The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of ...
It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also
It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also
During previous studies we have described the major constituents of the digestive machinery of the hard tick I. ricinus and deciphered how they are organized into a hemoglobinolytic pathway [8, 12]. Herein, we have focused on the dynamic profiling of the components of the tick digestive apparatus during the course of tick feeding. This information is particularly relevant since the feeding phase is decisive for pathogen transmission. We have provided a comprehensive insight into the gene transcription, activity and molar concentration of five digestive enzymes during blood feeding, as well as the localization of the IrCB, as the most abundant peptidase of the pathway. Placing these molecular data into the context of previous ultrastructural and histochemical studies on tick gut development performed in 1970s and 80s [3, 13, 18] improves significantly our understanding of the entire process of intracellular blood digestion.. Morphological changes of the midgut epithelium observed during blood ...
I. persulcatus ticks transmit Lyme disease, babesiosis, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE) tick-borne encephalitis,[1][4] and probably human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well.[5] A recent study of the northernmost tick-borne encephalitis focus in Simo, Finnish Lapland, found I. persulcatus ticks in scattered foci along the western coast, including the Kokkola archipelago and Närpes municipality, demonstrating a northward movement of foci and an unusual combination of the TBEV-Eur strain and I. persulcatus ticks in an area with no evidence of cocirculation of tick species or TBEV subtypes.[1] ...
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Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the North Sea Island of Ameland, the Netherlands, were screened for the presence of Borrelia spirochaetes. The present authors used IFAT on tick gut preparations and identified Borrelia in 31 per cent of the adult ticks and 16 per cent of the nymphs collected from the dunes and 45 per cent of the nymphs collected from the forests. In vitro cultivation of Borrelia sp. isolated from the adult ticks and its subsequent recognition by B. burgdorferi-specific monoclonal antibodies in western blots, verified that this pathogen is identical with B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease. Further research is required to gain an insight into the epidemiology of the disease and to assess its medical and veterinary significance in the Netherlands.
Our understanding of tick questing behaviour is limited by the difficulty of observing ticks without disturbing them. As humans are potential hosts for I. ricinus, the presence of an observer may influence tick behaviours (McMahon and Guerin, 2002). Due to the small size of I. ricinus nymphs, their movements are particularly difficult to study, so most studies on I. ricinus questing behaviour have focused on adults (Gigon, 1985). Tick behaviours last many hours or even days and so continuous observation of single individuals over several days is hardly possible without automation. Furthermore, humans are not able to see ticks in the dark. For these reasons, we developed an automated video-tracking system to record the movements of I. ricinus nymphs continuously, independent of any potential host stimuli and under both light and dark conditions. Using this system, we show that questing and quiescence behaviours of I. ricinus alternate in the absence of any host stimuli. Lees (1946) had already ...
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Tickborne fever (TBF) is a febrile disease of domestic and free-living ruminants in the temperate regions of Europe. TBF is prevalent in sheep and cattle in the UK, Ireland, Norway, Finland, The Netherlands, Austria, and Spain. It is transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus . A similar disease transmitted by other ticks has been described in India and South Africa. The main hosts are sheep and cattle, but goats and deer are also susceptible.. After infestation with infected ticks, the incubation period may be 5-14 days, but after injection with infected blood, the incubation period is 2-6 days. In sheep, the main clinical sign is a sudden fever (105-108°F [40.5-42.0°C]) for 4-10 days. Other signs are either absent or mild, but the animals generally appear dull and may lose weight. Respiratory and pulse rates are usually increased, and a cough often develops.. In cattle, the disease is known as pasture fever in many parts of Europe, including Finland, Norway, Austria, Spain, and Switzerland. ...
Nymphs from each of the four populations were put in tubes made from nylon mesh (250 μm diameter) that were 3 cm diameter, 13 cm high and glued at the base to a 3 cm diameter Petri dish. Each tube was filled with 1.5 cm of wet sand, then 1 cm of damp moss, to provide a moist environment where ticks could rehydrate if necessary as they would in nature. Immediately after adding the ticks, the tops of the tubes were sealed. Twelve tubes, each with 30 nymphs (i.e., 360 nymphs in total per site), were used for each population, except for the North Wales population that had 10 tubes (i.e., 300 nymphs in total) due to fewer ticks collected from that site.. The mesh tubes containing ticks from the UK sites were allocated equally between two portable incubators (Memmert IPP 200; Memmert, Schwabach, Germany). In order to control for any potential variation in conditions between the two incubators, an equal proportion of tubes from each population were allocated to each incubator, and the temperature and ...
Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes are emerging as causative agents of human illness (Borrelia miyamotoi disease) in the United States. Host-seeking Ixodes scapularis ticks are naturally infected with these spirochetes in the eastern United States and experimentally capable of transmitting B. miyamotoi. However, the duration of time required from tick attachment to spirochete transmission has yet to be determined. We therefore conducted a study to assess spirochete transmission by single transovarially infected I. scapularis nymphs to outbred white mice at three time points post-attachment (24, 48, and 72h) and for a complete feed (>72-96h). Based on detection of B. miyamotoi DNA from the blood of mice fed on by an infected nymph, the probability of spirochete transmission increased from 10% by 24h of attachment (evidence of infection in 3/30 mice) to 31% by 48h (11/35 mice), 63% by 72h (22/35 mice), and 73% for a complete feed (22/30 mice). We conclude that (i) ...
A mathematical model of enzootic Lyme-disease transmission in a natural focus is presented. This model is based on the life history of the vector tick Ixodes scapularis Say and the primary reservoir host Peromyscus leucopus. Using this model, the threshold condition for the disease to be able to invade a nonenzootic region is determined as a function of the various possible transmission chains operating throughout the year. These expressions show that the transmission chain in which ticks acquire the disease from mice in the fall and transmit it back to mice as nymphs in the spring is the most important chain (contributing approximately 87% of the elasticity of the threshold for the parameter choices examined). Equilibrium disease levels were examined under the assumption of a constant tick population; these levels were determined as a function of tick and mouse density, the vertical transmission rate, the infectivity of mice, and the survivorship parameters of the ticks and of the tick-host contact
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
We observed wide variations in the prevalence of tick-borne bacteria in I. ricinus ticks in a French bocage landscape. This prevalence was influenced by several environmental factors that varied according to the bacterial species and habitat type. Depending on the habitat and the stage and sex of the adult tick, we found that 1.4% to 16.1% of the ticks carried DNA of at least one of the three bacteria studied. Compared to the rates found in Europe (51) and France (5, 50), the infection prevalences that we found for B. burgdorferi sensu lato are low. This could be due to the inclusion in our study of pastures, where there was a lower infection prevalence, whereas most studies carried out in Europe focus on woody habitats. For A. phagocytophilum, our figures are higher than the figures previously reported in France (5, 27), but they fall within the range of figures found in other European sites (30, 34), including some that considered woodlands and pastures (39, 66). For Rickettsia sp., the ...
Rapid and reliable identification of the vertebrate species on which a disease vector previously parasitized is imperative to study ecological factors that affect pathogen distribution and can aid the development of public health programs. Here we describe a proteome profiling technique designed to identify the source of blood meals of haematophagous arthropods. This method employs direct spectral matching and thus does not require a priori knowledge of any genetic or protein sequence information. Using this technology, we detect remnants of blood in blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and correctly determine the vertebrate species from which the blood was derived, even 6 months after the tick had fed. This biological fingerprinting methodology is sensitive, fast, cost-effective and can potentially be adapted for other biological and medical applications when existing genome-based methods are impractical or ineffective ...
In the Northeast, the black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) that spread Lyme disease also infect people with other maladies, among them anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and - as a new paper in the journal Parasites and Vectors reports - Powassan encephalitis.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Adriana M G Ibelli, Tae K Kim, Creston C Hill, Lauren A Lewis, Mariam Bakshi, Stephanie Miller, Lindsay Porter, Albert Mulenga].
Various ticks exist in the temperate hilly and pre-alpine areas of Northern Italy, where Ixodes ricinus is the more important. In this area different tick-borne pathogen monitoring projects have recently been implemented; we present here the results of a twoyear field survey of ticks and associated pathogens, conducted 2009-2010 in North-eastern Italy. The cost-effectiveness of different sampling strategies, hypothesized a posteriori based on two sub-sets of data, were compared and analysed. The same two subsets were also used to develop models of habitat suitability, using a maximum entropy algorithm based on remotely sensed data. Comparison of the two strategies (in terms of number of ticks collected, rates of pathogen detection and model accuracy) indicated that monitoring at many temporary sites was more cost-effective than monthly samplings at a few permanent sites. The two model predictions were similar and provided a greater understanding of ecological requirements of I. ricinus in the ...
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The production of healthy laboratory-reared ticks is essential to studies on tick biology, and tick-pathogen interactions. Here we...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for ISCW021706-PA from Ixodes scapularis . Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Robert-von-Ostertagstr. 7-13, 14163 Berlin. Supervisor: Dr. Sebastian Rausch and Prof. Dr. Susanne Hartmann. Project Description: Infections with parasitic nematodes and ticks induce strong local and systemic T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. Dendritic cells are central for the imprinting of the Th2 response in both infections, but innate Th2-associated cells such as mast cells and eosinophils are involved in instructing and regulating Th2 immune responses to nematodes. The aim of this project is to investigate whether mucosal/dermal mast cells and eosinophils affect the quality and homing capacity of Th cells imprinted by local DC populations in infections with the murine gut nematode Heligmosmoides polygyrus and the European tick Ixodes ricinus. Furthermore, the stability of migration patterns of parasite-specific Th2 cells will be assessed in nematode/tick co-infections.. Start: as soon as possible. Application Deadline: July 31st 2015. Contact: [email protected] Find the ...
MarketPowerPRO provides a robust and powerful set of tools to enable unsurpassed growth of Network Marketing companies. We are constantly working to make our set of tools better than before and wed like to share with you a recent change to the enrollment process.. Up until now, if there was an enrollment attempt but the enrollment failed for any reason, instead of losing that customers data - it was saved into the system as a customer account. Now, to improve that process weve created a new flagging system that will automatically flag these user accounts through their enrollment options to help you identify and recover potentially lost enrollments. To see how to start making use of these flags, click on the link below!. WATCH THE HOW-TO VIDEO. ...
Lyme Transmission This page covers sexual transmission, transovarial transmission (mum tick to offspring), various biting insects, through blood transfusions & so on. Transmission from mother to unborn child is also covered in our paediatric page. Added Aug 2016 Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe Christian Melauna, Sina Zotzmanna, Vanesa…
Guilfoile, P. Tetanus. In editorial review. Chelsea House Publisher, Northborough, MA.. Guilfoile, P. 2006. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. Chelsea House Publishers, Northborough, MA.. Longtin, S, P. Guilfoile, and A. Asper. 2004. Genotypic detection of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli: A classroom exercise. Journal of Biological Education 39(1):32-34. Guilfoile, P. 2004. Ticks Off! Controlling Ticks That Transmit Lyme Disease on Your Property. ForSte Press, Inc., Bemidji, MN.. Guilfoile, P., and M. Packila. 2004. Identification of four genes expressed by feeding, female Ixodes scapularis, including three with sequence similarity to previously recognized genes. Experimental and Applied Acarology 32:103-110.. Packila, M. and P. Guilfoile. 2002. Mating, male Ixodes scapularis express several genes including those with sequence similarity to immunoglobulin-binding proteins and metalloproteases. Experimental and Applied Acarology 27:151-160.. Conway, G. and P. Guilfoile. 2002. Comparison of ...
The first thing they noticed was a fall. It happened without warning; there was nothing to trip over, no dizziness or fainting – just a sudden loss of balance and a backwards fall, hard enough to hit the wall and leave a mark. Hard enough to hurt.
Results: The DxI CA125 assay demonstrated an overall positive 29% bias relative to the Centaur CA125 assay. The DxI CA15-3 assay demonstrated an overall negative 65% bias relative to the Centaur CA27.29 assay. For patients with multiple comparisons during the study period, the trend of results over time was similar across both sets of assays. Implementing the manufacturer-recommended reference interval for the DxI CA125 assay increased the abnormal flagging rate by 4.5%. In contrast, implementing the manufacturer-recommended reference interval for the DxI CA15-3 assay decreased the abnormal flagging rate by 13.0%. ...
Despite the rise of resistant strains of bacteria fuelled by increased use of antibiotics, patent filings are flagging, writes Dr Paul Chapman
This paper highlights that the second part of 1992 has been characterized by flagging consumer and business confidence, weaker-than-expected economic activity-especially in Europe and Japan-and considerable tensions in foreign exchange markets. Despite encouraging signs of increased growth in the United States, these developments have cast new doubts on the prospects for recovery in the industrial world after what has already been two years of weak growth or recession in many countries. The persistent currency turbulence since September 1992 and growing tensions over trade have also contributed to increased uncertainty.
Barley grass is considered being the most effective method to regulate the PH from the body and prevent health problems since Barley grass not simply contains a volume of important nutrients and also contains high degrees of anti oxidants that could prevent possible health problems for example cancer or stroke. Please seek advice from your doctor before you start any new diet or workout. Finally should you make sure is organic and pesticide free then a experience with the dining table should grow more and even more every time you sit back with some succulent supplements. For example, holistic cat food, nutrition from organic and natural products and procedures, is a excellent selection for boosting the flagging energy associated with a cat, but especially a senior. It is since the better taste from the processed food required numerous toxic chemicals that need to be dangerous to your whole body. The Great Combo - This is my favorite since it works very well. It will not be safe for humans though ...
Barley grass is considered being the most effective method to regulate the PH from the body and prevent health problems since Barley grass not simply contains a volume of important nutrients and also contains high degrees of anti oxidants that could prevent possible health problems for example cancer or stroke. Please seek advice from your doctor before you start any new diet or workout. Finally should you make sure is organic and pesticide free then a experience with the dining table should grow more and even more every time you sit back with some succulent supplements. For example, holistic cat food, nutrition from organic and natural products and procedures, is a excellent selection for boosting the flagging energy associated with a cat, but especially a senior. It is since the better taste from the processed food required numerous toxic chemicals that need to be dangerous to your whole body. The Great Combo - This is my favorite since it works very well. It will not be safe for humans though ...
See above but more so: without any evidence at all that theres something actually sketchy going on were not likely to take significant direct action on a question. As likely as anything well write a note to someone if something is just inscrutable. Thats not to say you cant flag it if you think it smells, thats totally a no-harm solution, but its at the gap between flagging something and making it a subject of discussion elsewhere on the site that I think most should I go there, or just write the mods questions are probably best asked ...
The Care Plan Topic is one of the roll outs of the Care Provision Domain Message Information Model (D-MIM). The Care Plan is a specification of the Care Statement with a focus on defined Acts in a guideline, and their transformation towards an individualized plan of care in which the selected Acts are added. The purpose of the care plan as defined upon acceptance of the DSTU materials in 2007 is: - To define the management action plans for the various conditions (for example problems, diagnosis, health concerns)identified for the target of care - To organize a plan for care and check for completion by all individual professions and/or (responsible parties (including the patient, caregiver or family) for decision making, communication, and continuity and coordination) - To communicate explicitly by documenting and planning actions and goals - To permit the monitoring, and flagging, evaluating and feedback of the status of goals, actions, and outcomes such as completed, or unperformed activities ...
When it comes to flagging concerns about a patient, experts say, therapists must intepret how specific a patients violent plans may be.
A few months ago, I dissected a squid. The squid was unsurprisingly strange: all tentacles and ooze and sets of sharp hidden teeth. But the dissection was strange, too. The longer I dissected, the less clear my agenda seemed to be. I poked around in the squid with a flagging sense of purpose and the nagging feeling that I was missing something important. Im not sure what went awry, but I am unsettled. And I want something better to say. A few months ago, I cut open a gelatinous sea creature to take a look inside. What, exactly, was I doing?. But we all know what it means to dissect something. It is a procedure, a way of looking, an act of investigation. It is commonsense inquiry and theres no reason to be confused. If, at its conclusion, the squid is still foreign - and the encounter an unanswered question - then I must have done something wrong.. So I want to take another look, as a matter of pride. Ill marshal my best methodology. Im going to draw a slit down my dissection and put my ...
Yesterday, as I drove to the clinic, I saw a man at the roadside, flagging me down. Normally, I wouldnt stop (the medical association discourages picking up hitchhikers), but this man was in uniform. And he was carrying a very large rifle. I pulled over and he got into the cabin. We greeted each other…
The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability ...
Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that utilize cattle as amplifying hosts, namely Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia sensu stricto, to increase. To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. Nymphs were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia s.s. DNA from twelve paired areas. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and ...
A batch of 259 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected by flagging in woodlands of north-western Poland (Szczecin area) was examined for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive isolates were genotyped with the restriction fragment length polymorphism...
Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n
A mechanistic model was developed for mainland Scotland to predict the seasonal dynamics of the B. burgdorferi s.l. infected nymphal I. ricinus ticks (or DIN), a biophysical risk indicator of Lyme disease. The model integrates recent advances in simulating the temperature-driven temporal [16-20] and spatial [21,22] dynamics of disease risk, with multi-disciplinary data based on the literature, empirical evidence, earth observation and model predictions. It was developed using an agent-based approach that consisted of three generalized grid layers (tick population, host population and landscape) and a range of transition rules describing their interactions under the influence of temperature. Considering the scale (the whole of mainland Scotland) and spatial resolution (1 km2) of this study, the model is more relevant for rodent-specialized Borrelia genospecies such as B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s. than for the bird-specialized B. garinii or B. valaisiana because the densities of rodents are ...
The present study was conducted to specifically test the hypothesis that delivery of long dsRNA by electroporation can be used as a potentially high throughput tool for studying functional genomics in epidemiologically important life stages of I. scapularis. RNAi has become a powerful experimental tool for studies involving tick-host-pathogen interaction but its utility has been severely limited by the tedious and often traumatic nature of delivering dsRNA to tick nymphs or eggs by microinjection or capillary feeding [17, 18]. Therefore, improved delivery methods and optimized protocols for gene silencing in a ticks nymphal or egg stage would make RNAi more widely available to tick biologists and enhance future RNAi applications in tick-host-pathogen and high throughput tick genome research. I. scapularis nymphs are responsible for most human transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes, B. burgdorferi, and also transform to become either male or female adult ticks, making this stage a favored ...
These are Ixodes scapularis, the deer tick or black-legged tick. Adult deer ticks are commonly found on horses, particularly in the colder months, and in areas where disease is endemic, these ticks may transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum to horses ...
A total of 372 Ixodes ricinus ticks (101 females, 122 males, and 149 nymphs)collected by flagging in 6 mixed woodlands of eastern Poland were examined by culture for the presenceof internal Gram-negative bacteria other than Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult ticks were examined in poolsof 2 specimens...
How much are you and your family at risk for Lyme disease? This map shows an approximate distribution of predicted Lyme disease risk in the United States -- from high risk to the minimal/no risk zones.
Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1 ...
ID B7PA36_IXOSC Unreviewed; 1822 AA. AC B7PA36; DT 10-FEB-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 10-FEB-2009, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 53. DE SubName: Full=Ryanodine receptor, putative {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1, ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA}; GN Name=8026823 {ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA}; GN ORFNames=IscW_ISCW017057 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1}; OS Ixodes scapularis (Black-legged tick) (Deer tick). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Chelicerata; Arachnida; OC Acari; Parasitiformes; Ixodida; Ixodoidea; Ixodidae; Ixodinae; Ixodes. OX NCBI_TaxID=6945 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001555}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001555, ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Wikel {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001555, RC ECO:0000313,VectorBase:ISCW017057-PA}, and Wikel colony RC {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEC03458.1}; RG Ixodes scapularis Genome Project Consortium; RA ...
Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to expansion of the range of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis from the United States. National surveillance for human Lyme disease cases began in Canada in 2009. Reported n......
In this research, QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCRTM) system protocols for the detection of bacterial (Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi) DNA were developed and tested. Existing Ixodes scapularis samples collected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts and previously determined to be 60% positive for B. burgdorferi were utilized to investigate absolute bacterial genome carriage per tick using the ddPCR assays optimized here. The ddPCR technology proved to be a reliable means for detection and absolute quantification of control bacterial DNA with sensitivity as low as 10 spirochetes per μl input DNA. Application of ddPCR revealed an average B. burgdorferi carriage level of 27,239 copies in infected ticks (range: 231- 118,407 copies), 2,197 copies in infected nymphs (range: 231- 4,983 copies), and 45,620 copies in infected adults (range: 5,647- 118,407 copies). This is the first known and validated application of ddPCR for the detection of Borrelia DNA in Ixodes ticks.