We studied silent stroke (i.e., infarcts on computed tomographic scan not related to later symptoms) in patients after transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke.. Ours is a cross-sectional study of 2,329 patients who were randomized in a secondary prevention trial after transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke and had no residual deficit after the qualifying event.. Silent stroke was observed in 13% of the 2,329 patients. Lacunes formed 79%, cortical lesions 14%, and border zone lesions 7% of all silent strokes. Silent lacunes were most often located in the basal ganglia and symptomatic lacunes most often in the corona radiata. Age, hypertension, and current cigarette smoking were related to the presence of silent stroke. Silent stroke was equally common in different types of transient ischemic attack, including transient monocular blindness. Residual symptoms of any kind were more common in patients with silent stroke than in those without.. Because only the sites of silent ...
article{f8148d83-783e-4da1-816a-c12a7ad72203, abstract = {,p,The expression of the mRNAs of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and the neurotrophin receptor, TrkB, was studied in the rat hippocampus by in situ hybridization following normothermic (37°C) and protective hypothermic (33°C) transient cerebral ischemia of 15 min duration. In the resistant dentate gyms, normothermic ischemia transiently induced NGF mRNA at around 8 h of recovery, while the NT3 mRNA levels were depressed over at least a 24-h recovery period. The levels of BDNF and TrkB were transiently and markedly elevated with a maximal expression at 24 h of recovery. Intraischemic hypothermia reduced the induction of NGF mRNA, while the increase of BDNF mRNA expression occurred earlier during recovery, and the post-ischemic NT3 mRNA depression was not affected. Also, the expression of TrkB mRNA was enhanced, and occurred concomitantly with the elevation of BDNF mRNA. In ...
To the Editor:. With great interest we read the study of Cucchiara et al1 about the usefulness of the ABCD score,2 developed by Rothwell et al. A 6-point score derived from the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project cohort (age [≥60 years=1], blood pressure [systolic ,140 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥90 mmHg=1], clinical features [unilateral weakness=2, speech disturbance without weakness=1, other=0], and duration of symptoms in minutes [≥60=2, 10 to 59=1, ,10=0]; ABCD) was highly predictive of 7-day risk of stroke in the Oxfordshire cohort. In contrast to the Oxfordshire series, the ABCD score is not useful in a North American cohort of transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients. We are pleased to present a study with similar results. We test the ABCD score in 345 consecutive TIA patients attended within 24 hours by the vascular neurologist in the emergency room. Clinical data, symptom duration, neuroimaging and ultrasonographic (carotid and transcranial) findings were prospectively collected wihin ...
Among patients with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack and prior VKA experience, switching to dabigatran was associated with an increased stroke/transient ischemic attack rate for both dabigatran doses compared with continuing on warfarin (D110 hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.78; D150 HR 2.34; 95% CI, 1.60-3.41). Among prior stroke/transient ischemic attack patients who were new starters on dabigatran or warfarin, the rate of stroke/transient ischemic attack for both doses of dabigatran was similar to or lower than warfarin (D110 HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80; D150 HR 0.92l; 95% CI, 0.73-1.15). ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Astrocytes play many roles essential for normal brain activity. The ability of these cells to recover after temporary focal cerebral ischemia is likely to be one important determinant of the extent of brain dysfunction and tissue damage. We have assessed astrocytic function based on the incorporation of radiolabel from 1-14C-acetate into glutamine at 1 hour of recirculation after middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 or 3 hours in rats. There were marked differences in the response between subregions within the tissue subjected to ischemia, but the overall pattern of changes was similar after each ischemic period. The striatum, which forms part of the severely ischemic focal tissue during arterial occlusion, showed a large (44% to 68%) decrease in glutamine labeling compared with equivalent tissue from the contralateral hemisphere. In contrast, 14C-glutamine content was not significantly altered in perifocal tissue in the cerebral cortex, which was subjected to more moderate ischemia. Cortical ...
The feasibility of risk stratification of patients with acute transient ischemic attack admitted to Beijing anzhen hospital by the ABCD2 score system is yet to be determined. The aim of this paper was to evaluate and validate the short-term prognosis of TIA patients in Peking area using this new score system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel for acute high risk transient ischaemic attack and minor ischaemic stroke. T2 - A clinical practice guideline. AU - Prasad, Kameshwar. AU - Siemieniuk, Reed. AU - Hao, Qiukui. AU - Guyatt, Gordon. AU - ODonnell, Martin. AU - Lytvyn, Lyubov. AU - Heen, Anja Fog. AU - Agoritsas, Thomas. AU - Vandvik, Per Olav. AU - Gorthi, Sankar Prasad. AU - Fisch, Loraine. AU - Jusufovic, Mirza. AU - Muller, Jennifer. AU - Booth, Brenda. AU - Horton, Eleanor. AU - Fraiz, Auxiliadora. AU - Siemieniuk, Jillian. AU - Fobuzi, Awah Cletus. AU - Katragunta, Neelima. AU - Rochwerg, Bram. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - What is the role of dual antiplatelet therapy after high risk transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke? Specifically, does dual antiplatelet therapy with a combination of aspirin and clopidogrel lead to a greater reduction in recurrent stroke and death over the use of aspirin alone when given in the first 24 hours after a high ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetrical protection of neostriatal neurons against transient forebrain ischemia by unilateral dopamine depletion. AU - Ren, Yubo. AU - Li, Xiaoda. AU - Xu, Zao C.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Neurons in the dorsal neostriatum are highly vulnerable to transient cerebral ischemia. It has been suggested that excessive dopamine release during ischemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of postischemic cell death in the neostriatum. However, it remains controversial whether depletion of dopamine protects neurons in the neostriatum against ischemic insult. In the present study, transient forebrain ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion method. Ischemic depolarization was used as an indication of completed ischemia. Under our experimental conditions, ischemia that produces ~21 min ischemic depolarization caused more than 90% of cell death in the dorsolateral neostriatum. Using such ischemia as a standard insult, the effect of dopamine depletion on ...
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in ischemic stroke. However, there are few studies on the relationship between EPC and nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events. Our aim was to investigate the association of EPCs and SDF-1 (serum stromal cell-derived factor-1) with NICE (nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events). TIA (transient ischemic attack) and minor stroke patients (153 in total) who had an onset of symptoms within 1 day were consecutively collected. 83 of the patients were categorized into the HR-NICE (high-risk nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular event) group, and 70 of the patients were in the NHR-NICE (non-high-risk nondisabling ischemic cerebrovascular events) group. Adopted FCM (flow cytometry) was used to measure EPCs, taking double-positive CD34/KDR as EPCs. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of serum SDF-1 and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). By the sequence of admission time, 15 patients were selected separately from the HR-NICE
Transient global cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also induces an up regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which generates several metabolites of arachidonic acid, known as prostanoids, including Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). The present study investigated whether the PGI2 IP receptor plays an important role in brain injury after global cerebral ischemia in aged mice. Adult young (2-3 months) and aged (12-15 months) male C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) or IP receptor knockout (IP KO) mice underwent a 12 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) or a sham surgery. Behavior tests (neurologic deficit and T-maze) were performed 3 and 7 days after BCCAO. After seven days of reperfusion, the numbers of cells positive for markers of neurons, astrocytes, microglia, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) were evaluated immunohistochemically. Interestingly, in young and aged IP KO ischemic mice, there was a significant increase (p < 0.01) in
Patients with stroke or transient ischemic attach should receive advise on smoking cessation. It is however unknown if an intensive smoking cessation program is better than ordinary advise on smoking cessation during hospitalisation for stroke or transient ischemic attack.. The aim of the study was to assess if an intensive smoking cessation program made more patients stop smoking after stroke or transient ischemic attack.. Patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack are admitted to the department of neurology at Odense University hospital. Patient who are smokers on admission and age , 76 years, inhabitants in Funen County and with symptoms developed before admission will be offered participation in the study unless they have severe stroke, stroke more than 3 weeks before admission, other severe disease or unable to participate.. Study participants will be randomised to either usual short advise on smoking cessation or an intensive smoking cessation program. All participants will be ...
Is Transient Ischaemic Attack a common side effect of Plavix? View Transient Ischaemic Attack Plavix side effect risks. Male, 84 years of age, took Plavix . Patient was hospitalized.
Transient cerebral ischemia is defined as a temporary loss of blood flow to an area in the brain. In ICD-9-CM, codes for transient cerebral ischemia a...
BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrent stroke is up to 10% in the week after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Modelling studies suggest that urgent use of existing preventive treatments could reduce the risk by 80-90%, but in the absence of evidence many health-care systems make little provision. Our aim was to determine the effect of more rapid treatment after TIA and minor stroke in patients who are not admitted direct to hospital. METHODS: We did a prospective before (phase 1: April 1, 2002, to Sept 30, 2004) versus after (phase 2: Oct 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007) study of the effect on process of care and outcome of more urgent assessment and immediate treatment in clinic, rather than subsequent initiation in primary care, in all patients with TIA or minor stroke not admitted direct to hospital. The study was nested within a rigorous population-based incidence study of all TIA and stroke (Oxford Vascular Study; OXVASC), such that case ascertainment, investigation, and follow-up were
Background and aim: Published data suggest that patients with cerebral ischaemia and atrial fibrillation (CIAF) have higher inhospital mortality than patients with cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (CIAO). Data on long term risks are scarce. We compared the long term risks of death and vascular events (VE) between these groups.. Methods: We extended the follow-up of 2473 patients from the Dutch TIA Trial (recruitment March 1986 to March 1989, all treated with aspirin; CIAO) and 186 Dutch participants of the European Atrial Fibrillation Trial (recruitment June 1988 to May 1992, 26% on anticoagulants during the trial; CIAF). Hazard ratios (HRs) for death and VE of CIAF versus CIAO were analysed by means of Cox regression analysis and adjusted for age, sex and several cardiovascular risk factors.. Results: After a mean follow-up of 10.1 years, 1484 patients with CIAO had died and 1336 had suffered at least one VE (377 cardiac, 455 stroke). Mean follow-up of the CIAF patients was 6.8 years; 150 ...
View reviews from patients and their medical experiences and knowledge with Transient Ischemic Attack
(TIA, Mini-Stroke) - Symptoms. Share your comments to help others and address questions on symptoms, complications, treatments, and diagnosis from eMedicineHealths physicians.
Clarification of the pathophysiological mechanisms of intra-arterial thromboembolism may lead to novel treatments for cerebrovascular disease. There is increasing evidence for the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease (ADAMTS-13) in modulating the thrombotic cascade in high flow arterial settings. VWF multimers are rich in ultra large forms (ULVWF) which can rapidly bind its primary platelet receptor resulting in spontaneous aggregation of platelets. Under normal conditions, these ULVWF are regulated by rapid proteolysis converting them to smaller, less active forms. The protease responsible for cleavage of ULVWF is ADAMTS-13. We measured the ADAMTS-13 antigen and ADAMTS-13 activity levels in the plasma of consecutive patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA), compared with nonstroke controls, in a hospital based TIA clinic. This was compared with VWF levels. Samples were analysed in the acute phase and at 3 months postevent. In our pilot study patients with partial anterior ...
OBJECTIVES: We aim to evaluate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) on testicular tissue after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic changes of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins after transient cerebral ischemia in mice. AU - Liu, Wentao. AU - Tian, Fengfeng. AU - Kurata, Tomoko. AU - Morimoto, Nobutoshi. AU - Abe, Koji. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - With fusion or fission, mitochondria alter their morphology in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli, resulting in elongated, tubular, interconnected, or fragmented forms. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed at 2 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days after 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in mice. This study showed that mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) were both upregulated in the ischemic penumbra, with the peak at 2 days after tMCAO, whereas phosphorylated-Drp1 (P-Drp1) progressively increased with a peak at 14 days after tMCAO. Double-immunofluorescence analysis showed many Drp1/cytochrome c oxidase ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ABCD(2) score predicts the early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, data on the severity of recurrent events would also be useful. Do patients with high scores also have more severe early recurrent strokes, perhaps further justifying hospital admission? Do patients with low scores have a low early risk of recurrent TIA as well as recurrent stroke? METHODS: We completed a prospective, population-based study in Oxfordshire, England, of 500 consecutive patients presenting with TIA from April 1, 2002, by using multiple methods of case ascertainment (Oxford Vascular Study). Recurrent TIA, minor stroke, and major stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score |3 at the time of first assessment) were identified by face-to-face follow-up. Predictive value was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Of 500 patients with TIA, 55 had a recurrent TIA (11.0%; 95% CI, 8.3% to 13.7%) and 50 had a recurrent
A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini stroke," is a brief episode where symptoms similar to those of a stroke are present. The cause of a TIA is a temporary decrease in blood supply to a part of the brain. Similar to an ischemic stroke, an attack occurs when a clot or plaque buildup decreases blood flow to a part of the brain. But unlike a stroke, a TIA does not have a lasting effect, as it only decreases the blood flow, and does not usually cause permanent tissue damage. Many TIAs last less than 5 minutes, and symptoms can include sudden weakness in one side of the body, blurred vision, vertigo or sudden, severe headache with no known cause. Sometimes, the clots that caused the transient ischemic attack may spontaneously dissolve.. While TIAs are temporary and symptoms are brief, it is still crucial to immediately seek emergency care. Transient ischemic attacks are usually indicators of partially blocked or narrowed arteries, and are often precursors to full-blown strokes ...
This randomized clinical trial determines the efficacy of a culturally tailored skills-based educational intervention with telephone follow-up compared with standard discharge care on systolic blood pressure reduction in a multiethnic cohort of patients with mild/moderate stroke/transient ischemic attack....
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long-term outcome information after transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke is required to help plan and allocate care services. We evaluated the impact of TIA and stroke on disability and institutionalization over 5 years using data from a population-based study. METHODS: Patients from a UK population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007 and followed up to 2012. Patients were followed up at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months postevent and assessed using the modified Rankin scale. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the predictors of disability postevent. RESULTS: A total of 748 index stroke and 440 TIA cases were studied. For patients with TIA, disability levels increased from 14% (63 of 440) premorbidly to 23% (60 of 256) at 5 years (P=0.002), with occurrence of subsequent stroke being a major predictor of disability. For stroke survivors, the proportion disabled (modified Rankin scale |2) increased from 21% (154 of 748)
Prevention of stroke may be classified as primary prevention, if there is no previous history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and secondary...
As the two extreme entities of clinical cerebral ischemia, we have transient cerebral ischemia (TIA) on the one side and the completed stroke syndrome (CS) on the other. The essential criterion for...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
Evidence-based recommendations on the diagnosis and initial management of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA or mini-stroke) in over 16s
PubMed journal article: Neuroprotection by progesterone after transient cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), with the risk increasing with every rise in systolic blood pressure. The cardiovascular risk can be minimized by persistent correction of the hypertension. (See.)Once
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an acute episode of temporary neurologic dysfunction that results from focal cerebral, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, and is not associated with acute tissue infarction. The clinical symptoms of TIA typically last less than 1 hour and often last for less than 30 minutes, but prolonged episodes can occur.
Discusses transient ischemic attack (TIA), sometimes called a mini-stroke. Covers causes, including blood clot as a result of atherosclerosis. Looks at treatment with medicines, surgery, and lifestyle changes. Discusses prevention steps.
Discusses transient ischemic attack (TIA), sometimes called a mini-stroke. Covers causes, including blood clot as a result of atherosclerosis. Looks at treatment with medicines, surgery, and lifestyle changes. Discusses prevention steps.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment of this neurological condition, often called a ministroke.
Professor Kazem Fathie, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S., Ph.D. TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK ENDARTERECTOMY DEFINITION Irreversible disability is traditionally
Related conditions - A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an ischemic stroke in which the blood flow is restored quickly and the symptoms disappear within 24 hours. In other words, its a mini-stroke that you recover from quickly. For most patients with a TIA, the symptoms last less than one hour. The longer the symptoms last, the more likely that there will be permanent brain tissue injury.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary condition that will resolve without specific treatment. However, it is important that anyone that is suspected to have experienced a TIA receives medical care as soon as possible to confirm diagnosis and reduce the risk of a subsequent attack or more serious stroke in the future.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an ischemic stroke in which the blood flow is restored quickly and the symptoms disappear within 24 hours. In other words, its a mini-stroke that you recover from quickly. For most patients with a TIA, the symptoms last less than one hour. The longer the symptoms last, the more likely that there will be permanent brain tissue injury.
Transient ischemic attack: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on TIA at PatientsLikeMe. 362 patients with TIA experience fatigue, pain, depressed mood, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Aspirin-Dipyridamol, Aspirin, Atorvastatin, Clopidogrel, and Duloxetine to treat their TIA and its symptoms.
The Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) study, is the first stroke prevention trial to compare intracranial stenting with medical therapy and incorporate intensive medical management to the study design. Patients in the study were ages 30 to 80 years old and had experienced a recent transient ischemic attack or another type of non-disabling stroke. All patients participated in a lifestyle modification program focused on quitting smoking, increasing exercise, and controlling diabetes and cholesterol ...
Organizers: Gregory J. del Zoppo (University of Washington School of Medicine) and Philip B. Gorelick (University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago School of Medicine)This 1.5-day conference will address recent advancements, challenges, and future directions in research studying innate inflammation as a risk factor leading to transient ischemic attacks and stroke, and their potential implications with respect to therapy and prevention.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a mild stroke caused by a brief interruption of blood flow to the brain. It causes stroke-like symptoms, such as...
Transient Ischemic Attack is a mini stroke caused due to interruption in the blood supply to the brain leading to symptoms which last for a short time.
Learn more about Transient Ischemic Attack at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Transient Ischemic Attack at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression associated with an enriched environment after transient focal ischemia. AU - Shono, Yuji. AU - Yokota, Chiaki. AU - Kuge, Yuji. AU - Kido, Shinsuke. AU - Harada, Akina. AU - Kokame, Koichi. AU - Inoue, Hiroyasu. AU - Hotta, Mariko. AU - Hirata, Kenji. AU - Saji, Hideo. AU - Tamaki, Nagara. AU - Minematsu, Kazuo. PY - 2011/2/28. Y1 - 2011/2/28. N2 - Recent studies have demonstrated that animals housed in an enriched environment after an experimental stroke obtained a better functional outcome than those housed in a standard cage; however, little is known about the gene expression associated with this functional recovery. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the expression of genes in an enriched environment after experimental stroke in the ischemic and non-ischemic sides of the cortices. Transient focal brain ischemia was produced by the occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (t-MCAO) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into 3 ...
We used a murine model of transient focal cerebral ischemia to study: 1) in vivo DTI long-term temporal evolution of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion fractional anisotropy (FA) at days 4, 10, 15 and 21 after stroke 2) ex vivo distribution of a plasticity-related protein (GAP-43) and its relationship with the ex vivo DTI characteristics of the striato-thalamic pathway (21 days). All animals recovered motor function. In vivo ADC within the infarct was significantly increased after stroke. In the stroke group, GAP-43 expression and FA values were significantly higher in the ipsilateral (IL) striatum and contralateral (CL) hippocampus compared to the shams. DTI tractography showed fiber trajectories connecting the CL striatum to the stroke region, where increased GAP43 and FA were observed and fiber tracts from the CL striatum terminating in the IL hippocampus. Our data demonstrate that DTI changes parallel histological remodeling and recovery of function ...
Background In the current study, a transient cerebral ischemia producing selective cell death was designated a mild ischemic insult. A comparable insult in humans is a transient ischemic attack (TIA) that is associated with functional recovery but can have imaging evidence of minor ischemic damage including cerebral atrophy. A TIA also predicts a high risk for early recurrence of a stroke or TIA and thus multiple ischemic insults are not uncommon. Not well understood is what the effect of differing recovery times between mild ischemic insults has on their pathophysiology. We investigated whether cumulative brain damage would differ if recurrence of a mild ischemic insult occurred at 1 or 3 days after a first insult. Results A transient episode of middle cerebral artery occlusion via microclip was produced to elicit mild ischemic changes-predominantly scattered necrosis. This was followed 1 or 3 days later by a repeat of the same insult. Brain damage assessed histologically 7 days later was ...
Transient ischemic attacks are a major risk factor for stroke. The management of TIA has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Any patient who presents TIA symptoms is now treated with the same urgency as a patient who presents with unstable angina. ...
The serine-threonine kinase Akt1 promotes cell survival through inhibition of apoptosis. One of the potential downstream targets of Akt1 is p70 S6 kinase, p70(S6K), an enzyme implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis. In this study, we investigated the changes in total and phosphorylated levels of Akt1 and p70(S6K) during transient focal ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 1, 4, and 24 h of reperfusion. The expression of total and phosphorylated forms of Akt1 and p70(S6K) were examined by Western blot analysis. Phosphorylation of Akt1 on Ser473 transiently increased at 1 and 4 h of reperfusion, whereas phosphorylation of Akt1 on Thr308 was reduced during reperfusion. The levels of total Akt1 remained unchanged at 1 and 4 h of reperfusion, but decreased significantly at 24 h of reperfusion. Phosphorylation of p70(S6K) on Thr389 decreased at 1, 4, and 24 h of reperfusion, while the levels of total p70(S6K) protein remained ...