Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that exerts many of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative metabolism. Due to local hypoxia and hypertonicity, the renal medulla is subject to extreme oxidative stress. Here, we set out to investigate the role of Sirt1 in the kidney. Our initial analysis indicated that it was abundantly expressed in mouse renal medullary interstitial cells in vivo. Knocking down Sirt1 expression in primary mouse renal medullary interstitial cells substantially reduced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation using either resveratrol or SRT2183 improved cell survival in response to oxidative stress. The unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of kidney injury induced markedly more renal apoptosis and fibrosis in Sirt1+/¨C mice than in wild-type controls, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation substantially attenuated apoptosis and fibrosis in wild-type mice. Moreover, Sirt1 deficiency attenuated oxidative stress¨Cinduced COX2 ...
Literature References: Antihypertensive lipid prohormone produced by the renomedullary interstitial cells of the renal papilla under the control of the renal artery perfusion pressure. Converted to the active form, medullipin II, by the cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme system of the liver. Medullipin II acts as as vasodilator that suppresses sympathetic activity, causes diuresis-natriuresis, and has a suppressive action on the CNS. Constitutes a feedback control of the renin-angiotensin system. Extraction from renomedullary interstitial cells: E. E. Muirhead et al., Lab. Invest. 35, 162 (1977); from renal venous effluent: E. E. Muirhead et al., J. Lab. Clin. Med. 99, 64 (1982). Biological activity: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 5, Suppl I, I-112 (1983); G. Karlström et al., Acta Physiol. Scand. 137, 521 (1989). Activation by the liver: E. E. Muirhead et al., Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 101, 226 (1988). Effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 17, ...
Definition of kidney medulla in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of kidney medulla. What does kidney medulla mean? Information and translations of kidney medulla in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
1. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether an abnormality of the renal papillary circulation is present in a well-established model of cirrhosis without ascites (carbon tetrachloride/phenobarbital).. 2. Compared with the control animals, cirrhotic rats showed a reduced diuretic (61.0 ±5.1 versus 18.0 ±2.5%) and natriuretic (67.8 ±8.3 versus 29.6 ±3.6%) response to a volume expansion (3% body weight infusion of 0.9% NaCl). The volume expansion-induced increase in renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure was also blunted in the cirrhotic rats (control 9.3 ±0.9 versus cirrhotic 6.1±1.0 mmHg) and there were no differences in mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate between control and cirrhotic animals.. 3. Papillary plasma flow was determined by the 125I-albumin accumulation technique and expressed as mlmin−1100 g−1. In the basal state, papillary plasma flow was significantly lower in cirrhotic rats (59.1 ±4.4, n = 9) than in ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
It is well recognized that prolonged elevations of AVP do not produce sustained hypertension (2). In contrast, chronic administration of a V1AG delivered either systemically or into the renal medullary space of rats does result in a mild and sustained form of hypertension (22). It has been shown in anesthetized rats that both AVP and V1AG effectively reduce renal medullary blood flow (17). If such effects were sustained, one would anticipate that both compounds could produce a sustained elevation of arterial pressure because chronic reductions of blood flow to the medulla result in hypertension (1, 12, 15). We hypothesized therefore that the failure of AVP to produce hypertension could be related to an inability of this endogenous peptide to produce a sustained reduction of medullary blood flow. The results of the present study support this hypothesis and show that chronic reduction of blood flow to the inner medulla was not achieved with continuous administration of AVP but did occur with ...
The present study examined the EP subtypes involved. In primary cultures of rat IMCD cells, EP4 antagonism with structurally distinct EP4 antagonists completely abolished Ang II-induced PRR expression, and EP4 agonism alone elevated the expression. In Sprague-Dawley rats, EP4 antagonism effectively suppressed the increases in renal medullary PRR expression, renal medullary and urinary renin levels, as well as blood pressure in response to Ang II infusion. Interestingly, in vitro data also suggested involvement of the EP1 but not the EP3 subtype in Ang II-induced PRR expression.. PGE2 is a major prostanoid produced in the kidney, particularly in the CD. As an autocrine/paracrine factor, PGE2exerts a diverse range of action at the site of its production, affecting renal medullary blood flow and tubular sodium and water transport, as well as cell survival.26,27 The biological action of PGE2 is mediated by 4 distinct EP4 receptors (EP1-4). We for the first time demonstrated a dominant role of the ...
Dr. Zhous laboratory is primarily focused on signaling regulation of NFAT5 in hypertonic stress and leishmaniasis. NFAT5 is the newest member of the Rel transcription factor family. It regulates a variety of biological functions. Its protective role against hypertonic stress and modulation of immune responses are the two areas which have been studied most. The kidney medulla is normally exposed to a hypertonic environment because of the urinary concentration mechanism. NFAT5 is essential for the kidney medulla to survive and function adequately. NFAT5 may also protect against the pathogenic effects of parasites. like Leishmania. Over the past decade, more than a dozen of kinases have been identified that involve in tonicity-dependent activation of NFAT5 in cell culture. The opposite role of phosphatases has recently begun to reveal. Dr. Zhous laboratory is using cell and molecular approaches and mouse models to study how kinases and phosphatases regulate NFAT5 in the macrophages and kidney ...
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The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 (-)) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2 (-) concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2 (-), the effects of NO and O2 (-) on sodium transport, osmolality, and ...
Hyaluronan (HA) is a negatively charged extracellular matrix (ECM) component with water-attracting properties. It is the dominating ECM component in the renal medullary interstitium, where the amount changes in relation to hydration status: it increases during hydration and decreases during dehydration. It has, therefore, been suggested that HA participates in the regulation of renal fluid handling by changing the permeability properties of the interstitial space. This thesis investigates potential mechanisms for such a role in renal fluid regulation.. The results demonstrate that the high renal HA content of late nephrogenesis decreases during the completion of kidney development in the rat, which takes place in the neonatal period. The heterogenous distribution of HA is mainly established during the first three weeks after birth. On day 21, the HA content is similar to that in the adult rat. The process is dependent on normal Ang II function. It primarily involves a reduction of HA synthase 2 ...
The collecting duct principle cells (PC) play a major role for concentration of urine and regulation of K+ homeostasis. Two water channels, AQP3 and AQP4, are expressed in the PC basolateral membrane (BLM). Here we present evidence that AQP4 participates in regulation of renal K+ transport. K+ enters the cell via Na+,K+-ATPase mediated transport in BLM. The presence of K+ channels in BLM, which is deeply infolded, thus providing a diffusion limited space, permits K+ recirculation, considered important for maintenance of membrane potential. Here we show with co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown assays, that in rat renal papilla, AQP4, but not AQP3, assembles with Na+,K+-ATPase and the K+ channel Kir7.1. This led us to hypothesize that AQP4, Na+,K+-ATPase and Kir7.1 form a K+ transporting microdomain, where AQP4 water transport maintains a favorable gradient for K+ efflux and stabilizes membrane potential. A mathematical model of K+ transport across an epithelial cells with a deeply infolded ...
The accumulation of intra-arterially injected I131 albumin in the papilla of the kidney was measured in a series of 33 anesthetized dogs producing hypertonic urine. Although the data were widely scattered, an estimate of the average rate of this accumulation during the first half-minute following the start of the infusion was made. From the data, the plasma perfusion rate in the papilla under the experimental conditions was calculated and appears to average 25 ml./100 Gm./min.. ...
Dye injected into the vascular system highlights blood vessels in this image of renal medulla. Vasa recta are conspicuous. Click on one of the thumbnails below to see this view in context or to see a similar view of the renal cortex.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine reduces basolateral, but not apical, nitric oxide secretion in medullary thick ascending limb cells. AU - Wu, M. S.. AU - Bens, M.. AU - Yu, H. M.. AU - Vandewalle, A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cyclosporine (CsA) reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells. We postulated that CsA affected NO secretion in a vectorial manner in polarized renal epithelial cells. The experiments were performed in a model of mTAL subcultured cells. The expression of iNOS in mTAL cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The cells were grown on a non-permeable filter. Nitrite was measured by the modified Griess method. Transepithelial resistance was measured to ensure the integrity of the tight junction. CsA (100 ng/ml) reduced NO production by 22% in mTAL cells. The inhibitory effect was limited to the basolateral side (control: 165 ± 11; plus CsA: 93 ± 17 nM/106 cells, P ,0.001) without affecting apical NO secretion. The transepithelial resistance through ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb. AU - Abe, Michiaki. AU - OConnor, Paul. AU - Kaldunski, Mary. AU - Liang, Mingyu. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Cowley, Allen W.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Hypertension is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and medullary renal injury. Previous studies have shown that elevations in renal perfusion pressure increase Na+ delivery to the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), and enhancement of NaCl transport in the outer medulla has been reported in many experimental forms of hypertension. This study examined the effects of increased Na+ and fluid delivery in mTAL perfused in vitro on the generation of superoxide. Osmolality was maintained constant between low- and high-Na+ perfusates by adjusting with choline Cl-. Real-time fluorescent microscopic techniques were used to determine the generation of superoxide and nitric oxide in individual mTAL cells using ...
Looking for online definition of renal medulla in the Medical Dictionary? renal medulla explanation free. What is renal medulla? Meaning of renal medulla medical term. What does renal medulla mean?
Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL). In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25%) inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (,35 days) and adult (,35 days) male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the ...
Looking for online definition of vasa recta in the Medical Dictionary? vasa recta explanation free. What is vasa recta? Meaning of vasa recta medical term. What does vasa recta mean?
We used a mathematical model of O(2) transport and the urine concentrating mechanism of the outer medulla of the rat kidney to study the effects of blood pH and medullary blood flow on O(2) availability and Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts that in vivo paracellular Na(+) fluxes across medullary thick ascending limbs (mTALs) are small relative to transcellular Na(+) fluxes and that paracellular fluxes favor Na(+) reabsorption from the lumen along most of the mTAL segments. In addition, model results suggest that blood pH has a significant impact on O(2) transport and Na(+) reabsorption owing to the Bohr effect, according to which a lower pH reduces the binding affinity of hemoglobin for O(2). Thus our model predicts that the presumed greater acidity of blood in the interbundle regions, where mTALs are located, relative to that in the vascular bundles, facilitates the delivery of O(2) to support the high metabolic requirements of the mTALs and raises the concentrating capability of the outer ...
Vasopressin is the primary hormone regulating urine-concentrating ability. Vasopressin phosphorylates the UT-A1 urea transporter in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). To assess the effect of UT-A1 phosphorylation at S486, we developed a phospho-specific antibody to S486-UT-A1 using an 11 amino acid peptide antigen starting from amino acid 482 that bracketed S486 in roughly the center of the sequence. We also developed two stably transfected mIMCD3 cell lines: one expressing wild-type UT-A1 and one expressing a mutated form of UT-A1, S486A/S499A, that is unresponsive to protein kinase A. Forskolin stimulates urea flux in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. The phospho-S486-UT-A1 antibody identified UT-A1 protein in the wild-type UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells but not in the S486A/S499A-UT-A1-mIMCD3 cells. In rat IMCDs, forskolin increased the abundance of phospho-S486-UT-A1 (measured using the phospho-S486 antibody) and of total UT-A1 phosphorylation ...
Renal papilla aka Papilla renalis in the latin terminology and part of a close look at a nephron and its associated blood vessels. Learn more now!
In the 1970s-1980s, a number of clearance, micropuncture, and microperfusion studies as well as anatomic-functional correlations have brought a good understanding of the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism (16, 87) (see reviews in Refs. 6 and 50). It has been understood that urea is accumulated and somehow "sequestrated" (104) in the renal medulla at a concentration increasing from the outer medulla to the tip of the papilla. This accumulation results from three associated processes (Fig. 2). 1) Urea becomes progressively concentrated along the CD because of vasopressin-dependent water reabsorption in a segment poorly permeable to urea, thus bringing a highly concentrated urea solution to the terminal CD. 2) A vasopressin-dependent increase in urea permeability of the terminal IMCD (due to UT-A1/3) enables this concentrated urea to be transported into the interstitial tissue of the deep inner medulla. 3) Medullary urea, which continuously tends to escape the inner medulla via the ...
Labels: neocortex (NC); cerebellar granular cell layer (G); Purkinje cells (P); dentate gyrus (DG); olfactory bulb glomerulus (Gl); dorsal horn of the spinal cord(DH); ventral horn of the spinal cord (VH); bronchiole (B); seminiferous tubules (ST); Sertoli cells (SC); Leydig cells (L); kidney cortical region (C); kidney medulla (M); ventral vein of liver (CV). Scale bars represent 100 microns ...
J:148046 Fogelgren B, Yang S, Sharp IC, Huckstep OJ, Ma W, Somponpun SJ, Carlson EC, Uyehara CF, Lozanoff S, Deficiency in Six2 during prenatal development is associated with reduced nephron number, chronic renal failure, and hypertension in Br/+ adult mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 May;296(5):F1166-78 ...
Dissection of the renal parenchyma has exposed the latex-filled arteries and veins within the kidney. Smaller vessels have been trimmed away. The suprarenal cortex has been removed near the center of the gland to expose the brownish medullary tissue as well as to demonstrate the tributaries of the right suprarenal vein within the medulla ...
Cortex and Medulla are words which pop up all over the subject of anatomy. The cortex is always the bit around the outside of a structure and the medulla is always the bit in the middle. Examples include: The Renal Cortex - the bit around the outside of the kidney The Adrenal Cortex - the…
Immunoperoxidase labelling of Liu-FPN1 in rat kidney. (A) Strong labelling is evident throughout the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Labelling is
I really didnt get my grips with the Loop of henle what is its purpose? is it to maintain osmolality of the interstitial fluid of the medulla, so that they are kinda exchanging salts and water and is that the purpose of urea, to go into the medulla to maintain the osmolality of the medulla...but what is the purpose of that then? What is the purpose of Loop of ...
I really didnt get my grips with the Loop of henle what is its purpose? is it to maintain osmolality of the interstitial fluid of the medulla, so that they are kinda exchanging salts and water and is that the purpose of urea, to go into the medulla to maintain the osmolality of the medulla...but what is the purpose of that then? What is the purpose of Loop of ...
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Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone with the physiological characteristics of a regulator of body fluid volume. It is potent, has a short duration of action, and responds to a physiologically relevant stimulus in a negative feedback-controlled system. It can act directly or indirectly (via inhibition of aldosterone biosynthesis) on the kidney to alter sodium transport and may regulate fluid distribution within the extracellular space. The peptide circulates at low (nanomolar) levels, and recent studies with renal inner medullary cells document relevant receptor binding and second messenger activation in this concentration range. In vivo data support a direct action on the kidney to enhance natriuresis, and blockade of a primary catabolic pathway for ANF within the kidney results in augmented natriuresis at concurrent endogenous peptide concentrations. Long-term, low dose infusion directly into the renal artery of conscious dogs supports a physiological action of ANF to promote urinary ...
293(6). Aquaporin (AQP) 1 null mice have a defect in the renal concentrating gradient because of their inability to generate a hyperosmotic medullary interstitium. To determine the effect of vasopressin on renal medullary gene expression, in the absence of high local osmolarity, we infused 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), a V(2) receptor (V(2)R)-specific agonist, in AQP1 null mice for 7 days. cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the renal medullary tissue, and 5,140 genes of the possible 12,000 genes on the array were included in the analysis. In the renal medulla of AQP1 null mice, 245 transcripts were identified as increased by dDAVP infusion and 200 transcripts as decreased (1.5-fold or more). Quantitative real-time PCR measurements confirmed the increases seen for cyclin D1, early growth response gene 1, and activating transcription factor 3, genes associated with changes in cell cycle/growth. Changes in mRNA expression were correlated with changes in protein expression by ...
Our study contributes to the literature that show that hyperosmotic stress induces an ER stress‐like response. Water restriction or dDAVP infusion, which both increase medullary osmolality, increased Grp78 and ATF4 expression in the inner medulla (van Balkom et al. 2004; Cai et al. 2006, 2010). Conversely, GRP78 protein abundance decreased in IMCD of animals subjected to vasopressin escape (Hoorn et al. 2005). Expression levels of ER stress‐responsive genes CHOP and ATF3 were increased by either NaCl or urea challenge in cultured IMCD cells (Kultz et al. 1998; Zhang et al. 1999; Tian and Cohen 2002) and several ER stress‐responsive genes were upregulated by NaCl challenge in renal fibroblast cell lines (Dihazi et al. 2011). Our study shows that overall, the extent of induction of ER stress‐responsive genes by either Tg or Tun was significantly higher than that induced by hyperosmolality. However, it should be noted that induction of ER stress by either chemical agent would be expected to ...
The (Na+ +K+)-activated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla was prepared in a partially inactivated, soluble form depleted of endogenous phospholipids, using deoxycholate. This preparation was reactivated 10 to 50-fold by sonicated liposomes of phosphatidylserine, but not by non-sonicated phosphatidylserine liposomes or sonicated phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The reconstituted enzyme resembled native membrane preparations of (Na+ +K+)-ATPase in its pH optimum being around 7.0, showing optimal activity at Mg2+:ATP mol ratios of approximately 1 and a Km value for ATP of 0.4 mM. Arrhenius plots of this reactivated activity at a constant pH of 7.0 and an Mg2+: ATP mol ratio of 1:1 showed a discontinuity (sharp change of slope) at 17 degrees C, with activation energy (Ea) values of 13-15 kcal/mol above this temperature and 30-35 kcal below it. A further discontinuity was also found at 8.0 degrees C and the Ea below this was very high (greater than 100 kcal/mol). Increased Mg2+ ...
We tested whether mild adiposity alters responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal sympathetic nerves. After rabbits were fed a high-fat or control diet for 9 wk, responses to reflex activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) with hypoxia and electrical stimulation of the renal nerves (RNS) were examined under pentobarbital anesthesia. Fat pad mass and body weight were, respectively, 74% and 6% greater in fat-fed rabbits than controls. RNS produced frequency-dependent reductions in renal blood flow, cortical and medullary perfusion, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and sodium excretion and increased renal plasma renin activity (PRA) overflow. Responses of sodium excretion and medullary perfusion were significantly enhanced by fat feeding. For example, 1 Hz RNS reduced sodium excretion by 79 ± 4% in fat-fed rabbits and 46 ± 13% in controls. RNS (2 Hz) reduced medullary perfusion by 38 ± 11% in fat-fed rabbits and 9 ± 4% in controls. Hypoxia doubled RSNA, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated divalent currents in descending vasa recta pericytes. AU - Zhang, Zhong. AU - Lin, Hai. AU - Cao, Chunhua. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Multiple voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV) subtypes have been reported to participate in control of the juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles of the kidney. Using the patch-clamp technique, we examined whole cell CaV currents of pericytes that contract descending vasa recta (DVR). The dihydropyridine CaV agonist FPL64176 (FPL) stimulated inward Ca2+ and Ba2+ currents that activated with threshold depolarizations to -40 mV and maximized between -20 and -10 mV. These currents were blocked by nifedipine (1 μM) and Ni2+ (100 and 1,000 μM), exhibited slow inactivation, and conducted Ba2+ , Ca 2+ at a ratio of 2.3:1, consistent with "long-lasting" L-type CaV. In FPL, with 1 mM Ca2+ as charge carrier, Boltzmann fits yielded half-maximal activation potential (V1/2) and slope factors of ...
In the present study, we investigated the potential of renal progenitor cell therapy in murine experimental AKI. We demonstrated that CD133+ progenitor cells isolated from the human renal inner medulla accelerate the recovery of AKI, similar to MSCs, prevented tubular cell necrosis and promoted cell proliferation. In addition, CD133+ progenitor cells were detectable by optical imaging within the renal tissue, with low entrapment in extrarenal organs.. Several experimental evidences indicate that administration of cells with stem/progenitor properties is effective in preventing renal damage and promoting its recovery after an ischemic or toxic insult. In this setting, MSCs from bone marrow or from fat and neonatal birth‐associated tissues (umbilical cord, placenta, and amniotic fluid) were proved to be successful (Aggarwal et al. 2013; Casiraghi et al. 2013).. A possible additional benefit in the exploitation of the regenerative properties of MSCs may derive from the use of tissue‐specific ...
Over the past 3 years, there has been great interest in transplantation therapy in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Following the impressive results reported by Madrazo in the spring of 1987, more than 350 cases of adrenal medullary implantation have been performed worldwide. There has been a significant reduction in "off" time and an increase in "on" time without chorea in 40% of patients having this procedure. The duration of effect is 1 year in half of these cases, with the other half (20% of all patients) still demonstrating significant improvement 3 years after the procedure. The mechanism of the bilateral beneficial improvement is unknown. The survival of adrenal medullary tissue has not been demonstrated at autopsy. It is thought that the mechanism of improvement involves either regenerative sprouting of the remaining dopamine producing neurons as a consequence of the release of neurotrophic factors or an interruption of the striatal pallidal output inhibitory influence of the basal ...
The medulla is the part of the brain between the pons and the foramen magnum of the spinal cord. It is important to circulation and respiration of the body. The medulla contains nuclei that are connected to cranial nerves. One of the nuclei found in the medulla is called the Nucleus ambiguous and controls the muscles of the larynx, pharynx and the side of the neck which are important for breathing. Another thing that the Medulla is important for is controlling the rate of heartbeats and the degree to which the blood vessels must be constricted. Doing this means that the Medulla is part of the brain that helps keep the blood pressure normal. ...
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These results demonstrate that NHE8 protein is expressed on the brush-border membrane of rat kidney proximal tubules, extending from S1 to S3. Although NHE8 is expressed in all proximal tubules, a more intense NHE8 signal was evident in the deeper cortical and medullary proximal tubules compared with superficial proximal tubules. No other cell types in the kidney were detected to express NHE8 protein.. These findings correlate with results from a previous study, in which we used in situ hybridization to ascertain the localization of NHE8 in mouse kidney (6). In that study, NHE8 message was present in proximal tubules within the outer stripe of the outer medulla as well as a lower but significant expression diffusely throughout the cortex. Although the differential expression of NHE8 between the cortex and medulla appeared to be more pronounced than in the present study, the same tendency for higher expression in the deeper cortex/medulla was observed. Differences in technique (in situ ...
Verteporfin treatment inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of Tsc1-null cells in vivo. Mice were administered i.p. with vehicle or verteporfin at a dose of 100 mg/kg every other day for 10 d before sacrifice. Mice were sacrificed at 6 wk of age. Three independent experiments were performed and mice in different treatments were pooled for analysis. Percentage of Ki67 and αSMA double-positive cells in α-SMA+ mesenchymal lesions in the indicated kidneys. Immunofluorescence staining and counting were performed on three sagittal sections from different kidney regions for each mouse ...
medulla definition: The internal core of particular organs or human body frameworks, like the marrow of bone tissue.; The medulla oblongata.; identify myelin.; Botany The pith into the stems or origins…
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