The amylases are a group of hydrolases that split complex carbohydrates constituted of I D glucose units. The two recognised types of amylases are ? amylase (e.g. plant and bacterial exoamylase) and human I amylases which can attack the I 1, 4 linkage anywhere along a polyglucan chain.. Human I amylase consists of two major isoenzymes, pancreatic and salivary, which are encoded by two different genes. Pancreatic amylase is synthesised only in pancreatic tissue by acinar cells. Amylase measurements are used primarily for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). The evaluation of the pancreatic isoamylase may have a greater clinical specificity for the diagnosis of pancreatic disorders than total amylase assessment. ...
Formation of maltosyl cyclodextrins from mixtures of maltose and cyclodextrins by reverse reactions of Flavobacterium isoamylase and Klebsiella pullulanase was experimented and it was found that Klebsilla pullulanase produced 50.4 mg maltosyl alpha-cyclodextrin, 35.0 mg maltosyl beta-cyclodextrin and 55.4 mg maltosyl gamma-cyclodextrin per ml of reaction mixture, whereas Flavobacterium isoamylase did not form maltosyl cyclodextrins. Optimum conditions for formation of maltosyl beta-cyclodextrin by Klebsiella pullulanase were pH 4, 50 degrees C reaction temperature and proportion of substrate 100 mg beta-cyclodextrin/600 mg maltose per ml ...
Research Methodology For this research study, Project Assistant Professor Kato and Professor Hasunumas Kobe University research group collaborated with Senior Researcher Satoh et al. at the National institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST). The researchers used the ion beam at QSTs Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute to induce mutation in the microalgae. This enabled them to cultivate a new mutant strain called Chlamydomonas sp. KOR1 (*1), which can produce large quantities of lipids even in light/dark conditions.. The researchers discovered that this KOR1 strain has disruptions in the starch debranching enzyme (*2) gene ISA1, causing it to produce a different carbohydrate: phytoglycogen (*3) instead of starch (Figure 1).. Normally, microalgae synthesize and accumulate carbohydrates (starch) during light periods and break them down when it is dark. However, many carbohydrates accumulate that cannot be completely broken down. Contrary to this, the ...
α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1); pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41); cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.19); cyclomaltodextrinase (EC 3.2.1.54); trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.93); oligo-α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.10); maltogenic amylase (EC 3.2.1.133); neopullulanase (EC 3.2.1.135); α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20); maltotetraose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.60); isoamylase (EC 3.2.1.68); glucodextranase (EC 3.2.1.70); maltohexaose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.98); maltotriose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.116); branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18); trehalose synthase (EC 5.4.99.16); 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25); maltopentaose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.-) ; amylosucrase (EC 2.4.1.4) ; sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7); malto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.141); isomaltulose synthase (EC 5.4.99.11); malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase (EC 5.4.99.15); amylo-α-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33); α-1,4-glucan: phosphate α-maltosyltransferase (EC 2.4.99.16); 6-P-sucrose phosphorylase ...
α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1); pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41); cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.19); cyclomaltodextrinase (EC 3.2.1.54); trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.93); oligo-α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.10); maltogenic amylase (EC 3.2.1.133); neopullulanase (EC 3.2.1.135); α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20); maltotetraose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.60); isoamylase (EC 3.2.1.68); glucodextranase (EC 3.2.1.70); maltohexaose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.98); maltotriose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.116); branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18); trehalose synthase (EC 5.4.99.16); 4-α-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25); maltopentaose-forming α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.-) ; amylosucrase (EC 2.4.1.4) ; sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7); malto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.141); isomaltulose synthase (EC 5.4.99.11); malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase (EC 5.4.99.15); amylo-α-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33); α-1,4-glucan: phosphate α-maltosyltransferase (EC 2.4.99.16); 6-P-sucrose phosphorylase ...
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K01187 malZ; alpha-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.20] K01187 malZ; alpha-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.20] K00963 UGP2; UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.9] K00963 UGP2; UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.9] K00694 bcsA; cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) [EC:2.4.1.12] K00975 glgC; glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.27] K00703 glgA; starch synthase [EC:2.4.1.21] K00703 glgA; starch synthase [EC:2.4.1.21] K00700 GBE1; 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme [EC:2.4.1.18] K00688 PYG; glycogen phosphorylase [EC:2.4.1.1] K05343 treS; maltose alpha-D-glucosyltransferase / alpha-amylase [EC:5.4.99.16 3.2.1.1] K05343 treS; maltose alpha-D-glucosyltransferase / alpha-amylase [EC:5.4.99.16 3.2.1.1] K00705 malQ; 4-alpha-glucanotransferase [EC:2.4.1.25] K16147 glgE; starch synthase (maltosyl-transferring) [EC:2.4.99.16] K01214 ISA; isoamylase [EC:3.2.1.68] K01214 ISA; isoamylase [EC:3.2.1.68] K06044 treY; (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan 1-alpha-D-glucosylmutase [EC:5.4.99.15] K01236 ...
New approach toward á-amylase electrophoresis and isoamylase detection. Abstract : Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been a useful method for analysis of á-amylases and their isozyme(s). Routinely, for detection of enzyme activity soluble starch (1%) is added at the end of electrophoresis, before staining the gel, which is time consuming and in some cases minor isozyme(s) could not be detected. Thus, we developed a convenient and efficient native page by adding the soluble 0.5% starch at the beginning of electrophoresis as a part of gel components and running at 4 °C. This simple modification should be beneficial for analyzing the both purified and ...
Genetic stability of amylase activity after serial subcultivation experiments with amylolytic ruminalStreptococcus bovis strains was investigated. Two strains Amy+ and Amy− were obtained. Loss of amylase activity connected with the loss of plasmid DNA was not found in these strains. The presence of the gene responible for the amylase activity in the chromosome of these strains was revealed by hybridization of the α-amylase gene on pJK108 against chromosomal DNA ofS. bovis andBacillus subtilis after a complete restriction withEcoRI.
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Starch is explained as well in its structure as in its general properties. This is the basis for understanding starch functionality in all applications.
α-Amylase hydrolyzes the 2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotrioside (CNPG3) to release 2-chloro-nitrophenol and form 2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltoside (CNPG2), maltotriose (G3) and glucose (G). The rate of increase in absorbance is measured at 405 nm and is proportional to the α-amylase activity in the sample.(G). The rate of increase in absorbance is measured at 405 nm and is proportional to the α-amylase activity in the sample.. ...
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A debranching enzyme is a molecule that helps facilitate the breakdown of glycogen, which serves as a store of glucose in the body, through glucosyltransferase and glucosidase activity. Together with phosphorylases, debranching enzymes mobilize glucose reserves from glycogen deposits in the muscles and liver. This constitutes a major source of energy reserves in most organisms. Glycogen breakdown is highly regulated in the body, especially in the liver, by various hormones including insulin and glucagon, to maintain a homeostatic balance of blood-glucose levels. When glycogen breakdown is compromised by mutations in the glycogen debranching enzyme, metabolic diseases such as Glycogen storage disease type III can result. Glucosyltransferase and glucosidase are performed by a single enzyme in mammals, yeast, and some bacteria, but by two distinct enzymes in E. coli and other bacteria, complicating nomenclature. Proteins that catalyze both functions are referred to as glycogen debranching enzymes ...
To evaluate the exocrine pancreatic function at the time of diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we determined immunoreactive anodal and cathodal trypsin(ogen) levels in sera from almost all children (n = 375) 0-14 years of age in Sweden in whom diabetes developed during 1 year, and in …
This review summarises the trajectory of neonatal screening strategies for the detection of cystic fibrosis (CF) using the measurement of Immunoreactive Trypsin (IRT) in dried blood spots (DBS) from 1979 until the beginning of the 21st century when newborn screening (NBS) programmes started to spread throughout many countries, using IRT measurement combined with a CF genotype analysis of DBS.
Torulopsis ingeniosaDi Menna was found to possess an α-amylase strongly attached to the cell wall, its pH optimum being at 5.5, optimum temperature at 50 °C, highly sensitive to thermal inactivation. The enzyme was found to be induced by starch but the synthesis is not subject to a glucose effect.
Patients who underwent multifocal IOL implantation with at least 6-month follow-up were included in the study, 38 eyes of 19 patients had Acrysof Restor +2.50 add, 42 eyes of 21 patients had Acrysof Restor +3.00 D add, 46 eyes of 23 patients had Acriva Reviol +3.75 D add, and 40 eyes of 20 patients had Acriva Trifocal - enhanced depth. Visual acuities for distance, at 32 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm, and 60 cm, contrast sensitivity under photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare, spherical and astigmatic defocus, spectacle dependance, patient reported satisfaction, and patient reported visual disturbances were evaluated ...
Primary Objective: • To evaluate overall safety and tolerability of SIR1-365 in patients with severe COVID-19 Secondary Objectives: - To assess the clinical efficacy of SIR1-365 in patients with severe COVID-19 - To assess the effects of SIR1-365 on multiple inflammatory biomarker levels including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, cytokines, and chemokines - To assess the effects of SIR1-365 on biomarkers indicative of target engagement in patients with severe COVID-19 - To assess the effects of SIR1-365 on biomarkers indicative of kidney injury in patients with severe COVID-19 - To assess the effects of SIR1-365 on biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular endothelial cell damage in patients with severe COVID-19 - To characterize plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of SIR1-365 in patients with severe COVID-19 ...
Deformation prediction and the analysis of underground goaf are important to the safe and efficient recovery of residual ore when shifting from open-pit mining to underground mining. To address the...
To the Editors: Hyperamylasemia has been described in association with numerous solid malignant tumors (1, 2), but its association with hematologic malignancies has not been extensively studied. In a preliminary study, we found that 32% of patients with hematologic malignancies had hyperamylasemia (2). To gain more information regarding the incidence and significance of hyperamylasemia in patients with hematologic malignancies, we studied serum amylase activity in 35 patients and followed them over time (3, 4).. Forty-one consecutive patients with various hematologic malignancies were evaluated in our hematology clinic. Six patients were excluded because of concurrent illness or misdiagnosis of a hematologic ...
Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41, limit dextrinase, amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase, bacterial debranching enzyme, debranching enzyme, alpha-dextrin endo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase, R-enzyme, pullulan alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase) is a specific kind of glucanase, an amylolytic exoenzyme, that degrades pullulan. It is produced as an extracellular, cell surface-anchored lipoprotein by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Klebsiella. Type I pullulanases specifically attack α-1,6 linkages, while type II pullulanases are also able to hydrolyse α-1,4 linkages. It is also produced by some other bacteria and archaea. Pullulanase is used as a processing aid in grain processing biotechnology (production of ethanol and sweeteners). Pullulanase is also known as pullulan-6-glucanohydrolase (Debranching enzyme). Its substrate, pullulan, is regarded as a chain of maltotriose units linked by alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Pullulanase will hydrolytically cleave pullulan (alpha-glucan polysaccharides). Lee, E.Y.C.; Whelan, W.J. ...
In maize kernels, mutations in the gene sugary1 (su1) result in (1) increased sucrose concentration; (2) decreased concentration of amylopectin, the branched component of starch; and (3) accumulation of the highly branched glucopolysaccharide phytoglycogen. To investigate further the me...read more ...
Hyperamylasemia (High Blood Amylase Level) chemotherapy side effect, causes, symptom management and when to contact your healthcare provider during cancer treatment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficiacy of C1-inhibitor plasma concentrate, the main kallikrein inactivator, in preventing hyperamylasemia induced by endoscopic papillosphincterotomy. AU - Testoni, P. A.. AU - Cicardi, M.. AU - Bergamaschini, L.. AU - Guzzoni, S.. AU - Castelli, R.. AU - Cugno, M.. AU - Buizza, M.. AU - Agostoni, A.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027296353&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027296353&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0027296353. VL - 25. SP - 344. EP - 345. JO - Endoscopy. JF - Endoscopy. SN - 0013-726X. IS - 5. ER - ...
The pancreas and the glands that produce saliva also produce amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest food, notes MedlinePlus. Amylase enters the bloodstream when the pancreas becomes inflamed...
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Figure 4: Effect of Municipal auto-battery recycling-site leachate (MABL) on α-Amylase activity. Values represent mean ± standard deviation. Values are significantly higher (p,0.05) against the control, n=3 ...
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K00963 UGP2; UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.9] K05349 bglX; beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.21] K00703 glgA; starch synthase [EC:2.4.1.21] K00700 GBE1; 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme [EC:2.4.1.18] K00688 PYG; glycogen phosphorylase [EC:2.4.1.1] K05343 treS; maltose alpha-D-glucosyltransferase / alpha-amylase [EC:5.4.99.16 3.2.1.1] K00705 malQ; 4-alpha-glucanotransferase [EC:2.4.1.25] K16147 glgE; starch synthase (maltosyl-transferring) [EC:2.4.99.16] K01214 ISA; isoamylase [EC:3.2.1.68] K06044 treY; (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan 1-alpha-D-glucosylmutase [EC:5.4.99.15] K01236 treZ; maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase [EC:3.2.1.141] K01194 TREH; alpha,alpha-trehalase [EC:3.2.1.28] K15778 pmm-pgm; phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.8 5.4.2.2] K00845 glk; glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2] K01810 GPI; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9] K00847 E2.7.1.4; fructokinase [EC:2.7.1.4 ...
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In this experiment, students investigate and compare amylase activity in different life stages of barley. The experiment allows students to make connections between concepts and processes previously covered in lectures and reading materials and is relevant to learning and skills development in the scientific method and related areas such report writing and the interpretation of results. With regard to theoretical and conceptual knowledge, the practical investigates the function of an enzyme in a living organism and explores concepts around the ontogenic regulation of metabolism in an organism as it develops. Development of skills in the scientific method and the communication of science are also important components of this exercise.. ...
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Elastase 1 and immunoreactive trypsin were assessed by a RIA technique in the sera of 29 control subjects, 24 pancreatic cancer patients, 22 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 31 with extra-pancreatic diseases to ascertain and compare their usefulness in chronic pancreatic disease diagnosis. Increased levels of elastase 1 were detected in 60.9% of pancreatic cancer and in 61.1% of chronic pancreatitis patients; low values were found in only two subjects with pancreatic disease. A close correlation between the two enzymes was found in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. These data suggest that serum elastase 1, as well as immunoreactive trypsin, is of limited value in chronic pancreatic disease diagnosis; increased levels of the two enzymes always occur simultaneously; low immunoreactive trypsin values together with normal elastase 1 serum levels are detectable in a number of patients with chronic pancreatitis and severe exocrine insufficiency.. ...
Introduction. Kiu Yi, IP 13M The effect of temperature on amylase activity Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to investigate if temperature will affect the amount of starch broken down as enzyme activity can change by different temperature. This is because as temperature rises the rate of chemical reactions increases due to the temperature increases the rate of the molecules motion. More interactions will be existed between an enzyme and its substrate. The enzyme used in this lab exercise is amylase, which is commonly found in saliva and germinating seeds, catalyzes the breakdown of starch. It also reacts quickly when heat is present during the process of it reaction. However, if the temperature is higher than the optimum point, enzymes can be denatured and they can no longer bind to a substrate and catalyze reactions. My hypothesis is therefore the amylase activity would increase as the temperature rise, until a certain high temperature at which the amylase would denature and be ...
This is one of the Enzymology protocol on Effect of Temperature on Amylase activity (Enzymology Protocol). Download Salivary amylase activity assay Protocol
α-amylases are enzymes which hydrolyze starch molecules to give diverse products including dextrins and progressively smaller polymers composed of glucose units which causes hyperglycemia and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we estimated the α-amylase activity, HbA1C and blood glucose in Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Study group s follows: 20 Healthy subjects, 30 newly detected patients and 43 type 2 diabetics on treatment with metformin and pioglitazone combination and 30 pioglitazone alone treated. In all subjects blood sugar was estimated and anti diabetic activity criterion was taken for the diagnosis. In the same subjects fasting and post-prandial α-amylase activity was estimated, HbA1c levels were compared with α-amylase activity in healthy and treated subjects. The α-amylase activity in type 2 diabetic patients was significantly different from control subjects and significant relation between α-amylase activity and HbA1c was observed in diabetic subjects ...
The capabilities of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds (caryopses) to degrade starchy reserves present in the endosperm tissue were compared under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that rice, a species highly tolerant to anoxia, can readily break down starch under a …
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  Amylopectin molecular structure is a very important determinant of starch functional properties. The main purpose of this study was to determine the strength of the relationship between the amylopectin structure of starches from cassava varieties and their functional properties. TME14 had the highest (46.63%) proportion of A chains while Bamunanika had the lowest 42.27%. Bamunanika had the highest (23.33%) proportion of B3+ chains while TME14 had the lowest 19.66%. TME14 had the highest amylopectin molecular weight 2.74x108 g/mol while NASE10 had the lowest 2.42x108 g/mol. TME14 had a higher gelatinisation temperature 65.37°C compared to the other varieties. Bamunanika had the highest final viscosity 2477.66 mPa s while NASE10 had the highest set back viscosity (494.50 mPa s). TME14 had the highest pasting temperature 67.80°C while NASE10 had the lowest 65.23°C. There was a significant negative correlation between final viscosity and A chains (r = -0.64), pasting
Increased variability and abnormalities in pancreatic enzyme concentrations in otherwise asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes Jaret Malloy, Kate Gurney, Kevin Shan, Ping Yan, Steve ChenAmylin Pharmaceuticals LLC, San Diego, CABackground: Recent studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with obese nondiabetic individuals. Serum lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations are used in conjunction with clinical findings to diagnose pancreatitis.Methods: In two large clinical trials of overweight/obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects, lipase and pancreatic amylase were measured at screening and 2–5 weeks later at baseline (prior to treatment with study medication).Results: Lipase and pancreatic amylase concentrations were above the upper limit of normal (ULN) in 13% and 6% of type 2 diabetic subjects, respectively, and were approximately three-fold (3 ×) higher than the proportion of nondiabetic subjects with levels
Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) glycosidic bonds. Branching takes place with α(1→6) bonds occurring every 24 to 30 glucose units, resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed more slowly, but have higher density and be insoluble.[clarification needed]. Its counterpart in animals is glycogen, which has the same composition and structure, but with more extensive branching that occurs every eight to 12 glucose units. Plants store starch within specialized organelles called amyloplasts. When energy is needed for cell work, the plant hydrolyzes the starch, releasing the glucose subunits. Humans and other animals that eat plant foods also use amylase, an enzyme that assists in breaking down amylopectin. Starch is made of about 70% amylopectin by weight, though it varies depending on the ...
I have done a native PAGE and activity staining for amylase which consists of initial incubation with 1% starch for 30mins followed by 2% potassium iodide and 0.2% iodine. the activity bands appear translucent on a blue background. but when i cut the activity bands it always appears blue. now i wish to process these cut gel bands for MALDI TOF for which i have to destain. please can anyone help me with destaining process?????. ...
2004. Study of starch granules swelling by the blue dextran method and by microscopy. 2004. Elizabeth Contreras López, Arnaud Rolée and Martine Le Meste. Starch/Starke, 56, 576-581. ...
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