This study shows that 8- to 9-week type 1 diabetes induces an increase in mitochondrial FA β-oxidation without defects in the electron transport and identifies oxidation of FA rather than glycolysis-derived substrate (pyruvate) oxidation as the source of mitochondrial ROS in diabetic tubules. Because more than 90% of kidney cortex consists of proximal tubules, our results can be attributed to proximal tubule mitochondria. These changes in mitochondria coexist with renal structural and functional modifications consistent with the early stage of DN (35,36).. Diabetic cortical tubule mitochondria reach maximal respiratory rates with glutamate when oxidation is coupled with and depends on phosphorylation of ADP, and do not further increase when the control of oxidation by phosphorylation is eliminated by the uncoupler. These data show that the control site of oxidative phosphorylation is located at the level of glutamate oxidation to form NADH or electron transport rather than at the level of the ...
Normal pregnancy is associated with systemic and intrarenal vasodilatation resulting in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This adaptive response occurs in spite of elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, we evaluated the potential mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. The reactivity of the mesangial cells (MCs) cultured from 14-day-pregnant rats to Ang II was measured through changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Cai]). The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the Ang II-induced vasodilatation receptor AT2, and the relaxin (LGR7) receptor were evaluated in cultured MCs and in the aorta, renal artery and kidney cortex by real time-PCR. The intrarenal distribution of LGR7 was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The MCs displayed a relative insensitivity to Ang II, which was paralleled by an impressive increase in the expression level of iNOS, AT2 and LGR7. These results suggest that the MCs also adapt to the
The shared transport system for uptake of L-cystine and L-lysine was examined in isolated rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles for the ionic requirements for activation of the system. No requirement for sodium was seen for either cystine or lysine influx. However, the efflux of lysine from the vesicle was stimulated by Na+. Therefore, the transport system appears to be asymmetric in its requirement for sodium. Two different divalent cations were used in the membrane isolations which resulted in different responses of cystine uptake to the electrogenic movement of K+ out of the vesicle. Membranes prepared by Mg-aggregation showed no stimulation of cystine influx by the imposition of a transient interior negative potential while vesicles prepared by Ca-aggregation did respond to electrogenic stimulation by an outwardly directed K-diffusion potential in the presence of valinomycin. Lysine influx was stimulated by electrogenic potassium efflux in both Mg-prepared and Ca-prepared membranes. No difference
The mechanism by which gentamicin augments the uptake of p-aminohippurate (PAH) by rat renal cortical slices was investigated. In all experiments, gentamicin was administered as gentamicin sulfate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. per day for 2 days; control rats were injected with saline. The effect of gentamicin on the metabolism of PAH to p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), acetyl-PABA and acetyl-PAH was studied by high performance liquid chromatography. No metabolites of PAH were detected in renal slices of gentamicin-injected or control rats incubated in medium containing PAH. Efflux of 14C-PAH was measured after incubating renal cortical slices for 2 hours in medium containing 8 X 10(-5) M 14C-PAH. The efflux rate constant was 0.080 +/- 0.003/min in control slices and 0.059 +/- 0.003/min in gentamicin slices, P less than .001. No significant difference in the diffusible pool of PAH was found between the two groups which supports an argument against increased tissue-binding of PAH as the explanation for the ...
Uptake of SO42− into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kindey cortex by a Ca2+-precipitation method was investigated by using a rapid-filtration technique. Uptake of SO42− by the vesicles was osmotically sensitive and represented transport into an intra-vesicular space. Transport of SO42− by brush-border membranes was stimulated in the presence of Na+, compared with the presence of K+ or other univalent cations. A typical overshoot phenomenon was observed in the presence of an NaCl gradient (100mm-Na+ outside/zero mm-Na+ inside). Radioactive-SO42− exchange was faster in the presence of Na+ than in the presence of K+. Addition of gramicidin-D, an ionophore for univalent cations, decreased the Na+-gradient-driven SO42− uptake. SO42− uptake was only saturable in the presence of Na+. Counter-transport of Na+-dependent SO42− transport was shown with MoO42− and S2O32−, but not with PO42−. Changing the electrical potential difference across the vesicle membrane by ...
The Weinbaum-Jiji equation can be applied to situations where: 1) the vascular anatomy is known; 2) the blood velocities are known; 3) the effective modeling volume includes many vessels; and 4) the vessel equilibration length is small compared to the actual length of the vessel. These criteria are satisfied in the situation where steady-state heated thermistors are placed in the kidney cortex. In this paper, the Weinbaum-Jiji bioheat equation is used to analyze the steady state response of four different sized self-heated thermistors in the canine kidney. This heat transfer model is developed based on actual physical measurements of the vasculature of the canine kidney cortex. In this model, parallel-structured interlobular arterioles and venules with a 60 μm diameter play the dominant role in the heat transfer due to blood flow. Continuous power is applied to the thermistor, and the instrument measures the resulting steady state temperature rise. If an accurate thermal model is available, ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native human CA9. Microsomal fraction of human renal cortical tissue homogenate. (MAB14652) - Products - Abnova
This randomized crossover study in healthy subjects showed no differences in the blood volume-expanding properties of 6% hydroxyethyl starch suspended in a balanced solution or 0.9% saline. Hyperchloremia occurred with the latter. The former produced an increase in renal cortical tissue perfusion, a phenomenon not seen with the latter ...
The CCDS database identifies a core set of human protein coding regions that are consistently annotated by multiple public resources and pass quality tests.
The CCDS database identifies a core set of human protein coding regions that are consistently annotated by multiple public resources and pass quality tests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Na+-H+ exchanger isoforms NHE1 and NHE3 in kidney and blood cells of rabbit and rat. AU - Rutherford, P. A.. AU - Pizzonia, J. H.. AU - Biemesderfer, D.. AU - Abu-Alfa, A.. AU - Reilly, R.. AU - Aronson, P. S.. PY - 1997/11. Y1 - 1997/11. N2 - Increased peripheral blood cell Na-H exchange (NHE) and erythrocyte Na- Li countertransport activity have been reported in hypertension and diabetic nephropathy and correlated with increased activity of the renal brush border Na-H exchanger. A relationship between cation exchange activities of blood cells and renal brush border membranes might exist if both were mediated by the same NHE isoform. We generated isoform-specific antibodies to compare the expression of NHE1 and NHE3 in peripheral blood cell membranes and renal cortical membrane vesicles. An NHE1-specific monoclonal antibody reacted with a 199- to 110-kD protein in basolateral membrane fractions isolated from rabbit and rat kidney. NHE1 protein expression was also ...
Brodde, O.E.; Eymer, T.; Arroyo, J., 1983: 3H-yohimbine binding to guinea-pig kidney and calf cerebral cortex membranes: comparison with human platelets
Background: Maternal accommodation to normal pregnancy begins shortly after conception,during pregnancy the anatomical and histological changes occur in the kidneyas a maternal adaptation for physiological
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Dietary sulfate regulates the expression of the renal brush border Na/S(i) cotransporter NaS(i)-1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We used a mathematical model of O(2) transport and the urine concentrating mechanism of the outer medulla of the rat kidney to study the effects of blood pH and medullary blood flow on O(2) availability and Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts that in vivo paracellular Na(+) fluxes across medullary thick ascending limbs (mTALs) are small relative to transcellular Na(+) fluxes and that paracellular fluxes favor Na(+) reabsorption from the lumen along most of the mTAL segments. In addition, model results suggest that blood pH has a significant impact on O(2) transport and Na(+) reabsorption owing to the Bohr effect, according to which a lower pH reduces the binding affinity of hemoglobin for O(2). Thus our model predicts that the presumed greater acidity of blood in the interbundle regions, where mTALs are located, relative to that in the vascular bundles, facilitates the delivery of O(2) to support the high metabolic requirements of the mTALs and raises the concentrating capability of the outer ...
Dye injected into the vascular system highlights blood vessels in this image of renal medulla. Vasa recta are conspicuous. Click on one of the thumbnails below to see this view in context or to see a similar view of the renal cortex.. ...
The intracellular sodium concentration [( Na+]i) of dog kidney cortical tubules was monitored by flame photometry and 23Na NMR using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as shift reagent. Upon addition of substrates cotransported with sodium, flame photometry showed an increase in [Na+]i while no change (glutamine, glucose) or even a decrease (lactate) in the Na+i NMR signal was observed. This discrepancy could not be explained by a lack of ATP prior to the addition of substrates or by a decrease of NMR visibility of Nai+ induced by binding of substrate to membrane transporters (and pump). We propose that a variation of the apparent visibility of Nai+ may occur, arising from either a compartmentation of Nai+ in dog cortical tubules or an inhomogeneous extracellular distribution of the shift reagent.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Actions of NAD+ on renal brush border transport of phosphate in vivo and in vitro. AU - Kempson, S. A.. AU - Turner, Stephen T. AU - Yusufi, A. N K. AU - Dousa, T. P.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Previous studies showed that an increase in NAD+ content in renal cortex in vivo was accompanied by specific inhibition of Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate (P(i)) transport across the renal brush border membrane (BBM). Further, in vitro addition of NAD+ to isolated renal BBM vesicles specifically inhibited Na+ gradient-dependent transport of P(i). The present study examined some aspects of the mechanism of this inhibition by NAD+ in vitro and in vivo. When NAD+ was increased in vivo by nicotinamide injection, the apparent V(max) was decreased, but the apparent K(m) was not different, indicating apparent noncompetitive inhibition. In the presence of 0.3 mM NAD+ added in vitro, the apparent K(m) for Na+-dependent P(i) transport by BBM vesicles was increased, whereas the apparent V(max) was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential uptake of isomeric 2-bromohydroquinone-glutathione conjugates into kidney slices. AU - Lau, Serrine. AU - McMenamin, Mary G.. AU - Monks, Terrence. PY - 1988/4/15. Y1 - 1988/4/15. N2 - 2-Bromo-(diglutathion-Syl)hydroquinone (2-Br-[diGSyl]HQ) is a more potent nephrotoxicant than any of three mono-substituted isomers. The reason for this differential toxicity is unknown. We now report that the rate of uptake of 2-Br-(diGSyl)HQ, 2-Br-3-(GSyl)HQ, 2-Br-5-(GSyl)-HQ and 2-Br-6(GSyl)HQ by kidney slices was 2.4, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.3 nmoles/mg/10 min, respectively. AT-125 (0.5 mM) inhibited γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in intact and homogenized kidney slices by 47% and 92%, respectively and decreased the accumulation of the isomeric [35S]-conjugates by 49%, 21%, 25% and 30%, respectively. The data suggest that the accumulation of 2-Br-(GSyl)HQ conjugates into isolated kidney slices may in part be mediated by GGT and that the more extensive renal uptake of the di-substituted ...
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Foreword: Tigerstedt and Bergman discovered in 1898 the pressure-raising substance from saline rabbit kidney extracts and called the extract renin, however other scientists could not confirm their findings and in 1934 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis and transport of proline-containing peptides in renal brush-border membrane vesicles from dipeptidyl peptidase IV-positive and dipeptidyl peptidase IV-negative rat strains. AU - Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy. AU - Miyamoto, Yusei. AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel. AU - Roesel, R. August. AU - Whitford, Gary M.. AU - Leibach, Frederick H.. PY - 1990/1/25. Y1 - 1990/1/25. N2 - In this investigation, we have demonstrated that the renal brush-border membrane of Fischer 344 rats from the Japanese Charles River Inc. specifically lacks dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity, whereas the renal brush-border membrane of Fischer 344 rats from three different sources within the United States possesses normal levels of DPP IV activity. Comparison of the brush-border proteins between Charles River (U. S. A.) Fischer 344 rats (DPP IV positive) and Japanese Charles River Fischer 344 rats (DPP IV negative) revealed that a protein band (Mr = 100,000), apparently identical with DPP IV, was absent in ...
The transport properties of brush-border membrane vesicles isolated by a calcium-precipitation method from the renal cortex of normal and parathyrin (parathyroid hormone)-treated rats were studied by a rapid-filtration technique. Parathyrin elicited a dose-dependent decrease in the Na+-dependent phosphate uptake by the brush-border membrane vesicles, but the uptake of D-glucose, Na+ and mannitol was not affected. A maximum inhibition of 30% was observed after the application of 30 U.S.P. units intramuscularly 1 h before the animals were killed. Intravenous infusion of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.5-1.5 MG) also decreased the phosphate uptake by the brush-border vesicles. Both dibutyryl cyclic AMP and parathyrin were ineffective when added in vitro to brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from normal rats. These data suggest that parathyrin exerts its action on the phosphate reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule by affecting the Na+/phosphate co-transport system in the brush-border membrane. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenolsulphotransferase in human tissue. T2 - Radiochemical enzymatic assay and biochemical properties. AU - Anderson, Robert J.. AU - Weinshilboum, R. M.. PY - 1980/4/11. Y1 - 1980/4/11. N2 - Phenolsulphotransferase (EC 2.8.2.1) (PST) is an important catecholamine and drug metabolizing enzyme. Optimal conditions have been determined for the accurate measurement of PST activity in the human platelet, human renal cortex, and human jejunum with a radiochemical microassay. 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 35S-3-phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate (35S-PAPS) were the substrates for the reaction. The apparent Michaelis-Menten (Km) values for MHPG with platelet, renal cortex, and jejunum were 1.09, 0.46 and 1.16 mmol/l, respectively. Apparent Km values for PAPS in the same tissues were 0.14, 0.13 and 0.21 μmol/l. The pH optimum of the reaction in all three tissues was approximately 6.2-6.8 with three different buffer systems. The coefficients of variation for the assay of ...
The effects of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and GTP-gamma-S, known activators of GTP binding proteins, on proton transport were investigated in endosome-enriched vesicles (endosomes). Endosomes were prepared from rabbit renal cortex following the intravenous injection of FITC-dextran. The rate of intravesicular acidification was determined by measuring changes in fluorescence of FITC-dextran. Both GTP and GTP-gamma-S stimulated significantly the initial rate of proton transport. In contrast, GDP-beta-S, which does not activate GTP binding proteins, inhibited proton transport. The rank order of stimulation was GTP-gamma-S greater than GTP greater than control greater than GDP-beta-S. GTP-gamma-S stimulation of proton transport was also observed under conditions in which chloride entry was eliminated, i.e., 0 mM external chloride concentration in the presence of potassium/valinomycin voltage clamping. GTP-gamma-S did not affect proton leak in endosomes as determined by collapse of H+ ...
Looking for online definition of renal medulla in the Medical Dictionary? renal medulla explanation free. What is renal medulla? Meaning of renal medulla medical term. What does renal medulla mean?
Gengoux P, Montplaisir S, Pelletier M, Lachapelle JM (1980) Significance of renal brush border antibody in sera of patients with renal or skin immune related diseases and in immune diseases. J Invest Dermatol (abstract) 74: ...
Types peripheral cortical cysts cortical tubules cysts Etiology simple renal cortical cysts (retention cysts) obstructive cortical cysts (...)
Dissection of the renal parenchyma has exposed the latex-filled arteries and veins within the kidney. Smaller vessels have been trimmed away. The suprarenal cortex has been removed near the center of the gland to expose the brownish medullary tissue as well as to demonstrate the tributaries of the right suprarenal vein within the medulla ...
kidney bleeding - MedHelps kidney bleeding Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for kidney bleeding. Find kidney bleeding information, treatments for kidney bleeding and kidney bleeding symptoms.
History 38 years old female with acute anuric renal failure 7 days after delivery complicated by postpartal hemorrhage. Imaging findings The arterial phase CT scan shows lack of cortical enhancement of both kidneys (image A). In the nephrographic phase there is enhancement of the renal medulla and the very outer part of the renal cortex…
Immunoperoxidase labelling of Liu-FPN1 in rat kidney. (A) Strong labelling is evident throughout the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Labelling is
Just finished a new internal landscape 3D painting. Hope you like it! Its entitled, Glomeruli of the Kidney, and features the structure of the basic filtration unit within the renal cortex, the glomerulus. ...
Kidney Disorders - Kidneys are an important organ in the human excretory system. They filter the blood and remove unwanted toxins and excess fluid.
... There must be good reason why the kidney is twice as energy-intensive as the brain or liver, making it the most costly of organs. -
Fasting is amazing for healing kidney problems. However, fasting can irritate damaged kidneys due to the amount of toxins they filter.
... The role of the kidneys is to eliminate accumulated waste and toxins from the body, so ....
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சிறுநீரகங்கள் (kidneys) என்பவை முதுகெலும்பிகளின் உடலின் இடப்பக்கத்திலும் வலப்பக்கத்திலும் அவரை விதை வடிவில் அமைந்த உறுப்புகளாகும். இவை பின் வயிற்றுக் குழியில் அமைந்துள்ளன. முதிருயிரிகளில் இது 11 செமீ நீளம் கொண்டுள்ளது. இவை குருதியை ஓரிணைச் சிறுநீரகத் தமனிகள்வழியாகப் பெறுகின்றன; இவற்றில் இருந்து குருதி ஓரிணைச் சிறுநீரகச் சிரைகள் வழியாக வெளியேறுகிறது. ஒவ்வொரு ...
Definition of kidney medulla in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of kidney medulla. What does kidney medulla mean? Information and translations of kidney medulla in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
There is increasing evidence that polymorphisms of the adenosine 5′ triphosphate membrane transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, MDR1) may affect expression and function, whereas less information is available about the impact of ABCC2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2)) single-nucleotide polymorphisms . Particularly, their role in human kidney for drug elimination and in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma is poorly understood. ABCB1 and ABCC2 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry in kidney cancer and adjacent unaffected cortex tissue of 82 nephrectomized renal cell cancer (RCC) patients (63 clear-cell RCC (CCRCC), 19 non-CCRCC). The DNA of all patients was genotyped for ABCB1 −2352G|A, −692T|C, 2677G|T/A (Ala893Ser/Thr), and 3435C|T, and ABCC2 −24C|T, 1249G|A (Val417Ile) and 3972C|T. ABCB1 and ABCC2 were less expressed in CCRCC than in normal cortex on mRNA as well as on protein level. Although the overall
These results demonstrate that NHE8 protein is expressed on the brush-border membrane of rat kidney proximal tubules, extending from S1 to S3. Although NHE8 is expressed in all proximal tubules, a more intense NHE8 signal was evident in the deeper cortical and medullary proximal tubules compared with superficial proximal tubules. No other cell types in the kidney were detected to express NHE8 protein.. These findings correlate with results from a previous study, in which we used in situ hybridization to ascertain the localization of NHE8 in mouse kidney (6). In that study, NHE8 message was present in proximal tubules within the outer stripe of the outer medulla as well as a lower but significant expression diffusely throughout the cortex. Although the differential expression of NHE8 between the cortex and medulla appeared to be more pronounced than in the present study, the same tendency for higher expression in the deeper cortex/medulla was observed. Differences in technique (in situ ...
Teams device, Radiex, holds back cortical tissue during surgery; they will present their design this week at Collegiate Inventors Competition
The simulation to the right allows one to view the output of a star on a CCD and vary the CCD properties. All CCDs "count" incident light by trapping electric charge that is knocked loose from a semi-conductor material by the light. CCDs only count up to a certain maximum level. If the number of counts for a certain pixel exceed this value it is said to be saturated and the excess charge would flow over into neighboring pixels and create long streaks in the image known as blooming. This maximum value is determined by the CCDs bit depth b. This is the number of computer bits (0 or 1) that can be used to store the value of each pixel. A pixels value ranges from 0 to a maximum of (2b - 1). Use the adjacent simulator to determine the maximum pixel value for a CCD with a bit depth of 12. If a CCD pixel saturates at a value of 16383, what is the CCDs bit depth?. ...
General speaking, Creatinine is filtered out of the body solely by your kidneys. Therefore, except protein intake, a high concentration of creatinine in the bloodstream is, clinically, taken to mean your kidneys may not be functioning proper
Just finished a new internal landscape 3D painting. Hope you like it! Its entitled, Glomeruli of the Kidney, and features the structure of the basic filtration unit within the renal cortex, the glomerulus. ...
Learn the role your kidneys play & why kidney health is important. Discover a daily routine for kidney care, including kidney meridian exercises and diet tips.
Kidney-Facts.com guides you through the complex but vital functions of kidneys for the body, explains why and how to keep your kidneys healthy, and shows you what happens when kidneys are at risk - all this with a visually stimulating and interactive new online tool.
How to Donate Your Kidney. Whether you want to donate a kidney to someone you love or you just want to be a good samaritan, theres a lot you need to know. Donating a kidney can save someone elses life, but it is not without its risks....