Divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1) is required for iron uptake by the intestine and developing erythroid cells. DMT1 is also present in the liver, where it has been implicated in the uptake of transferrin-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), which appears in the plasma during iron overload. To test the hypothesis that DMT1 is required for hepatic iron uptake, we examined mice with the Dmt1 gene selectively inactivated in hepatocytes (Dmt1liv/liv). We found that Dmt1liv/liv mice and controls (Dmt1flox/flox) did not differ in terms of hepatic iron concentrations or other parameters of iron status. To determine whether hepatocyte DMT1 is required for hepatic iron accumulation, we crossed Dmt1liv/liv mice with Hfe−/− and hypotransferrinemic (Trfhpx/hpx) mice that develop hepatic iron overload. Double-mutant Hfe−/−Dmt1liv/liv and Trfhpx/hpx;Dmt1liv/liv mice were found to accumulate similar amounts of hepatic iron as did their respective controls. To directly assess the ...
Growth of the prevalent marine organism Trichodesmium can be limited by iron in natural and laboratory settings. This study investigated the iron uptake mechanisms that the model organism T. erythraeum IMS101 uses to acquire iron from inorganic iron and iron associated with the weak ligand complex, ferric citrate. IMS101 was observed to employ two different iron uptake mechanisms: superoxide-mediated reduction of inorganic iron in the surrounding milieu and a superoxide-independent uptake system for ferric citrate complexes. While the detailed pathway of ferric citrate utilization remains to be elucidated, transport of iron from this complex appears to involve reduction and/or exchange of the iron out of the complex prior to uptake, either at the outer membrane of the cell or within the periplasmic space. Various iron uptake strategies may allow Trichodesmium to effectively scavenge iron in oligotrophic ocean environments.. ...
Iron is a trace element that is needed in the body to produce red blood cells. It is either carried or bound to a protein that our liver makes, called transferrin. The levels of transferrin are always measured along your iron levels.. Many people consume enough iron through a healthy diet that includes red meat, beans, dark leafy greens, and iron-fortified grains. Some people do not take in enough iron or do not absorb it properly, while others - including pregnant women - have higher iron needs. Because the iron level can fluctuate from day to day (or even within the same day), iron tests are often ordered with ferritin and total iron-binding capacity (and indirect measurement of Transferrin). The total iron-binding capacity measures the iron that is available to bind to proteins in the blood. This helps assess the iron available to aid in the transport of oxygen in the body.. This test is made of two indicators, serum Iron and Binding Capacity. It measures the amount of iron available to bind ...
An Iron and TIBC Blood Test (Total Iron-Binding Capacity) is used to diagnose iron overload or iron deficiency. Order a Total Iron Binding Capacity Blood Test today.
A reduction in maternal liver iron content in response to the low iron diet was associated with upregulation of transferrin receptor expression and a reduction in hepcidin expression in the liver of both strains, which would be expected to promote increased iron absorption across the gut and increased turnover of iron in the liver. Placental expression of transferrin and DMT1+IRE were also upregulated, indicating adaptive responses to ensure availability of iron to the fetus. There were considerable differences in hepatic maternal and fetal iron content between strains. The higher quantity of iron present in livers from Wistar rats was not explained by differences in expression of intestinal iron transporters, and may instead reflect greater materno-fetal transfer in RHL rats as indicated by increased expression of placental iron transporters in this strain ...
Maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy induces anaemia in the developing fetus; however, the severity tends to be less than in the mother. The mechanism underlying this resistance has not been determined. We have measured placental expression of proteins involved in iron transfer in pregnant rats given diets with decreasing levels of iron and examined the effect of iron deficiency on iron transfer across BeWo cell layers, a model for placental iron transfer. Transferrin receptor expression was increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Similarly, expression of the iron-responsive element (IRE)-regulated form of the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) was also increased. In contrast, the non-IRE regulated isoform showed no change in mRNA levels. Protein levels of DMT1 increased significantly. Iron efflux is thought to be mediated by the metal transporter protein, IREG1/ferroportin1/MTP1, and oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) prior to incorporation into fetal transferrin is carried out by the ...
Play media In molecular biology, the iron response element or iron-responsive element (IRE) is a short conserved stem-loop which is bound by iron response proteins (IRPs, also named IRE-BP or IRBP). The IRE is found in UTRs (untranslated regions) of various mRNAs whose products are involved in iron metabolism. For example, the mRNA of ferritin (an iron storage protein) contains one IRE in its 5 UTR. When iron concentration is low, IRPs bind the IRE in the ferritin mRNA and cause reduced translation rates. In contrast, binding to multiple IREs in the 3 UTR of the transferrin receptor (involved in iron acquisition) leads to increased mRNA stability. The two leading theories describe how iron probably interacts to impact posttranslational control of transcription. The classical theory suggests that IRPs, in the absence of iron, bind avidly to the mRNA IRE. When Iron is present, it interacts with the protein to cause it to release the mRNA. For example, In high iron conditions in humans, IRP1 ...
Iron is essential for fundamental metabolic processes in cells and organisms. Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis evolved to maintain a plasma iron concentration that secures adequate supplies while preventing organ iron overload.. The homeostatic system must react to signals from pathways that consume iron (e.g. the erythropoiesis) and send signals to cells that supply iron (e.g. duodenal enterocytes, which absorb iron from the diet; macrophages which recycle iron from senescent erythrocytes, and hepatocytes which are the major iron stores). The small hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin (Hamp, LEAP1) orchestrates these iron fluxes and controls the amount of available extracellular iron by interacting with the iron exporter ferroportin: binding of hepcidin induces ferroportin internalization and degradation, thus reducing the levels of iron in circulation.. ...
Our study suggests that we do not attach enough importance to the diagnosis and management of anemia among RTR in stable condition. This is obviously attributable to the prevalence of unrecognized iron deficiencies, which is related to the poor information obtained from ferritin or TSAT measurements. Only 10.1% of severely anemic patients presented with serum ferritin levels of ,12 μg/L, and TSAT values of ,15% were observed for 29%. These results underestimate by far the number of patients with functional iron deficiencies, because HRBC values of ,2.5% were detected for 46.4% and values in the upper quartile were detected for 52.2% of our severely anemic patients, reaching 64.1% among female patients. These findings strongly suggest that iron deficiencies, as diagnosed by serum ferritin or TSAT measurements, remain undetected in a significant proportion of RTR. Factors related to the prevalence of iron deficiencies may include occult blood losses, blood sampling, and adherence to a low-meat ...
Reactions and interactions of iron and oxygen can be both beneficial and detrimental to cells and tissues. Iron is mainly found in our blood where it functions as a mediator in the transport of oxygen to the cells and is further vital for the cellular respiration reducing the oxygen to water. The flexible redox state of iron makes it ideal to contribute in single electron transfers, but may also catalyze reactions with oxygen resulting in cell damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Normally the cells are protected against iron toxicity by controlling iron uptake and storage. When the intracellular demand for iron increases; the iron uptake is promoted by increasing the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) and by decreasing the expression of the iron storage protein ferritin. Ferritin has a central role in the cellular iron detoxification by keeping it in a non reactive but still bioavailable form. However, in neurodegenerative diseases like in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease the iron ...
The severe iron store deficiency should also be reflected by a decreased plasma iron concentration. Measurement of plasma iron showed that cGKI−/− and cGKI RM mice have a severe decrease in plasma iron concentration that is reversed by treatment with PPI (Figure 3B). Iron resorption depends on two proteins present in the duodenum, the divalent metal ion transporter 1 and ferroportin.6 Ferroportin releases iron on the basolateral side of the enterocyte to ceruloplasmin and transferrin. The ferroportin concentration is regulated by the liver protein hepcidin. Hepcidin transcription is subsequently regulated by the BMP receptor and SMAD proteins.6,7 High hepcidin concentrations decrease the concentration of ferroportin. Therefore, hepcidin concentration should be low in iron deficiency. In line with these established feedback mechanisms, the liver hepcidin (HAMP) mRNA concentration was low in cGKI−/− mice (Figure 3C), but increased with PPI treatment and iron injection. The combination of ...
Methods currently used to determine iron bioavailability have disadvantages for both the subjects and researchers involved. One safe and simple method that needs further evaluation, the serum iron absorption method, involves an initial blood drawing, dosage s of iron, and blood drawings taken at intervals thereafter. Generally, the rise in serum iron or area under the curve is used to determine iron uptake. Two experiments were conducted using the serum iron absorption method in an effort to improve the utility of this method for the measurement of iron bioavailability. With this effort in mind, an equation adjusting for dose of iron (0.5-8 mg) and blood volume was used to estimate serum iron absorption and allow for adequate comparisons of other iron absorption data obtained with this method and others. One very significant result was that low serum ferritin was found to be a predictor of high serum estimated iron absorption (SEIA). Similarly, low serum ferritin levels were also highly correlated to
Attapulgite (or palygorskite) is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate. Modified attapulgite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was created by a liquid-phase reduction method and then applied for nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) removal (transformation) in simulated groundwater. Nanoscale zero-valent iron was sufficiently dispersed on the surface of thermally modified attapulgite. The NO3-N removal efficiency reached up to approximately 83.8% with an initial pH values of 7.0. The corresponding thermally modified attapulgite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (TATP-NZVI) and NO3-N concentrations were 2.0 g/L and 20 mg/L respectively. Moreover, 72.1% of the water column NO3-N was converted to ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) within 6 h. The influence of environmental boundary conditions including dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, light illumination and water temperature on NO3-N removal was also investigated with batch experiments. The results indicated that the DO concentration greatly impacted on ...
Retaining blood donors is important. Up to 5% of new blood donors, however, are deferred because of low hemoglobin. Although donation intervals are set to minimize iron deficiency, low levels of iron are a problem in regular donors, and deferred donors often do not return.. A recent meta-analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration evaluated 30 randomized control trials (over 4700 blood donors), including 19 trials comparing iron supplementation to a control group. This analysis found that iron supplementation significantly reduced the number of donors deferred due to low levels of hemoglobin, both at the first donation and at subsequent donations (p,0.0001). Iron supplements also increased hemoglobin levels and iron stores. Iron supplements, however, caused adverse side effects in 29% of donors compared to only 17% of donors who took placebo pills. While minimizing iron deficiency is important for donor retention, adverse side effects and the risk of long-term iron supplements need further ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular mechanisms and regulation of iron transport. AU - Chung, Jayong. AU - Wessling-Resnick, Marianne. AU - Enns, Caroline. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Iron homeostasis is primarily maintained through regulation of its transport. This review summarizes recent discoveries in the field of iron transport that have shed light on the molecular mechanisms of dietary iron uptake, pathways for iron efflux to and between peripheral tissues, proteins implicated in organellar transport of iron (particularly the mitochondrion), and novel regulators that have been proposed to control iron assimilation. The transport of both transferrin-bound and nontransferrin-bound iron to peripheral tissues is discussed. Finally, the regulation of iron transport is also considered at the molecular level, with posttranscriptional, transcriptional, and posttranslational control mechanisms being reviewed.. AB - Iron homeostasis is primarily maintained through regulation of its transport. This ...
Background. The response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is determined primarily by the availability of iron. In contrast to i.v. iron, oral iron supplementation is often insufficient for an optimal response.. Method. We studied iron absorption and the effects of iron status, aluminium status and inflammation in 19 chronic haemodialysis patients on maintenance rHuEpo therapy. Iron mucosal uptake after 24 h, iron retention after 2 weeks and mucosal transfer of iron were determined with a whole-body counter using an oral dose 59Fe. Iron absorption was measured once without, and once after the ingestion of 2 g aluminium hydroxide.. Results. On the basis of transferrin saturation, two groups of dialysis patients were distinguished: a group with a functional iron deficiency (n = 9), and an iron-replete group (n = 10). In the iron-deficient dialysis patients group, mucosal uptake, mucosal transfer, and iron retention were 49.9% ± 29.4, 0.73 ± 0.29, and 41.6% ± 32.2, being significantly ...
Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron ...
This study is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded single center trial to compare the efficacy of NovaFerrum® to ferrous sulfate for the treatment of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children.. Hypothesis: NovaFerrum® has greater efficacy than ferrous sulfate in increasing hemoglobin concentration during a twelve week course of treatment to subjects with iron deficiency anemia.. Primary Aim:. To compare the efficacy of NovaFerrum® to ferrous sulfate for the treatment of nutritional IDA in infants and young children as determined by increase in hemoglobin concentration.. Secondary Aims:. ...
The usual signals of iron deficiency are a decreased MCV (or anemia with a low-normal MCV) or elevated RDW. Hypochromia with or without microcytosis on peripheral blood smear is also suspicious. Conditions frequently associated with chronic iron deficiency (e.g., malabsorption, megaloblastic anemia, pregnancy, infants on prolonged milk feeding) should also prompt further investigation. The major conditions to be considered are chronic iron deficiency, thalassemia minor, and anemia of chronic disease. The most frequently used differential tests are the serum iron plus TIBC (considered as one test) and the serum ferritin. Although the serum ferritin test alone may be diagnostic, the test combination is frequently ordered together to save time (since the results of the serum ferritin test may not be conclusive), to help interpret the values obtained, and to provide additional information. Low serum iron levels plus low TIBC suggests chronic disease effect (Table 3-2 and Table 37-2). Low serum iron ...
Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinicians ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferrin concentrations but expressed as an iron measurement. To obtain the percent saturation, the serum iron is divided by the TIBC which gives the actual amount of saturated transferrin. The percent saturation is low in iron deficiency and high in iron storage diseases ...
how to reduce silicon dioxide from washing in iron ore, Iron Ore - Mineral Fact Sheets - Australian Mines Atlas It is the fourth most abundant element after oxygen, silicon and aluminium, and , Most iron ores mined today comprise the iron oxide minerals hematite, Fe2O3 , ore mines throughout the world, all the major Australian iron ore mines are open cut , mainly for coal washing, mineral separation, cement manufacture, gas and,Difference Between Iron II Chloride and Iron III Chloride ,, Nov 23, 2020· The key difference between iron II chloride and iron III chloride is that the Fe atom in iron(II) chloride chemical compound has a +2 oxidation state whereas the Fe atom in iron(III) chloride compound has a +3 oxidation state Iron(II) chloride and iron(III) chloride are important inorganic compounds of the chemical element iron (Fe) Iron II chloride is also named as ferrous chloride, and ,Determination of Iron in Ore by Redox Titration, Determination of Iron Ore by Redox Titration If the indicator ...
Objective: To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Design: Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Setting: Antenatal care clinic. Sample: 80 healthy ethnic Danish pregnant women.. Methods: Women were allocated to ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg elemental iron (Aminojern®) (n=40) or ferrous sulfate 50 mg elemental iron (n=40) from 15 to 19 weeks of gestation to delivery. Hematological status (hemoglobin, red blood cell indices) and iron status (plasma iron, plasma transferrin, plasma transferrin saturation, plasma ferritin) were measured at 15-19 weeks (baseline), 27-28 weeks and 36-37 weeks of gestation. Main outcome measures: Occurrence of ID (ferritin ,15 μg/L) and IDA (ferritin ,12 μg/L and hemoglobin ,110 g/L).. Results: At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the bisglycinate and sulfate group concerning ...
Objective: To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Design: Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Setting: Antenatal care clinic. Sample: 80 healthy ethnic Danish pregnant women.. Methods: Women were allocated to ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg elemental iron (Aminojern®) (n=40) or ferrous sulfate 50 mg elemental iron (n=40) from 15 to 19 weeks of gestation to delivery. Hematological status (hemoglobin, red blood cell indices) and iron status (plasma iron, plasma transferrin, plasma transferrin saturation, plasma ferritin) were measured at 15-19 weeks (baseline), 27-28 weeks and 36-37 weeks of gestation. Main outcome measures: Occurrence of ID (ferritin ,15 μg/L) and IDA (ferritin ,12 μg/L and hemoglobin ,110 g/L).. Results: At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the bisglycinate and sulfate group concerning ...
Iron sucrose is dissociated into iron and sucrose by the reticuloendothelial system and iron is transferred form the blood to a bone marrow. The Ferritin the iron storage protein binds and sequesters iron into a nontoxic iron that is easily available. The iron binds to plasma transferring that is carries iron to extracellular fluid to supply to tissues. The transferring receptors presented in membrane binds transferrin iron complex which is then internalized in vesicles iron is released within the cell and transferrin-receptor complex is return to the cell membrane transferrin without iron is then releases to the plasma. The intracellular iron becomes hemoglobin on circulating red blood cells. Transferrin synthesis increased Ferritin production reduced in iron deficiency. ...
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this response in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Work presented in this thesis examines the role of an essential transcription factor that controls iron uptake responses in the Arabidopsis root. Because iron is an essential nutrient for plant and human nutrition, improvements in our understanding of how plants assimilate iron from the soil will have implications for both agriculture and human health. We report the identification of the transcription factor FIT1 ( Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription factor 1 ), which is required for a proper iron deficiency response. fit1 loss of function plants exhibit severe chlorosis indicative of iron starvation and die at the seedling stage. The ability to rescue this growth phenotype through iron ...
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this response in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Work presented in this thesis examines the role of an essential transcription factor that controls iron uptake responses in the Arabidopsis root. Because iron is an essential nutrient for plant and human nutrition, improvements in our understanding of how plants assimilate iron from the soil will have implications for both agriculture and human health. We report the identification of the transcription factor FIT1 ( Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription factor 1 ), which is required for a proper iron deficiency response. fit1 loss of function plants exhibit severe chlorosis indicative of iron starvation and die at the seedling stage. The ability to rescue this growth phenotype through iron ...
Several additional nonspecific studies may correlate with toxic clinical course, including elevated serum glucose (,150 mcg/dL) and leukocytosis (,15,000/mm3), but these tests are not sensitive or specific enough to have clinical utility.. In iron toxicity, iron exceeds total iron binding capacity (TIBC); however, measurement of TIBC and the ratio of iron to TIBC are not recommended because of limitations in the methodology. In the TIBC assay, excess iron is added to serum to bind all available iron-binding sites. Then excess unbound iron is removed by an absorbent material prior to measurement of bound iron. In the presence of excess endogenous iron, this material may be insufficient to remove all iron, leading to a false increase in TIBC.. DFO binds free iron, creating ferrioxamine, which is excreted in urine. Urine containing ferrioxamine may be brick orange or vin rose color. DFO challenge tests consist of administering an intramuscular dose of DFO and using the appearance of a vin rose ...
Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide mainly sythesized in hepatocytes and released into circulation as a prohormone. Recent evidence shows that hepcidin is the hormone regulating of iron homeostasis in the body. The lack of the hepcidin expression results in iron overload and overexpression of the hepcidin has been associated with iron deficiency anemia. The synthesis of the hepcidin is stimu- lated by high iron diet or inflammation and it is decreased by low iron diet, anemia or hypoxia. Evidence indicates that hepcidin is the negative regulator of iron absorption and iron release from macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. The relationship between iron and hepcidin is disrupted in patients with hemochromatosis and anemia of chronic disease. The exact understanding the role of the hepcidin could lead to new therapies for disorders of the iron metabolism.. ...
Of the mothers, we classified 10 [5%] as having iron deficiency anaemia. The haemoglobin concentration and MCV were higher in the neonates than in their mothers but the MCHC was no different. Serum iron was much higher and total iron binding capacity much lower in the babies whose transferrin saturation was 72% compared with 14% for their mothers. There was a weak relationship between maternal and neonatal haemoglobin concentration and a direct relationship between fetal and maternal serum iron, but no relationship between maternal and fetal serum ferritin concentrations. It is suggested that it is the fetus which largely controls the movement of iron across the placenta with only a little control exerted by maternal serum iron level, and that cord ferritin is not a good indicator of fetal iron stores ...
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic metal is an important part of many aspects of human health and disease. Hematologists have been especially interested in systemic iron metabolism because iron is essential for red blood cells, where most of the human bodys iron is contained. Understanding iron metabolism is also important for understanding diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis, and iron deficiency, such as iron deficiency anemia. Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state, iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox). Proteins ...
Study aim: To assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in competitive male athletes.Material and methods: In total, 90 elite athletes practicing judo, rowing, pentathlon, volleyball, kayaking and biathlon, aged 16-33 years, were studied. Blood morphology indices: haemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), leucocyte count (WBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were determined. The concentrations of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and iron, as well as total iron binding capacity (TIBC), were determined in serum. Additionally, erythropoietin (EPO) was assayed in subjects with elevated sTfR levels.Results: In no case iron-deficiency anaemia was found, but in 43% of subjects iron deficiency was detected. This included first stage of iron deficiency (iron depletion; ID) in 13% of subjects (ferritin ,20 μg/L), and iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) in 30% of ...
Physiology & Pathophysiology Of Iron Metabolism A JASPERS CHU Liège. Iron metabolism Swinkels, Clin Chem Hepcidin Andrews, Blood Hepcidin. Regulation of hepcidin Poli, Front Pharmacol ↗hepcidin if: Inflammation - ↗iron stores. Regulation of hepcidin Kautz, Nat Gen Physiology of Iron Metabolism Transfus Med Hemother ;- teins such as Mb, cytochromes, or other ferroproteins. Only about 3 mg are bound to plasma Tf and constitute the mobile iron compartment which supplies the various intracellular iron stores. Figure 2 presents the main steps of iron metabolism. Bottom Line: Iron Physiology and Pathophysiology in Humans is a collection of state-of-the-art reviews on iron metabolism in health and disease by outstanding experts in the field. For the specialized hepatologist, it is a great resource of up-to-date information on the basics of iron transport, regulation, metabolism, or bran-online.info: Christoph Gasche. PDF , 45 minutes read , A revolution occurred during the last decade in the ...
Iron deficiency is common worldwide and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The increasing prevalence of indiscriminate iron supplementation during pregnancy also raises concerns about the potential adverse effects of iron excess. We examined how maternal iron status affects the delivery of iron to the placenta and fetus. Using mouse models, we documented maternal homeostatic mechanisms that protect the placenta and fetus from maternal iron excess. We determined that under physiological conditions or in iron deficiency, fetal and placental hepcidin did not regulate fetal iron endowment. With maternal iron deficiency, critical transporters mediating placental iron uptake (transferrin receptor 1 [TFR1]) and export (ferroportin [FPN]) were strongly regulated. In mice, not only was TFR1 increased, but FPN was surprisingly decreased to preserve placental iron in the face of fetal iron deficiency. In human placentas from pregnancies with mild iron deficiency, TFR1 was increased, but there ...
Iron deficiency is common worldwide and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The increasing prevalence of indiscriminate iron supplementation during pregnancy also raises concerns about the potential adverse effects of iron excess. We examined how maternal iron status affects the delivery of iron to the placenta and fetus. Using mouse models, we documented maternal homeostatic mechanisms that protect the placenta and fetus from maternal iron excess. We determined that under physiological conditions or in iron deficiency, fetal and placental hepcidin did not regulate fetal iron endowment. With maternal iron deficiency, critical transporters mediating placental iron uptake (transferrin receptor 1 [TFR1]) and export (ferroportin [FPN]) were strongly regulated. In mice, not only was TFR1 increased, but FPN was surprisingly decreased to preserve placental iron in the face of fetal iron deficiency. In human placentas from pregnancies with mild iron deficiency, TFR1 was increased, but there ...
The liver plays a major role in iron homeostasis; thus, in patients with chronic liver disease, iron regulation may be disturbed. Higher iron levels are present not only in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but also in those with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatitis C viral infection. Chronic liver disease decreases the synthetic functions of the liver, including the production of hepcidin, a key protein in iron metabolism. Lower levels of hepcidin result in iron overload, which leads to iron deposits in the liver and higher levels of non-transferrin-bound iron in the bloodstream. Iron combined with reactive oxygen species leads to an increase in hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for phospholipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acid side chains, DNA strain breaks, and protein fragmentation. Iron-induced cellular damage may be prevented by regulating the production of hepcidin or by administering hepcidin agonists. Both of these methods have ...
The liver plays a major role in iron homeostasis; thus, in patients with chronic liver disease, iron regulation may be disturbed. Higher iron levels are present not only in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but also in those with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatitis C viral infection. Chronic liver disease decreases the synthetic functions of the liver, including the production of hepcidin, a key protein in iron metabolism. Lower levels of hepcidin result in iron overload, which leads to iron deposits in the liver and higher levels of non-transferrin-bound iron in the bloodstream. Iron combined with reactive oxygen species leads to an increase in hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for phospholipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acid side chains, DNA strain breaks, and protein fragmentation. Iron-induced cellular damage may be prevented by regulating the production of hepcidin or by administering hepcidin agonists. Both of these methods have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis interactome reveals a novel iron assimilation mechanism linked to nitric oxide stress during early infection. AU - Lamont, Elise A. AU - Xu, Wayne W.. AU - Sreevatsan, Srinand. PY - 2013/10/10. Y1 - 2013/10/10. N2 - Background: The initial interaction between host cell and pathogen sets the stage for the ensuing infection and ultimately determine the course of disease. However, there is limited knowledge of the transcripts utilized by host and pathogen and how they may impact one another during this critical step. The purpose of this study was to create a host-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) interactome for early infection in an epithelium-macrophage co-culture system using RNA-seq.Results: Establishment of the host-MAP interactome revealed a novel iron assimilation system for carboxymycobactin. Iron assimilation is linked to nitric oxide synthase-2 production by the host and subsequent nitric oxide buildup. Iron ...
Top up your iron levels. The body does not produce iron so iron is provided through dietary intake. Eating an iron-rich diet is the best way to maintain sufficient iron levels. However, there are times when the body has an increased demand for iron or when a persons diet is not able to provide them with all the iron they need. In these cases, an iron supplement can be beneficial.. Spatone® pur-Absorb Iron is a unique 100% natural iron containing water sourced from the Welsh mountains of Snowdonia National Park. Since pur-Absorb has a higher absorption rate than many traditional iron supplements, the right amount of iron can be delivered in a lower, more gentle dose. A lower dose of iron means you are less likely to experience side effects. Its easy. LESS is more. When consuming a lower dose of iron like pur-Absorb, side effects often associated with conventional iron supplements such as constipation, stomach irritation or headaches become far less likely. Each highly absorbable packet of ...
Adherence to iron supplementation can be compromised due to side effects, and these limit blinding in studies of iron deficiency. No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. A double-blinded RCT was conducted in 32 women (18-35 years): 24 with latent iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 20 µg/L) and 8 iron sufficient controls. Participants with latent iron deficiency were randomised to 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron or to placebo, for 16 weeks. The iron sufficient control group took placebo. Treatment groups (60 mg n = 7 and 80 mg n = 6) had significantly higher ferritin change scores than placebo groups (iron deficient n = 5 and iron sufficient n = 6), F(1, 23) = 8.46, p ≤ 0.01. Of the 24 who completed the trial, 10 participants (77%) on iron reported side effects, compared with 5 (45%) on placebo, but there were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Do oligodendrocytes mediate iron regulation in the human brain?. AU - Gerber, Megan R.. AU - Connor, James R.. PY - 1989/7. Y1 - 1989/7. N2 - We used immunohistochemical studies to demonstrate that transferrin (the iron mobilization protein) and ferritin (the iron storage protein) are specifically localized in oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the human central nervous system. In addition, iron is also localized predominantly in oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes have been well established as the cells responsible for myelin production in the central nervous system. The results of this study suggest that oligodendrocytes (or a subpopulation of oligodendrocytes) might have the additional function of mediating iron mobilization and storage in the central nervous system.. AB - We used immunohistochemical studies to demonstrate that transferrin (the iron mobilization protein) and ferritin (the iron storage protein) are specifically localized in oligodendrocytes in gray and ...
The aim of this study was to investigate serum iron parameters, and copper and iron deficiency anemia in ewes infected with gastro- intestinal parasites. This study was conducted with 60 pregnant Akkaraman ewes. In the statistical analyses, values obtained from both parasite infected and uninfected ewes were compared. Significant decreases were observed in PCV (P < 0.05), Hb (P < 0.05), RBC (P < 0.05), total protein (P < 0.05), albumin (P < 0.05), globulin (P < 0.05), and MCHC (P < 0.01), and a significant increase was seen in the WBC value (P < 0.05) in the parasite infected group. Furthermore, the parasite infected group had lower serum Fe (P < 0.001), TS % (P < 0.001), and serum Cu (P < 0.01) levels, and had higher UIBC values (P < 0.05) compared to the values obtain from the uninfected group. Therefore, in addition to antiparasite drug treatment in parasite infected pregnant ewes, iron preparations should also be administered in order to treat iron deficiency. ...
The ability of Candida albicans to acquire iron from the hostile environment of the host is known to be necessary for virulence and appears to be achieved using a similar system to that described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In S. cerevisiae, high-affinity iron uptake is dependent upon the acquisition of copper. The authors have previously identified a C. albicans gene (CaCTR1) that encodes a copper transporter. Deletion of this gene results in a mutant strain that grows predominantly as pseudohyphae and displays aberrant morphology in low-copper conditions. This paper demonstrates that invasive growth by C. albicans is induced by low-copper conditions and that this is augmented in a Cactr1-null strain. It also shows that deletion of CaCTR1 results in defective iron uptake. In S. cerevisiae, genes that facilitate high-affinity copper uptake are controlled by a copper-sensing transactivator, ScMac1p. The authors have now identified a C. albicans gene (CaMAC1) that encodes a copper-sensing ...
Iron is an essential element that has a number of fundamental roles in cellular biochemistry and metabolism. These include oxygen binding to heme proteins and the formation of active centres in enzymes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (De Silva et al., 1996; Aisen et al., 2001). Iron can also vary its redox state and can be rapidly oxidised from Fe2+ to Fe3+ (ferrous to ferric iron) in the presence of oxygen. This reaction generates the superoxide anion, which through a series of redox reactions leads to the generation of toxic hydroxyl radicals (the Haber-Weiss reactions; De Silva et al., 1996; Aisen et al., 2001). Thus iron can be both toxic and beneficial to organisms, and iron status in the body must be carefully regulated to provide sufficient iron for biological functions, whilst avoiding excess Fe2+ which can lead to oxidative stress.. Fish acquire iron predominantly from the diet, and with negligible iron uptake at the gills compared with the gut (Andersen, 1997; ...
Iron III oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction , used in welding large iron parts like rails and purifying ores.. Iron III oxide and oxyhidroxide are used as reddish and ocher pigments. Iron III chloride finds use in water purification and sewage treatment , in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints, as an additive in animal feed, and as an etchant for copper in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.. Iron II sulfate is used as a precursor to other iron compounds. It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia.. Iron III sulfate is used in settling minute sewage particles in tank water. Iron II chloride is used as a reducing flocculating agent, in the formation of iron complexes and magnetic iron oxides, and as a reducing agent in organic synthesis.. Iron is required for life. Iron-containing proteins participate in transport, storage and used of oxygen. Examples of ...
phdthesis{4e5591f6-d860-4167-ad67-9f7db4a461e7, abstract = {The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and factors influencing iron status and iron intake among otherwise healthy children. The specific aim in paper I+II was to describe the prevalence of ID among 2 ½-year-old children in relation to intake of cows milk and follow-on formula. The design in the first two papers were cross-sectional and 367 2 ½-year-old children participated. Data collection included blood samples in order to determine the childs iron status and the parents were asked to estimate the childs intake of cows milk and follow-on formula. The results showed that ten percent of the children were iron deficient, with or without anaemia, and received iron treatment. Transferrin receptor levels were measured and 14% had elevated levels indicating an iron need in the cell. The intake of cows milk was significantly higher among children with iron deficiency than among those with ...
Elevated plasma levels of FVIII are emerging as one of the strongest risk factors for VTE in the general population.5 6 In health, genetic determinants of FVIII levels are primarily dependent on levels of its carrier protein vWF.7 The key findings from the current study are the identification of low serum iron levels as a potentially reversible biomarker for high FVIII levels and clinical VTE. These associations appear to operate independently to levels of vWF, or the inflammatory precipitants that are known to be associated with elevated FVIII and thromboembolic risk. Although the data were obtained in a specific patient group, they are supported by limited data from the general population literature that link iron deficiency or haemorrhage-associated anaemia with venous thromboses.18-20. The major strength of our study was the consistent timing of blood samples to late afternoon or lunchtime, capturing the time of daytime peaks of serum iron and TfSI (online supplementary figure 1). This is ...
Background: A close association has been found between serum lipoprotein abnormalities and the risk of atherosclerosis. In adults, high stored body iron, high serum iron concentrations and low iron binding capacity were found to be risk factors for coronary heart disease. Iron-deficient diets have caused contradictory lipid changes in rats. This report investigates the relationships between iron deficiency, macronutrient intake and the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles in children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). ...
Background: High body iron store has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D); it remains unknown whether the genetic variants related to body iron status affect T2D risk. We aimed at comprehensively investigating the associations between the genetic variants related to body iron status and the T2D risk. Methodology/Principal Findings Six common SNPs related to body iron status from recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies were determined in the Nurses Health Study (NHS; 1,467 diabetic cases and 1,754 controls) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1,124, diabetic cases and 1,298 controls). Plasma levels of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and transferrin were measured in NHS. Significant associations were observed for loci in TPMRSS6 with sTfR (P = 3.47×10−6), TF with transferrin (P = 0.0002 to 1.72×10−10); and HFE with ferritin (P = 0.017 to 1.6×10−8), sTfR (P = 0.007 to 7.9×10−6), and transferrin (P = 0.006 to 0.0007). The ...
Are these mildly elevated hepcidin concentrations functionally important, i.e. do they reduce the availability of iron for erythropoiesis? We recently showed in an experimental human malaria model that even a mild increase in serum hepcidin, to concentrations in the range of those observed in the current study, induces hypoferremia and a steep fall in the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes, which is suggestive of impaired iron incorporation in hemoglobin.12 Moreover, the lower values of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation in children with asymptomatic parasitemia also support the presence of functional iron deficiency. Since asymptomatic P. falciparum and P. vivax parasitemia are chronic and relapsing conditions, a possible delocalization of iron with iron retention in monocytes/macrophages may theoretically increase the risk of anemia and of infections with intracellular bacteria (e.g. Salmonella and Mycobacteria spp.), which are extremely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemolysis Is Responsible for Elevation of Serum Iron Concentration After Regular Exercises in Judo Athletes. AU - Nishiie-Yano, Rina. AU - Hirayama, Satoshi. AU - Tamura, Masahiro. AU - Kanemochi, Takumi. AU - Ueno, Tsuyoshi. AU - Hirayama, Akiko. AU - Hori, Atsushi. AU - Ai, Tomohiko. AU - Hirose, Nobuyoshi. AU - Miida, Takashi. PY - 2020/9/1. Y1 - 2020/9/1. N2 - Serum iron concentration increases in marathon athletes after running due to mechanical destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). This study was performed to examine whether serum iron concentration increases after regular Judo exercise, and if so, whether such post-exercise iron increase is caused by hemolysis. We examined biochemical parameters related to red blood cell and iron metabolism in 16 male competitive Judo athletes before and after traditional exercise training composed of basic movements and freestyle matchup. The parameters were adjusted for changes in plasma volume based on simultaneously measured ...
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world , with highest rates in pregnant women and young children. Despite the magnitude and severity of iron deficiency, there remains gaps in our knowledge of iron metabolism. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis yet limited data is available on its role during pregnancy. Although our knowledge of non-heme iron metabolism has increased substantially in recent years, the mechanisms regulating heme iron metabolism remain elusive. The overall goal o f this research is to further understand the primary determinants of iron absorption and placental iron transfer in women of childbearing age. To address these issues stable iron isotopes (57Fe and 58Fe) were used to measure iron absorption in non-pregnant (ages 18-32 years, n = 30) and pregnant (ages 16-32 years, n = 20) subjects and placental iron transfer in pregnant women. Nonheme iron absorption was inversely associated with iron status and serum hepcidin. However, heme ...
Iron has been shown to be important in ischaemic, immune and toxic forms of tissue injury in various organs. Although it is generally accepted that iron participates in the generation of powerful oxidant species (e.g. hydroxyl radicals) there has not been any direct evidence that iron capable of catalysing free-radical reactions is increased in tissues in these models of injury. In the present study we demonstrate that ischaemia/reperfusion injury to the kidney results in no significant change in total, nonhaem or ferritin iron levels, but there is a marked and specific increase in bleomycin-detectable iron (capable of catalysing free-radical reactions) in the kidney. The increase in bleomycin-detectable iron is observed only after reperfusion but not during the ischaemic period. In a separate study we demonstrate that despite a drastic reduction in the iron content in the kidney, as a result of feeding an iron-deficient diet, there is a similar and a marked increase in the bleomycin-detectable ...
Iron is found in meat, dried fruit and some vegetables. It is used by the body to make haemoglobin, which helps store and carry oxygen in red blood cells (see box, left). Haemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. If there is a lack of iron in the blood, the organs and tissues will not get as much oxygen as they usually do.. How common is iron deficiency anaemia?. Iron deficiency anaemia affects up to 1 in 20 men and 1 in 20 post-menopausal women (after a womans menstrual periods have stopped). Iron deficiency anaemia is more common in women who are still menstruating (having periods). This is because menstruation and pregnancy can cause iron deficiency. Outlook. Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia involves increasing dietary iron intake or taking iron supplements to replace the missing iron in the body. This is usually very effective and the condition rarely causes any serious complications. If you have iron deficiency anaemia, you may need to be monitored to check ...
Background: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is a central sensor of nutrient availability and cellular stress and is implicated in carcinogenesis and acceleration of aging. Since iron is a required nutritional element, we assessed the role of mTOR in regulation of cellular iron homeostasis.. Methods and Results: To determine whether mTOR regulates iron homeostasis, we analyzed the expression of genes necessary for cellular iron uptake, storage, mitochondrial handling and export with mTOR modulation. Pharmacologic inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin decreased expression of several iron-regulatory genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and led to accumulation of heme and non-heme iron in H9C2 cardiac myoblasts. Constitutive activation of mTOR by genetic ablation of its inhibitor in TSC2−/− MEFs enhanced the expression of the above genes and decreased cellular iron content; both findings were reversible with rapamycin treatment. To study the mechanism of iron regulation by mTOR, we ...
The objectives of the present study were to determine iron nutritional status among female Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) students and the differences in dietary iron intake between respondents with and without anaemia. A total of 436 female UMS students of aged 19-26 years were recruited in this study. Iron nutritional status was determined by measuring haemoglobin concentration via gravimetric technique while dietary intake data was obtained through semi-quantitative questionnaire (FFQ) modified from Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2003. Anaemia was determined using a single biochemical lndicator, which was Hb,12.5g/dL. Prevalence of anaemia was 50.5% in the present study, which was higher than the estimated global prevalence of 30.2%. Most anaemic female students (n=207,94.1%) were unaware they had Hb,12.5g/dL prior to this study. Malays recorded the highest prevalence of anaemia (53.40%), followed by Kadazans (50.8%) and Chinese (44.5%). The mean dietary iron intake of ...
In the presence of ferrous ions (Fe2+), the anti-tumour agent bleomycin will induce DNA degradation. Degradation of DNA into substances detectable by the thiobarbituric acid test has been used previously for the detection of iron in a form that is capable of catalysing the formation of the potentially harmful hydroxyl free radical. In the present paper, we describe the application of the ethidium-binding assay of DNA damage to the measurement of bleomycin-detectable iron, comparing its performance with the conventional method in the assessment of iron standard solutions and plasma samples from haemochromatosis patients. The ethidium-binding assay proved to be more responsive than the thiobarbituric acid test in the detection of DNA damage induced by very low concentrations of iron, but became saturated at higher iron concentrations. Agreement between the two versions of the assay in the identification of plasma samples containing bleomycin-detectable iron was good, but agreement on the actual ...
A virulent strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subgroup Pontiac, was grown in continuous culture at a constant growth rate under iron-replete and iron-limited conditions. Iron limitation was achieved by the removal of ferrous sulfate and hemin from the chemically defined medium. Residual contaminating iron, 0.45 microM, was sufficient to support iron-limited growth. Typical iron-replete cultures metabolized 3.3 microM iron. Serine provided the principal source of carbon and energy for both cultures, although iron-replete cultures also depleted a number of other amino acids. There was a 40% decrease in culture biomass under iron-restricted conditions. Iron limitation did not significantly affect carbohydrate metabolism, with the molar growth yield for carbon (Ycarbon) comparable for both cultures. However, under iron-limited conditions a sixfold increase in Yiron correlated with a significant decrease in the iron content of the biomass, as the culture utilized the available iron more ...
Iron deficiency anemia treatment is usually very simple. One of the most common iron deficiency anemia treatments is to take an iron supplement. The supplement will increase the amount of iron in the body and feed it to the hemoglobin. More hemoglobin will produce and it will work properly. This will allow the red blood cells to transport the oxygen throughout the body. Another iron deficiency anemia treatment is change in diet. Adding some iron-rich food will help your iron level increase. Red meat, eggs, leafy greens and beans are examples of food that have a high amount of iron in it. In some cases, you may experience blood loss caused by the disorder. If this is the case, the only iron deficiency anemia treatment that will completely work is a blood transfusion. Doctors do not like to perform these and only use them in severe cases, but sometimes they are needed. The transfusion will replace the blood loss and in doing so, will give the body a sufficient amount of healthy red blood cells. ...
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common airborne fungal pathogen of humans, causing life-threatening invasive disease in immunocompromised patients. The limitations of therapeutic intervention are reflected in mortality rates, dependent primarily on the immune status of the host, of up to 90% (1, 2). The importance of the host immune status has been underlined by the lack of identified specific virulence attributes in A. fumigatus (1, 3-6). Limiting access to essential nutrients is an often overlooked aspect of innate immunity (7). Iron is essential for most organisms, suggesting that its acquisition in vivo may be required for A. fumigatus to cause disease (8-10). Iron uptake systems are often required for bacterial and yeast virulence (11, 12).. Fungi have evolved various strategies, often used in parallel, to acquire iron. These include two high affinity uptake mechanisms, reductive iron assimilation, and siderophore-assisted iron mobilization (8-10). Siderophores are low molecular mass, ...
Iron is an essential component of the production of healthy RBCs, and iron stores must be maintained for the ongoing production of RBCs by the bone marrow. Iron deficiency anemia can develop as a result of depleted iron stores from chronic blood loss, increased demands for iron as seen in periods of growth (e.g., in infancy and adolescence ), or malabsorption of iron even when foods or supplements are supplying adequate amounts. It is accepted that iron is hard to absorb; this, in combination with diets that may not meet daily requirements, is a common route to iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. Iron can also be lost through strenuous exercise and heavy perspiration, poor digestion, frequent consumption of antacids, long-term illness, heavy menstrual cycles, and other causes. Infancy is a period of increased risk for iron deficiency because dietary iron may not be adequate for the rapid growth of the child in the first two years of life, an example of increased demand. The human infant ...
Iron overload is a severe complication of multiple blood transfusions. As the body has no physiologic mechanism for clearing iron, repeated transfusions cause iron accumulation in organs and lead to iron toxicity. Accurate assessment of iron overload is paramount to quantify excessive iron accumulation and to monitor response to iron chelation therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have been used to noninvasively measure hepatic iron concentration (HIC). Although MRI-based measurements of transverse relaxation rates (R2 and R2*) accurately predict biopsy-proven HICs below 15 mg Fe/g, previous studies have shown that their precision is limited for HICs above 15 mg Fe/g and inaccurate above 25 mg Fe/g. Current R2* gradient-echo (GRE) MR techniques fail occasionally for very high iron overloads (HIC ~ 15-25 mg Fe/g) and always for massive iron overloads (HIC , 25 mg Fe/g) because R2* is so high that the MR signal decays before it can be measured accurately.. Overall accrual: 235 (200 ...
Abstract. The relationship between plasma iron, transferrin saturation, and plasma iron turnover was studied in 53 normal subjects whose transferrin saturation
If your iron levels get particularly low, you can develop iron deficiency anaemia. This is when you dont have enough iron for your body to make enough fully working red blood cells to carry the normal amounts of oxygen around your body. Having iron deficiency anaemia can affect your pregnancy and the growth of your baby,3 and you will likely be checked for anaemia as part of your normal pregnancy screening tests.. Signs that you may have low iron levels and/or iron deficiency anaemia, include feeling listless or washed out, looking pale or feeling breathless. Cravings are often joked about during pregnancy - dashing out for ice-cream in the middle of the night or a never ending desire for pickled onions. But having iron deficiency anaemia can also cause you to crave strange things, including ice, or even dirt. If you feel your cravings are becoming unusual, or you think you have any of the other signs of iron deficiency such as faintness or feeling fatigued4, you should talk to your doctor who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemochromatosis protein (HFE) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) influence tissue iron levels. T2 - Elements of a common gut pathway?. AU - Meyer, Paul N.. AU - Gerhard, Glenn S.. AU - Yoshida, Yukinori. AU - Yoshida, Mika. AU - Chorney, Karen A.. AU - Beard, John. AU - Kauffman, Elizabeth J.. AU - Weiss, Günter. AU - Chorney, Michael J.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Quantitative genetic analysis of hepatic and splenic iron levels in recombinant inbred mice yielded a quantitative trait locus that was found to coincide with the genomic locale encompassing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 gene (Tnfr2). When fed an iron-enriched diet, mice nullizygous with respect to Tnfr2, but not the Tnfr1 gene, showed a significant increase in splenic non-heme iron levels. This result contrasted with mice deficient in the hemochromatosis protein, HFE, which demonstrated a significant increase in normally high hepatic iron levels, but no change in splenic iron, when fed an ...
Serum ferritin is a sensitive indicator of available iron stores (1), but in certain instances it cannot be used in diagnosis, e.g., in anemias of chronic disease, infections, inflammation, liver disease, and malignancies (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7). Iron stores may be normal or increased, though accompanied by increased serum ferritin, in anemias of chronic disorders, aplastic anemia, sideroblastic anemia, and chronic hemolytic anemia. Because ferritin is also a positive acute-phase reactant protein that is increased in inflammation (2), serum ferritin concentration is not a reliable index of available iron stores in individuals with chronic diseases. There is no information, however, on whether ferritin can be used as a marker of available iron stores in the anemia of copper deficiency.. Unlike iron-deficiency anemia, in which body iron stores are usually depleted as evidenced by diminished serum ferritin concentrations, anemia of copper deficiency (8)(9)(10) results from increased hepatic iron stores ...
Anemia occurs when you have a level of red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood that is lower than normal. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and it occurs when your body doesnt have enough of the mineral iron. Your body needs iron to make a protein called hemoglobin. This protein is responsible for carrying oxygen to your bodys tissues, which is essential for your tissues and muscles to function effectively. When there isnt enough iron in your blood stream, the rest of your body cant get the amount of oxygen it needs. In women of childbearing age, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is a loss of iron in the blood due to heavy menstruation or pregnancy. A poor diet or certain intestinal diseases that affect how the body absorbs iron can also cause iron deficiency anemia. Doctors normally treat the condition with iron supplements or changes to diet ...
Ferritins are iron-storage proteins that accumulate in plastids during seed formation, and also in leaves during senescence or iron overload. Iron release from ferritins occurs during growth of seedlings and greening of plastids. Depending on the concentration of the reducing agent ascorbate, either an overall iron release or uptake by ferritins from iron(III) citrate may occur. We have designed methods to measure these simultaneous and independent uptake and release fluxes. Each individual step of the exchange was studied using different iron chelates and an excess of ligand. It is shown that: (i) the chelated form of iron, and not ionic Fe3+, is the substrate for iron reduction, which controls the subsequent uptake by ferritin; (ii) iron uptake by ferritins is faster at pH 8.4 than at pH 7 or 6 and is inhibited by an excess of strongly binding free ligands; and (iii) strongly binding free ligands are inhibitory during iron release by ascorbate. When reactions are allowed to proceed ...
Objective: Iron overload is a serious, potentially fatal disorder characterized by the deposition of excess iron within tissues leading to functional impairment and reduced life expectancy. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin in protecting rats against iron overload-induced toxicity.. Methods: Twenty-four adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control, iron overload group, melatonin group and iron overload+melatonin group. Rats received ferric hydroxide poly maltose at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (three doses per week) for four weeks through intra peritoneal injections and received the melatonin subcutaneously (10 mg/kg/day) for four weeks.. Results: In iron overloaded rats, the iron status markers: serum, hepatic and renal tissues iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percentage (TS %) were significantly increased, while a marked decrease in Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC) was ...
Define iron-storage disease. iron-storage disease synonyms, iron-storage disease pronunciation, iron-storage disease translation, English dictionary definition of iron-storage disease. Noun 1. iron-storage disease - pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus...
Vulpe C.D., Kuo Y.M., Murphy T.L., Cowley L., Askwith C., Libina N., Gitschier J., Anderson G.J.. Iron is essential for many cellular functions; consequently, disturbances of iron homeostasis, leading to either iron deficiency or iron overload, can have significant clinical consequences. Despite the clinical prevalence of these disorders, the mechanism by which dietary iron is absorbed into the body is poorly understood. We have identified a key component in intestinal iron transport by study of the sex-linked anaemia (sla) mouse, which has a block in intestinal iron transport. Mice carrying the sla mutation develop moderate to severe microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Although these mice take up iron from the intestinal lumen into mature epithelial cells normally, the subsequent exit of iron into the circulation is diminished. As a result, iron accumulates in enterocytes and is lost during turnover of the intestinal epithelium. Biochemical studies have failed to identify the underlying difference ...
Objective: Iron deficiency still remains the most common nutritional deficiency throughout the world and is the leading cause of anaemia in children. Early recognition of iron deficiency, even before the development of anaemia is crucial to prevent the systemic complications of this disease. Methods: Ninety-seven school children between 5 and 16 years were stratified into prelatent iron deficiency (10 cases), latent iron deficiency (14 cases), overt iron deficiency anemia (13 cases), and controls (60 cases). All hemograms were performed on the same day of collection using the same Sysmex XE-2100 analyzer with reticulocyte indices included. Biochemical markers such serum iron, total iron binding capacity and percent saturation (calculated) in addition to serum ferritin and serum transferrin receptors were simultaneously measured. Data analysis was done using ANOVA test, generalized linear regression, and ROC curve. Results: Our study indicates that a panel based on hematologic parameters ...
To identify the mechanism through which nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI; Fe0(s)) damages cells, a series of experiments were conducted in which nZVI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was exposed to oxygen in the presence and absence of human bronchial epithelial cells. When nZVI is added to PBS, a burst of oxidants is produced as Fe0 and ferrous iron (Fe[II]) are converted to ferric iron (Fe[III]). Cytotoxicity and internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cells exposed to nZVI is equivalent to the response observed when cells are exposed to the same concentration of dissolved Fe(II). Experiments conducted in the absence of cells indicate that the oxidant produced during Fe(II) oxidation reacts with methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide, but not with compounds such as tert-butanol and benzoate that react exclusively with hydroxyl radical. The role of reactive oxidants produced during Fe(II) oxidation in cytotoxicity and internal ROS production is further supported by experiments in ...
Orissa Iron Ore Craton (SOIOC) hosts major hematite iron ore deposits in eastern India. Noamundi, Joda, Khondbond, Bolani, Barsua, Gua, Kiriburu and Meghataburu are the major deposits in this region. Lumps and fines are in the ratio of 50:50 and the high Received 18 February 2008. Accepted for publication 20 May 2009.Mineralogy of Iron Ores of Different Alumina Levels from ...rite etc. with complex chemical formulae. The main impurities in iron ore are SiO 2, Al 2O 3, S, P, TiO 2, and Na 2O & K 2O. Each steel company has its own blast furnace practice and the impact of these impurities varies accor-dingly. Iron ore is being used for iron and steel production. It is being used in two forms, lump and fines. Thehardness of sand and iron ore - perfect-placeshardness of sand and iron ore chromite ore hardness or you want to get the price of products of crushing grinding sand making etc Iron Chromium Oxide chromite ore hardness Know More hardness of iron ore minerals Iron ore Wikipedia the free ...
The molecular mechanisms by which iron is physiologically transported trough the cellular membranes are still only partially understood. Several studies indicate that a reduction step of ferric iron to ferrous is necessary, both in the case of transferrin-mediated and transferrin-independent iron uptake. Recent studies from our laboratory described gamma-glutamyltransferase activity (GGT) as a factor capable to effect iron reduction in the cell microenvironment. GGT is located on the outer aspect of plasma membrane of most cell types, and is often expressed at high levels in malignant tumors and their metastases. The present study was aimed at verifying the possibility that GGT-mediated iron reduction may participate in the process of cellular iron uptake. Four distinct human tumor cell lines, exhibiting different levels of GGT activity, were studied. The uptake of transferrin-bound iron was investigated by using 55Fe-loaded transferrin, as well as by monitoring fluorimetrically the intracellular iron
Background and Methods The involvement of iron in the risk for, and complications of, type 2 diabetes has generated substantial interest over the past 15 years, initially sparked by an association with raised serum ferritin, and the observation that people with iron overload diseases frequently develop diabetes. Considerable advances have since been made in understanding the effect glucose has on molecules, cells, and tissues; and the role that oxidative stress plays in the development of the pathologies of long-term diabetes. Poorly liganded iron is potentially both a contributor to, and consequence of, these complications. In vitro experiments with glucose-incubated transferrin by earlier workers have demonstrated loss of function with increasing glycation, leading to the suggestion that the failure of this key iron-binding protein may contribute to diabetic pathology, via the presence of redox active non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI). In vitro glycated transferrin is examined here by ...
Article Degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by zero-valent iron/activated carbon system in the presence of microwave irradiation. Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B in aqueous solution could be degraded rapidly by zero-valent iron/activated carbon in...
1. According to the Fletcher-Huehns hypothesis there exists a functional difference between the two iron-binding sites of transferrin.. 2. The aim of the study presented was to evaluate this hypothesis in a homogeneous system, with human bone marrow cells and pure human monoferric transferrins A and B.. 3. For this reason normal human bone marrow cells were incubated with human monoferric transferrin. The monoferric transferrins A and B were obtained by selective labelling at different pH of apotransferrin followed by preparative isoelectric focusing in granulated gels. The uptake of iron by the cell suspensions from monoferric transferrins A and B was equal.. 4. In a heterogeneous but more active system for the removal of iron from human transferrin in vitro the two human monoferric transferrins did not show any significant functional differences.. 5. No support for the Fletcher-Huehns hypothesis could be obtained. ...
Iron sequestration by host iron-binding proteins is an important mechanism of resistance to microbial infections. Inside oral epithelial cells, iron is stored within ferritin, and is therefore not usually accessible to pathogenic microbes. We observed that the ferritin concentration within oral epithelial cells was directly related to their susceptibility to damage by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans. Thus, we hypothesized that host ferritin is used as an iron source by this organism. We found that C. albicans was able to grow on agar at physiological pH with ferritin as the sole source of iron, while the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could not. A screen of C. albicans mutants lacking components of each of the three known iron acquisition systems revealed that only the reductive pathway is involved in iron utilization from ferritin by this fungus. Additionally, C. albicans hyphae, but not yeast cells, bound ferritin, and this binding was crucial for iron acquisition from ...
Background: Iron deficiency anemia is common in patients (pts) with chronic heart failure (CHF) and associated with exercise intolerance. Iron deficiency may diminish exercise performance even in the absence of anemia. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous (iv) iron supplementation would safely improve exercise tolerance in anemic and non-anemic iron deficient CHF pts.. Methods: We randomly assigned 35 pts with CHF (age 64±13y, 25 male, peak oxygen consumption [pVO2]/kg 14.0±2.7 mL/min/kg, NYHA class II [n=18] / III [n=17], LVEF 30±7% [all ,45%]) and iron deficiency (ferritin ,100 ng/mL or ferritin 100-300 ng/mL with transferrin saturations [TSAT] ,20%) to 16 weeks of iv iron or no treatment in a 2:1 ratio. Randomization was stratified according to hemoglobin levels (,12.5 g/dL vs 12.5-14.5 g/dL) and centre. Treatment comprised of 200 mg iv iron sucrose weekly until iron repletion (repletion dose = weight (kg) × 2.4 × [15 - hemoglobin (g/dL)] + 500 mg) and 200 mg monthly thereafter. The ...
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Iron deficiency is an extremely common problem affecting all age groups including very young children, teenagers and the elderly.. Iron deficiency and its ill effects seem to spare no age group.. Symptoms of iron deficiency can include weakness, fatigue, dizziness, malaise, depression, sleepiness and even recurrent headaches.. A person with iron deficiency may have pale skin and their eyes may look pale without the normal red injection of the blood vessel usually seen.. Problems of iron deficiency can include chronic dizziness, unexplained fainting or loss of consciousness, and even severe headaches. It appears that iron deficiency predisposes to headaches and even sometimes to pseudotumor cerebri or marked brain swelling.. Again, it should be emphasized that iron deficiency is extremely common. This often relates to dietary inadequacy in young children.. In teenagers on a fast-food diet, lack of red meat intake can cause iron deficiency.. Further compounding this problem can be menstrual ...
As a screening test for iron deficiency or chronic total-body iron overload (such as hemochromatosis), an overnight fasting sample is best. If checking for acute iron poisoning, a diagnostic baseline sample taken at any time prior to treatment is optimal. Screening programs to detect iron overload much more frequently identify cases of iron deficiency (low iron)...a situation which demands diagnostic work up without any undue delay (there may be a serious & manageable reason)! An iron profile screen for serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC...STS serum transferrin saturation) gives a result that reflects the percentage iron saturation of the iron-binding sites on the transferrin protein (iron carrier protein). A percentage saturation ,55% is cause to look further for iron overload. This is a much more specific screening test than serum ferritin (many other causes of elevated ferritin especially are a non-fasting sample & also other liver disease, inflammation, recent multiple ...
Transcript:. Iron deficiency anemia is a fairly common condition, and it can lead to symptoms like being tired all the time, feeling cold, being breathless, because you dont have enough hemoglobin in your bloodstream. Common causes include hemorrhage (obviously if you have a car accident, you injure yourself, you lose a lot of blood), menstrual cycles in females (especially ladies who have a lot of menstrual flow), and grain consumption.. Now why in the world would the consumption of wheat and grains cause iron deficiency anemia? Some of the worst iron deficiency anemias, by the way, Ive ever seen, are in women, oddly mostly women, who consume grains. Ive seen women, for instance, go through blood transfusions, bone marrow biopsies, taking oral prescription iron supplements, getting iron injections, and still cant get their hemoglobin up. But they finally go wheat- and grain-free, and the hemoglobin comes up within two weeks.. Wheat and grain consumption is a very common and powerful cause ...
Iron sensor. Binds a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as aconitase when cellular iron levels are high. Functions as mRNA binding protein that regulates uptake, sequestration and utilization of iron when cellular iron levels are low. Binds to iron-responsive elements (IRES) in target mRNA species when iron levels are low. Binding of a 4Fe-4S cluster precludes RNA binding.
Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days) increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d) = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d) = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66 ...
Higher heme iron intake and increased body iron stores were significantly associated with a greater risk of T2DM. Dietary total iron, non-heme iron, or supplemental iron intakes were not significantly associated with T2DM risk.
TY - CONF. T1 - Iron metabolism defined using stable isotopes in obesity. AU - Isabelle Herter-Aeberli. AU - Michael B. Zimmermann. AU - Cepeda López, Ana Carla. PY - 2018/12/8. Y1 - 2018/12/8. N2 - Introduction Iron deficiency is common in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) individuals and was shown to be at least partially mediated by adiposity-related inflammation. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) induces hepcidin expression which may lead to decreased intestinal iron absorption. On the other hand, greater blood volume in OW/OB individuals may increase hemoglobin mass and iron requirements and confound iron biomarkers by hemodilution. Using stable iron isotopes, we have systematically studied iron metabolism in obesity. We have answered the following questions: 1) to what extent is hemodilution responsible for low iron status in OW/OB individuals; 2) what is the difference in iron absorption in OW/OB compared to normal weight (NW) participants and to what extent can ascorbic acid ...
This chapter highlights both the well established and the yet poorly understood aspects of siderophoremediated iron acquisition in pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, with a particular emphasis in the siderophore system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis siderophore system is believed to play a crucial role in the procurement of a suitable iron supply to support bacterial multiplication in vivo and to be a key factor in the ability of this human pathogen to produce successful infections. The mycobacteria examined for iron-acquisition systems appear to rely on siderophores with high affinity for the ferric ion as the primary mechanism for iron acquisition. Transcription of genes of the exochelin (EXC) and mycobactin/carboxymycobactin (MBT/CMBT) systems is derepressed when the bacterium experiences iron limitations, thus leading to siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-mediated iron uptake. Several Mycobacterium species produce two structurally related families of high-affinity
Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world today. It impacts the lives of millions of women and children contributing to poor cognitive development, increased maternal mortality and decreased work capacity. Yet with appropriate public health action, this form of micronutrient malnutrition can be brought under control. These guidelines are offered as an important component of iron deficiency anemia control programs. The International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG) has a long standing commitment to provide scientifically sound recommendations to public health planners and managers about ways to control iron deficiency anemia. This publication is another in a series of publications aimed at providing such guidance.. Download the guidelines here.. ...