TY - JOUR. T1 - Interphase chromosome profiling a method for conventional banded chromosome analysis using interphase nuclei. AU - Babu, Ramesh. AU - Van Dyke, Daniel L.. AU - Dev, Vaithilingam G.. AU - Koduru, Prasad. AU - Rao, Nagesh. AU - Mitter, Navnit S.. AU - Liu, Mingya. AU - Fuentes, Ernesto. AU - Fuentes, Sarah. AU - Papa, Stephen. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Context.-Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. A method that is more reliable, with similar or better resolution, would be a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the cytogenetics laboratory. Objective.-To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. Design.-To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly ...
A report is presented on the advantages of the rapid interphase chromosome assay (RICA) and the difficulties that may be met while implementing this method for application in biological dosimetry. The RICA test can be applied on unstimulated human lymphocytes; this is an advantage in comparison with the dicentric chromosomes or micronucleus tests. In the former two tests, stimulated lymphocytes are examined and hence, 48 h more are needed to obtain cells traversing the cell cycle. Due to the use of unstimulated nondividing cells, higher numbers of cells are available for RICA analysis than for dicentric chromosomes or micronuclei tests. Moreover, the method can be applied after exposure to ionizing radiation doses in excess of 5 Gy. Such doses cause a significant cell cycle delay or result in the loss of G2 phase and mitotic cells because of apoptosis. Therefore, the traditional biodosimetry based on the evaluation of the incidence of damage to chromosomes is very difficult to carry out. This is ...
Human karyotype is usually studied by classical cytogenetic (banding) techniques. To perform it, one has to obtain metaphase chromosomes of mitotic cells. This leads to the impossibility of analyzing all the cell types, to moderate cell scoring, and to the extrapolation of cytogenetic data retrieved from a couple of tens of mitotic cells to the whole organism, suggesting that all the remaining cells possess these genomes. However, this is far from being the case inasmuch as chromosome abnormalities can occur in any cell along ontogeny. Since somatic cells of eukaryotes are more likely to be in interphase, the solution of the problem concerning studying postmitotic cells and larger cell populations is interphase cytogenetics, which has become more or less applicable for specific biomedical tasks due to achievements in molecular cytogenetics (i.e. developments of fluorescence in situ hybridization -- FISH, and multicolor banding -- MCB). Numerous interphase molecular cytogenetic approaches are restricted
The position of a mouse DNA repeat located near the centromere of mouse chromosomes X, 11, 13, and 17 was examined in interphase nuclei of bone marrow and fibroblast cells by in situ hybridization of 3H- or biotin-labeled DNA probe 70-38. In most laboratory mouse strains this probe recognizes a single repeat cluster (DXWas70) close to the centromere of the mouse X chromosome. In a few mouse strains, a second locus (D11Was70, D13Was70, or D17Was70, depending on the mouse strain) is located near the centromere of an autosome. In interphase nuclei from mouse strains with the X-linked locus only, two distinct sites of hybridization were found in female mice and one in male mice. These two sites remained separated during the different phases of the cell cycle (G1, early S, late S, and G2) as demonstrated by in situ hybridization of the probe to flow-sorted nuclei. In interphase nuclei from mouse strains with both the X-linked locus and an autosomal locus, four distinct sites of hybridization were found in
Three-dimensional interphase organization of metazoan genomes has been linked to cellular identity. However, the principles governing 3D interphase genome architecture and its faithful transmission through disruptive events of cell-cycle, like mitosis, are not fully understood. By using Brownian dynamics simulations of Drosophila chromosome 3R up to time-scales of minutes, we show that chromatin binding profile of Polycomb-repressive-complex-1 robustly predicts a sub-set of topologically associated domains (TADs), and inclusion of other factors recapitulates the profile of all TADs, as observed experimentally. Our simulations show that chromosome 3R attains interphase organization from mitotic state by a two-step process in which formation of local TADs is followed by long-range interactions. Our model also explains statistical features and tracks the assembly kinetics of polycomb subnuclear clusters. In conclusion, our approach can be used to predict structural and kinetic features of 3D ...
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components, including gamma-tubulin and other proteins, to form an interphase microtubule organizing center. [GOC:mah, PMID:15068790]
There are an increasing number of studies reporting the movement of gene loci and whole chromosomes to new compartments within interphase nuclei. Some of the movements can be rapid, with relocation of parts of the genome within less than 15 min over a number of microns. Some of these studies have also revealed that the activity of motor proteins such as actin and myosin are responsible for these long-range movements of chromatin. Within the nuclear biology field, there remains some controversy over the presence of an active nuclear acto-myosin motor in interphase nuclei. However, both actin and myosin isoforms are localized to the nucleus, and there is a requirement for rapid and directed movements of genes and whole chromosomes and evidence for the involvement of motor proteins in this relocation. The presence of nuclear motors for chromatin movement is thus an important and timely debate to have. ...
View Notes - The Cell Cycl2 from BIO BSC1010 at Broward College. during the G1 phase of Interphase. Most cells are observed in Interphase, the longest part of the cell cycle. After acquiring
View Notes - 4.17.2007 from BIO 325 at University of Texas. 4.17.2007 Interphase Gap one is first part of interphase a lot of protein synthesis going on Outside of the circle is what a chromosome in
Interphase is the phase that takes place immediately after the production of new daughter cells. During this phase, cells carry out much of their usual functions including growth and protein synthesis. In most tissues, cells spend the majority of their lives in interphase. A specific example is brain tissue where mature cells remain in interphase their entire lives.. ...
During interphase, the cell is preparing to divide and is actively synthesizing the required components. Originally and inaccurately referred to as the resting stage, the interphase is actually a...
Interphase Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends the majority of its time and performs the majority of its purposes. During
I am using a fixed angle rotor centrifuge to separate the phases during TRIzol isolation. My problem is that the interphase clings to the sides of my tubes, leaving a smear of contamination in my aqueous phase - sometimes almost all the way to the top of it! I have just been pulling the aqueous phase being careful not to touch the side of the tube, but is that ok?? Also, by chance I just found that if I let the tubes sit at room temp for about 20 minutes (so this was after I already picked the very top of the aqueous phase and then just left the tubes), the interphase slides down to its place, leaving a clean aqueous phase above. So, I tried pulling more aqueous phase into separate tubes just to see what I get. Does anyone else have this problem? IS it a problem? Should I let the tubes sit until the phases settle into place before pulling the aqueous phase ...
Emmerich, Patricia; Loos, Peter; Jauch, Anna; Hopman, Anton H. N.; Wiegant, Joop; Higgins, Michael J.; White, Bradley N.; Van Der Ploeg, Mels; Cremer, Christoph und Cremer, Thomas (1989): Double in situ hybridization in combination with digital image analysis: A new approach to study interphase chromosome topography. In: Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 181, Nr. 1: S. 126-140 [PDF, 8MB] ...
Get an answer for State what happens during the following three phases of interphase.Gap 1 phase- I need two things that happen during this phase S phase- I need two things that happen during this phase Gap 2 phase- I need one thing that happens during this phase. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
As previously reported, recombinant xEIAP/XLX is rapidly degraded by at least two distinct, consecutively acting proteolytic systems [11, 14]. Within 2 h incubation, xEIAP/XLX is significantly degraded in both CSF-arrested and interphase egg extracts in a C-terminal RING finger-dependent manner. Subsequently, spontaneous cytochrome c-induced caspase activation begins after 4 h incubation in interphase egg extracts (apoptotic egg extracts), and the remaining xEIAP/XLX is cleaved by the activated caspases at yet unidentified site(s). This caspase activation is delayed or suppressed in CSF-arrested egg extracts by a p42MAPK-dependent pathway [7-11]. We found that the electrophoretic mobilities of recombinant 6XHis-tagged (6XHis-FL) and MBP-tagged (MBP-FL) xEIAP/XLX slightly decreased during incubation in CSF-arrested but not interphase egg extracts (Fig. 1B), whereas those of other BIR family proteins (xSurvivin1/xBIR1, xSurvivin2/SIX, and xXIAP) did not (data not shown). However, the rapid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interphasezytogenetik mit DNA-sonden für chromosom 8 zur detektion zirkulierender tumorzellen beim mammakarzinom. AU - Ghadimi, B. M.. AU - Uhr, J.. AU - Tucker, Th. AU - Heselmeyer-Haddad, K.. AU - Auer, G.. AU - Ried, Th. AU - Becker, H.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The detection of micrometastases in the bone marrow or peripheral blood of cancer patients is increasingly used for a more sensitive tumor staging and prognostication. The potential value of the currently used techniques for the detection of epithelial antigens by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in respect of specificity is currently controversially discussed. In the present study we demonstrate a new approach which enables the direct visualization of the tumor specific alteration of chromosome 8 in circulating tumor cells. We have therefore studied breast cancer patients with various tumor stages and tried to determine the frequency of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood by using interphase cytogenetics ...
in a small fraction of cells and at a low level, MSN can be detected in interphase nuclei in regions complementary to the chromatin, and its level rapidly increases during prophase and it co-localizes with the actin network surrounding the mitotic spindles throughout mitosis (pMID: 19595131 ...
Using GFP to image microtubules in Dictyostelium, we can follow centrosome and microtubule dynamics in interphase cells and monitor the dramatic changes that result from overexpression of the motor domain of cytoplasmic dynein. Our results address a centering mechanism used in interphase cells to control the position of the centrosome and, indirectly, that of the nucleus. The questions are: what is the role of dynein in interphase cells; where is the force‐generating motor located; and how is its activity controlled?. In wild‐type cells, short‐lived pulling forces dominate the movement of centrosomes, which are consistent with a minus‐end‐directed activity of a motor that is anchored to the cell cortex (Figure 5A and B). The rate of centrosome movement (0.4-2.5 μm/s) is consistent with, but does not prove, a cytoplasmic dynein‐mediated mechanism. To single out the contribution of dynein from the actions of other motor proteins, we have overexpressed the 380 kDa dynein motor domain ...
The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome (chromatin) plays an important role in key cellular processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription [1], and epigenetic inheritance [2]. Links between chromatin architecture and diseases such as cancer are being established [3]. Unlike most proteins that adopt the same unique 3D shapes in all cells, the conformational states of the chromatin fiber are not nearly as compact or ordered and are stochastic to some degree. Remarkably, several features of chromatin folding appear to be universal. Chromosomal territories, in which each chromosome occupies a distinct region of the nucleus, have been observed in numerous organisms and cell types, such as yeast [4], human [5], D. melanogaster (fruit fly) [6-8], mouse [9], and Arabidopsis [10]. Chromosome interactions, both within (intra) chromosomes and between (inter) chromosomes, have been observed microscopically [6, 8] and inferred using cross-linking techniques [11] such as the Hi-C ...
The nucleus in plants and animals is a highly structured organelle containing several well-defined subregions or suborganelles. These include the nucleolus, interphase chromosome territories and coiled bodies. We have visualized transcription sites in plants at both light- and electron-microscopy level by the incorporation of BrUTP. In the nucleolus many dispersed foci are revealed within the dense fibrillar component, each of which probably corresponds to a single gene copy. In the nucleoplasm there are also many dispersed foci of transcription, but not enough to correspond to one site per transcribed gene. We have shown that in wheat, and probably many other plant species, interphase chromosome territories are organized in a very regular way, with all the chromosomes in the Rabl configuration, all the centromeres clustered at the nuclear membrane and all the telomeres located at the nuclear membrane on the opposite side of the nucleus. However, despite this regular, polarized structure, there is no
Other articles where Interphase is discussed: adhesive: Adhesion: In this zone, called the interphase, the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive may be considerably different from those in the noncontact portions. It is generally believed that the interphase composition controls the durability and strength of an adhesive joint and is primarily responsible for the transference of stress…
The Golgi apparatus in mammalian interphase cells is composed of flattened, membrane-bound structures approximately 1µm long, named Golgi cisternae. Between two and five cisternae align in a parallel fashion forming a Golgi stack[32]. At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi stacks take a polarized position around the cell nucleus and centrosome in a cis-trans fashion. The cisternae of same polarity belonging to two adjacent stacks are connected by thin tububules, forming the Golgi Ribbons [33] Towards the end on interphase at G2/M of the cell cycle the Golgi ribbons begin to disassemble and assume a peri-nuclear arrangement around the nucleus. Micro-tubules are known to assist in this structural organization[34]. Unlinking the Golgi ribbon This process emerge from Interphase to early G2 (prophase). It unlinks the golgi ribbon by detaching the cells tubular connections between the cells stacks [35]. In this process the ribbon may be converted into stacks depending on the protein enzymes such as ...
The Golgi apparatus in mammalian interphase cells is composed of flattened, membrane-bound structures approximately 1µm long, named Golgi cisternae. Between two and five cisternae align in a parallel fashion forming a Golgi stack[34]. At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi stacks take a polarized position around the cell nucleus and centrosome in a cis-trans fashion. The cisternae of same polarity belonging to two adjacent stacks are connected by thin tububules, forming the Golgi Ribbons [35] Towards the end on interphase at G2/M of the cell cycle the Golgi ribbons begin to disassemble and assume a peri-nuclear arrangement around the nucleus. Micro-tubules are known to assist in this structural organization[36]. Unlinking the Golgi ribbon This process emerge from Interphase to early G2 (prophase). It unlinks the golgi ribbon by detaching the cells tubular connections between the cells stacks [36]. In this process the ribbon may be converted into stacks depending on the protein enzymes such as ...
Sportsquest Interphase Hypertrophy Matrix - Nutrition - It is designed for hard training power, strength, and endurance athletes to optimize their recovery and muscular strength, by facilitating the increase in the number (not just increase in size) of actin and myosin contractile proteins in the myofibrils (myofibrilar hypertrophy).
Interphase. Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cells spends approx. 90% of its life. During this phase the cell copies its DNA in preparation for mitosis. This phase is also known as the Resting Phase. However, interphase doesnt describe a cell that is merely resting, it is preparing for Mitosis.…. ...
The growth and replication of cells is often described as a cyclic process with two main phases: interphase, when the cell grows and replicates DNA in preparation for cell division, and mitosis, during which the actual division of the cell into two daughter cells occurs. The events occurring in this cyclic process are summarized in the diagram on the right in which interphase events are shown with blue arrows and mitosis is shown in brown. Note that cells may also exit the cycle and enter a G0 phase either temporarily or more or less permanently. In cells that are actively growing and dividing, such as those in an embryo, the cycle is completed frequently as cells divide over and over as the embryo grows and develops. In adults the need for growth and development has passed, and most cells remain in the G0 phase during which they perform their specialized functions, but they no longer replicate (e.g., nerve and muscle cells). Nevertheless, even in fully developed adults certain progenitor cells ...
The mammalian nuclear envelope (NE) can develop complex dynamic membrane-bounded invaginations in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. Since the formation of these nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) structures can occur during interphase, without mitotic NE breakdown and reassembly, some other mechanism must drive their development. Here we consider models for deformation of the interphase NE, together with the evidence for their potential roles in NR formation.
Definition: Chromatin is the DNA/protein/RNA complex extracted from eukaryotic lysed interphase nuclei. Just which of the multitudinous substances present in a nucleus will constitute a part of the extracted material will depend in part on the technique each researcher uses. Furthermore, the composition and properties of chromatin vary from one cell type to the another, during development of a specific cell type, and at different stages in the cell cycle ...
Chromosomes are not very mobile during interphase. In this issue, Nagashima et al. (2019. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201811090) propose that the overall stabilization of genome ...
It has been a puzzle how decondensed interphase chromosomes remain essentially unknotted. The natural expectation is that in the presence of type II DNA topoisomerases that permit passages of double-stranded DNA regions through each other, all chromosomes should reach the state of topological equilibrium. The topological equilibrium in highly crowded interphase chromosomes forming chromosome territories would result in formation of highly knotted chromatin fibres. However, Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) methods revealed that the decay of contact probabilities with the genomic distance in interphase chromosomes is practically the same as in the crumpled globule state that is formed when long polymers condense without formation of any knots. To remove knots from highly crowded chromatin, one would need an active process that should not only provide the energy to move the system from the state of topological equilibrium but also guide topoisomerase-mediated passages in such a way th
article{221460, abstract = {The distribution of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and three classes of highly repetitive DNA in the chromatin of interphase nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied for the first time through non-isotopic in situ hybridization and luminescence digital imaging microscopy. Each of the three classes of highly repetitive DNA exhibited a characteristic hybridization pattern, and one class was seen to be primarily localized on two chromocentres, which would allow it to distinguish a particular chromosome. The rDNA was consistently localized on the two largest chromocentres and on one or two smaller chromocentres. A limited number of nuclei exhibited more than four labelled chromocentres, indicative of either polypoidy or differential amplification of the rDNA. In nuclei where the nucleolus could be clearly observed, the nucleolar associated chromocentres (NACs) were seen to be labelled by the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe.}, author = {Bauwens, Serge and Van Oostveldt, ...
During the conversion to the mitotic state, higher eukaryotic cells activate a cascade of reactions which result in the disintegration of the nuclear envelope, the condensation of the DNA into chromosomes, and the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. In Xenopus, the induction of the mitotic state appears to be under the control of a cytoplasmic factor(s) known as mitosis-promoting factor or MPF. We have developed a rapid and highly sensitive version of an in vitro assay for MPF. The assay uses reconstituted nuclei in interphase cytoplasm from activated Xenopus eggs. The MPF-induced conversion from interphase to mitosis is conveniently monitored by the visual observation of the loss of the nuclear envelope from the substrate nuclei. At near saturating concentrations of MPF, nuclear breakdown requires 20-30 min. Preincubation experiments have revealed that the action of MPF requires only a few minutes and that the disassembly process itself takes up the remainder of the incubation period. Using ...
Interphases and Mesophases in Polymer Crystallization I by Giuseppe Allegra (Editor) starting at $15.00. Interphases and Mesophases in Polymer Crystallization I has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
Our observations demonstrate that components involved in various steps of ribosome biogenesis are not stationary in the nucleolus during interphase but move rapidly between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm. Our findings of GFP-fibrillarin are similar to the recent study of GFP-fibrillarin in living cells (Phair and Misteli 2000; Snaar et al. 2000). Since the resolution of FRAP and FLIP analyses does not reach the molecular level, our results represent the sum of movement of molecules in all of their possible forms: bound, free, activated, inactivated, or bound to different partners. Nevertheless, these analyses provide basic concepts and allow comparisons between the dynamics of different proteins evaluated under the same conditions. The exchange between the nucleoplasm and nucleolus on a scale of seconds suggests that the examined nucleolar factors (stable proteins) cycle between the two compartments more than once during their lifetime, possibly after each functional act (that is, one round ...
The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within chromosome territories. These models, however, provide only few mechanistic details about the relationship between higher order chromatin structure and genome function. Recent advances in genomic technologies have led to rapid advances in the study of three-dimensional genome organization. In particular, Hi-C has been introduced as a method for identifying higher order chromatin interactions genome wide. Here we investigate the three-dimensional organization of the human and mouse genomes in embryonic stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types at unprecedented resolution. We identify large, megabase-sized local chromatin interaction domains, ...
We derive an unbiased information theoretic energy landscape for chromosomes at metaphase using a maximum entropy approach that accurately reproduces the details of the experimentally measured pairwise contact probabilities between genomic loci. Dynamical simulations using this landscape lead to cylindrical, helically twisted structures reflecting liquid crystalline order. These structures are similar to those arising from a generic ideal homogenized chromosome energy landscape. The helical twist can be either right or left handed so chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ideal chromosome landscape when augmented by interactions like those leading to topologically associating domain formation in the interphase chromosome reproduces these behaviors. The phase diagram of this landscape shows that the helical fiber order and the cylindrical shape persist at temperatures above the onset of chiral symmetry breaking, which is limited by the topologically associating domain interaction strength ...
Hall 16 / Stand D02 / Booth 17). InteGen develops innovative, clinically useful, and cost-effective DNA FISH probes for the cytogenetics community. We offer multi-color metaphase and interphase chromosome profiling, including our Rapid FISH with 15-min hybridization.. Read more ...
Computer-aided image registration is an effective means of reducing interphasic hepatic image displacement and aids in the detection of lesions, according to a study published in the February edition of the American Journal of Roentgenology.
Chromatin fiber in interphase nucleus represents effectively a very long polymer packed in a restricted volume. Although polymer models of chromatin organization were considered, most of them disregard the fact that DNA has to stay not too entangled in order to function properly. One polymer model with no entanglements is the melt of unknotted unconcatenated rings. Extensive simulations indicate that rings in the melt at large length (monomer numbers) $N$ approach the compact state, with gyration radius scaling as $N^{1/3}$, suggesting every ring being compact and segregated from the surrounding rings. The segregation is consistent with the known phenomenon of chromosome territories. Surface exponent $\beta$ (describing the number of contacts between neighboring rings scaling as $N^{\beta}$) appears only slightly below unity, $\beta \approx 0.95$. This suggests that the loop factor (probability to meet for two monomers linear distance $s$ apart) should decay as $s^{-\gamma}$, where $\gamma = 2 - ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Interphase is the stage of the cell cycle that usually lasts the longest. During interphase, the cell may not look like it is doing much, but many significant events are happening to prepare it for...
Hello, Can anyone refer an article, journal, book ect that would be helpful for someone (me) trying to get fluorescene in situ hybridization to work - looking for single gene(s) in interphase nuclei? I would really appricate any direction that anyone could offer. Thankyou Curtis Alexander ...
Differential distribution of R- and G-band DNA with respect to SC-35 domains in interphase nuclei. (A and B) Probe of R-band 17q21 DNA (red in A, white in B) hy
Studies on cell kinetics in untreated animals have for the most part been done on or- gans in which many proliferating cells can be found. In general the proliferating cells have been identified either in histologic sections as mitoses or by autoradiography as labeled interphase cells following the
Briefly describe all phases of the cell cycle and tell what happens in each. a)Interphase: G1, S phase, G2 phase. b)M phase If a cell never entered the resting phase would it be a problem? Why? What is the.
welcome Today I well be teaching and showing you the cell cycle DNA The first step of the cell cycle is Interphase it when the DNA in the cell makes a
The expression of the human Ki-67 protein is strictly associated with cell proliferation. During interphase, the antigen can be exclusively detected within the nucleus, whereas in mitosis most of the protein is relocated to the surface of the chromosomes. The fact that the Ki-67 protein is present d …
The three-dimensional relief model shows the 10 stages of meiosis on the basis of a typical mammal cell:1. Interphase (stage of G1-phase)2. Prophase I (leptoten
Introduction. Meiosis essay Meiosis is a reduction division which occurs in sexually reproducing organisms to produce gametes. It involves one division of the chromosomes followed by two divisions of the nucleus and cell. The diploid parent cell gives rise to four haploid daughter cells. Before meiosis can happen, the DNA Must replicate, this is done in the stage of interphase. Following interphase the first stage of meiosis occur, this is the reduction division and starts with prophase I. In early prophase I centrioles are at their respective poles and their spindle fibres start to grow. The chromosomes become more visible with a beaded appearance due to the centromeres. The chromosomes become more visible by coiling up and condensing. ...read more. Middle. The bivalents arrange themselves on the equator in a random assortment. This random assortment leads to genetic variation. The spindle fibres now attach to the centromeres. Anaphase I follows after metaphase. In anaphase I the chromosomes, ...