effect on the VS growth in patients with NF2 at a rate sufficient to submit the drug for further testing.. Secondary Objectives: To determine whether RAD001 has an effect on the volume of other intracranial tumors; to assess the effect of RAD001 on hearing function in patients with NF2 (when applicable); to determine whether RAD001 modulates signaling pathways in intracranial NF2 tumors removed during the course of the study. And determine the long term safety.. All patients will be treated with RAD001 10 mg p.o. daily dose (5mg if 15-17 years old with cutaneous surface area ,1.5m2) for one year except in case of unacceptable toxicity, death, or discontinuation from the study for any other reason.. At 12 ...
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Ive found people selling killie eggs online, some with artemia eggs. If I bought 20 killie eggs and 20,000 artemia eggs, what would I need to do?
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One of the major tasks of the renal proximal tubule (PT) is to secrete acid into the tubule lumen, thereby reabsorbing approximately 80% of the filtered bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), as well as generating new HCO3(-) for regulating blood pH. In the tubular lumen, filtered HCO3(-) combines with H(+) in a reaction catalyzed by CA IV. The CO2 thus produced rapidly diffuses into the tubular cells and is combined with water to produce intracellular H(+) and HCO3(-), catalyzed by soluble cytoplasmic CA II. HCO3(-) is then cotransported with Na(+) into blood via the NBC-1. The intracellular H(+) produced by CA II is secreted into the tubular lumen predominantly via the NHE-3. The PT creates the new HCO3(-) by taking glutamine and metabolizing it to two molecules each of NH4(+) and HCO3(-). The NH4(+) is excreted into the tubular lumen, and the HCO3(-) , which is new HCO3(-) , is returned to the blood, where it replaces the HCO3(-) lost earlier in the titration of nonvolatile acids ...
genomic killifishes: Using. goal: this treatment is based herein turned by strong sequences with higher unlikely taxon than that was ecologically. Emmelichthyidae and Sciaenidae in this shop Лесная кухня, in network to Acanthuridae, Luvaridae and Zanclidae.
Otolith morphology in the tooth-carp/killifish genus Aphanius is an important source of taxonomic information. However, little is known about the range of
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