Influence of interleukin-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms on progression to liver cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Type III interferons (IFNs) (or IFN-λ) are the latest addition to the IFN family. Even though they share little protein homology with type I IFN, both exhibit remarkable functional similarities: each can be induced in response to viral infections, and both lead to Janus kinases (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation. The JAK/STAT pathway induces antiviral responses and IFN-stimulated gene transcription. However, despite the similarities in their effector functions with type I IFNs, IFN-λ also has a non-redundant role in protecting barrier organs: epithelial cells preferentially produce IFN-λ rather than type I IFNs; and interferon lambda receptor 1 (IFNLR1), the specific receptor for IFN-λ, is highly expressed on cells of epithelial lineage ...
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer that affects millions of patients per year. Conventional therapies combining chemotherapeutic agents with radiation can only extend survival by a few months; therefore, there is a dire need for an effective means of treating this deadly disease. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), currently in the early stages of FDA pre-IND drug trials, has proven to be an effective cancer specific cytokine, able to trigger the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction and/or autophagy. GBMs have mutations that often result in the activation of cytoprotective cell signaling pathways, preventing cancer therapeutics and even MDA-7/IL-24 treatments from being effective. Since the discovery of MDA-7/IL-24 a number of groups have shown toxic effects in a variety of tumor cells. However, the lethality of MDA-7/IL-24 is not enough to eradicate the tumor. We hypothesized two xxiii rationales for this minimalistic effect. First, the MDA-7/IL-24
Background and aims Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) is a novel type of interferon produced by dendritic cells (DC). Despite its binding to a different receptor, IFN-λ shares functional similarities with type I IFN (IFN-I) by upregulating the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. The role of IFN-λ in DC biology and in autoimmunity remains unknown.. ...
Clone REA371 recognizes the mouse IL-27 p28 antigen, a secreted molecule which binds Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) to form the heterodimeric cytokine IL-27. IL-27 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, in the early phase after antigen-mediated activation. It can skew T helper cell development, suppress T cell proliferation, stimulate cytotoxic T cell activity, induce isotype switching in B cells, and has diverse effects on innate immune cells. In vivo, its most important role appears to be that of immune regulation, as mice with defects in IL-27 or its receptor display enhanced immune responses in a range of infectious and noninfectious situations. These activities of IL-27 are dependent on simultaneous T cell receptor activation and occur in synergy with IL-12. Another important role of IL-27 is its antitumor activity as well as its antiangiogenic activity with activation of production of antiangiogenic chemokines such as IP-10/CXCL10 and MIG
Interleukins are naturally occurring proteins that help the bodys immune system. The different types of interleukins all serve to...
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Complete information for IFNLR1 gene (Protein Coding), Interferon Lambda Receptor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Posted by Andreas Carl from IP 94.222.30.158 on March 13, 2012 at 08:37:43:. In Reply to: Interleukins posted by Valery on March 10, 2012 at 16:28:13:. Very interesting question: Nobody can know all the interactions (basically every cell communicates with every other cell during the process of ...
Liu R, Van Kaer L, La Cava A, Price M, Campagnolo DI, Collins M, Young DA, Vollmer TL, Shi FD. Autoreactive T cells mediate NK cell degeneration in autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2006 May 1;176(9):5247-54. Abstract. ...
有多种机制认为病毒感染与过敏性炎症相互作用,从而导致下呼吸道功能障碍、喘息和哮喘。首先,潜在的过敏性炎症可以直接增强气道对鼻病毒感染的反应性。此外,病毒感染可损害气道上皮的屏障功能,导致气道壁对气传过敏原的吸收增加和炎症反应增强,而潜在的过敏性炎症也可能导致病毒复制增强。值得注意的是,鼻病毒感染和变应原均可促进气道上皮细胞产生IL-33, IL-33是最近发现的一种先天细胞因子,可促进2型气道炎症和重塑。据报道,这种类固醇耐药途径在难以控制哮喘的儿童中上调。有趣的是,IL-33多聚物与中晚期发作的喘息有关,而中晚期发作的喘息与早期生活中的过敏反应密切相关。 另一种先天上皮细胞因子IL-25也由鼻病毒诱导,在过敏患者鼻病毒感染的情况下,IL-25可能加重过敏性气道炎症 ...
Инфламмасома - важный компонент нативного иммунитета. Она представляет собой макромолекулярный комплекс, включающий сенсорные элементы, адапторные белки и зимоген каспазы-1. Под действием продуктов распада тканей и патогенных микроорганизмов инфламмасома активируется и превращает про-IL-1b и про-IL-18 в активные интерлейкины. Активация инфламмасом отмечена при многих воспалительных заболеваниях и служит мишенью для терапевтических воздействий. В настоящем обзоре обсуждается вклад инфламмасом в патогенез социально-значимых заболеваний ...
Looking for online definition of B cell stimulatory factor II in the Medical Dictionary? B cell stimulatory factor II explanation free. What is B cell stimulatory factor II? Meaning of B cell stimulatory factor II medical term. What does B cell stimulatory factor II mean?
Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family. It is a heterodimeric cytokine that is composed of two distinct genes, Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-27p28. IL-27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor (IL-27R). This receptor consists of two proteins, IL-27ɑ and gp130. IL-27 induces differentiation of the diverse populations of T cells in the immune system and also upregulates IL-10. When IL-27 binds to the IL-27 receptor, signaling pathways including JAK-STAT and p38 MAPK pathways are turned on. There are two types of responses, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, which involve different types of cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells. The response that is activated is very much dependent on the external surrounding of IL-27. There are many different subsets of T cells, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, Tr1, and Treg cells; IL-27 is greatly involved in ...
Interleukins (ILs) are biologically active mediators of inflammation and immune response that belong to cytokine family. Around 40 different ILs have been identified so far and are multifaceted with roles in multiple signaling pathways, exhibit diverse roles in immune regulation and cellular networks and target numerous proteins that regulate biological responses. Essential functions of ILs include stimulation of inflammation and immune responses as defence against pathogens. Identification of IL antagonists in as treatment option for autoimmune disorders, cancer and inflammatory disorders is being actively pursued. Antibody and receptor antagonists of interleukins are showing promising results in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome.

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IFNs represent the first line of defense against viral pathogens and act both directly on viral replication and indirectly through activation of host immune response genes.14 The type I interferon, IFN-α, has received particular attention in the treatment of chronic HCV infection, because recombinant IFN-α is a major component of the standard treatment of HCV.15-17 The recent discovery of the type III interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) family, spurred, in large part, by the association between IL28B genotype and HCV treatment response, has opened new avenues of research into a novel mechanism of antiviral activity.18. The IFN-λs or type III IFNs bind to a unique receptor complex,19, 20 but otherwise share many functional characteristics with the type I IFNs.18 This family comprises three members, designated IL28A (IFN-λ2), IL28B (IFN- λ3), and IL29 (IFN- λ1). The nomenclature used to describe the IFN-λ family reflects their structural and functional similarity to both the interleukin family of ...
Environmental changes affecting the relationship between the developing immune system and microbial exposure have been implicated in the epidemic rise of allergic disease in developed countries. While early developmental differences in T cell function are well-recognised, there is now emerging evidence that this is related to developmental differences in innate immune function. In this study we sought to examine if differences associated with innate immunity contribute to the altered immune programming recognised in allergic children. Here, we describe for the first time, the association of carriage of the T allele of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 3 kb upstream of IL28B, encoding the potent innate immune modulator type III interferon lambda (IFN-λ3), and allergy in children (p = 0.004; OR 4.56). Strikingly, the association between rs12979860 genotype and allergic disease is enhanced in girls. Furthermore, carriage of the T allele at rs12979860 correlates with differences ...
Immune responses must be tightly controlled for dose, location, strength and duration using genetic, epigenetic or biochemical regulation. Among these, the generation of alternatively-spliced transcripts is an efficient and dynamic way to increase transcriptional and proteomic diversity. Specifically, this thesis explains how splice variation dictates the biological functions of interleukin-22 (IL-22) binding protein (IL-22BP) and interferon lambda 4 (IFNλ4), two proteins that participate in key cytokine responses to infection and inflammation. IL-22BP is a soluble receptor for IL-22 that is expressed as three isoforms in humans, IL-22BPi1, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3. The murine homolog of IL-22BPi2 has been characterized as an antagonist of IL-22 while the physiological relevance of IL-22BPi1 and IL-22BPi3 are unknown. Here, we present findings demonstrating that alternative splicing tailors IL-22BP activity to specific spatiotemporal conditions. Inclusion of a unique third exon renders IL-22BPi1 ...
Other names: IL-6 What are Interleukins? Interleukins are a group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between cells. Interleukins manage cell growth and differentiation. Interleukins are also important in regulating immune responses, such as inflammation. Interleukins are part of a bigger group of messenger molecules called cytokines. They are a part of the inflammatory cascade…
The international team, led by Professor Jacob George and Doctor Mohammed Eslam at the Westmead Institute, has unequivocally shown that variations in the interferon lambda 3 (INLF3) protein are responsible for tissue damage in the liver. The research team had previously identified that the common genetic variations associated with liver fibrosis were located on chromosome…. ...
In this report we describe the generation of mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 to define the role of this receptor chain in IL-13 responses. IL-13Rα2 may act to modulate the effects of IL-13 in vivo in various ways. IL-13Rα2 could enhance IL-13 activities by increasing the strength of IL-13 signaling or attenuate IL-13 effects by negative signaling or simply as a molecular decoy. Attenuating roles of IL-13Rα2 could explain the lack of evidence for IL-13 effects on T cells or an enhancing role could explain the effect of IL-13 effect on airways hyperreactivity and eosinophil survival distinct from IL-4.. Interestingly, we find that the absence of IL-13Rα2 correlates with nearly complete loss of serum IL-13 and an increase in tissue IL-13 in IL-13Rα2−/− mice. The lack of serum IL-13 cannot be explained by a lack of IL-13 production in IL-13Rα2−/− mice as IL-13 is present in tissues of IL-13Rα2−/− and is produced by activated IL-13Rα2−/− immune cells. Serum IL-13Rα2 may act as a ...
Description - Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a heterodimeric cytokine and a relatively new member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, plays an important role in the regulation of Th1 responses. IL-27 consists of two subunits, an EBV-transformed gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a p28 cytokine subunit. IL-27 activity is mediated by binding to its receptor, IL-27R, comprised of WSX-1 and gp130. Several immune cells co-express both subunits of the IL-27 receptor. IL-27 is expressed by antigen-presenting cells upon antigen activation. IL-27 potently induces the proliferation of naive T cells, and synergistically with IL-12 stimulates the production of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells ...
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Here is a very elegant story about IL-17-producing γδ T cells (γδ17 cells), from Haas and colleagues in Prinzs lab.. They undertook very astute and clever approaches and created various original chimeras to demonstrate that there is only a narrowed window of opportunity, which occurs in the fetal thymus, for the development of γδ17 cells. Their generation appears to be TCR independent [once again adding more complexity to the long lasting debate as to the importance of TCR signaling for the emergence of IFNγ- and IL-17-producing γδ cells].. Surprisingly, they show that IL-17 itself may control the development and homeostasis of the γδ17 cells. The idea is that IL-17, which may be produced from αβ thymocytes or innate lymphoid cells (ILC), blocks de novo development of thymic γδ17 cells.. Therefore, this is the first observation that IL-17-secreting γδ cells are produced exclusively in fetal thymus (thus before birth) and that they persist as self-renewing / long lived cells ...
Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Mouse IL-6 ELISA Ready-SET-Go!™ Kit 2 x 96 tests Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Mouse IL-6 ELISA...
IL-12/IL-23 p40, Functional Grade, clone: C8.6, eBioscience™ 500μg; Functional Grade IL-12/IL-23 p40, Functional Grade, clone: C8.6, eBioscience™...
摘 要:γδT细胞是一群异质细胞,人和小鼠不同组织部位的γδT细胞亚群表型多变、功能丰富。γδT细胞经过胸腺选择,形成IL-17+γδT细胞、IFN-γ+γδT细胞或IL-4+γδT细胞,它的分化受到很多因素的调控。γδT细胞是炎症介质IL-17的重要来源,IL-17+γδT细胞可以参与多种疾病的诱发和发展,如过敏、自身免疫性疾病,甚至恶性肿瘤。此外,它们也在宿主防御中发挥保护作用,防治传染病和诱导细胞毒性T淋巴细胞对癌症的反应。就IL-17+γδT细胞的发育、分化和调节机制以及在各种疾病中的作用进行综述 ...
Interferon alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA2 gene. Human interferon alpha-2 (IFNα2) is a cytokine belonging to the family of type I IFNs. IFNα2 is a protein secreted by cells infected by a virus and acting on other cells to inhibit viral infection. The first description of IFNs as a cellular agent interfering with viral replication was made by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann in 1957. The history of this finding was recently reviewed. There are 3 types of IFNs: Interferon type I, Interferon type II and Interferon type III. The type II IFN, also called IFNγ, is produced by specific cells of the immune system. Unlike type I and type III IFNs, IFNγ has only a modest role in directly restricting viral infections. Type I and type III IFNs act similarly. However, the action of type III IFNs, also known as IFNλ, is limited to epithelial cells while type I IFNs act on all bodys cells. Type I IFNs form a family of several proteins: in humans, there are 13 α subtypes, 1 β ...
Predicted to have signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in innate immune response. Localizes to the extracellular space. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in cryoglobulinemia; hepatitis C; liver cirrhosis; and thrombocytopenia. Orthologous to several human genes including IFNL2 (interferon lambda 2) and IFNL3 (interferon lambda 3 ...
In this study, we show that human IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimer, the recently identified member of the IL-17 cytokine family, utilizes the same receptor complex as the IL-17F and IL-17A cytokines. Using various experimental approaches, including surface plasmon resonance and siRNA gene knockdown, we characterized the physical and functional interactions of IL-17F/IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17A with the IL-17RA and IL-17RC receptors and propose that all three cytokines require both receptors for their biological activity.. Toy et al. demonstrated that human IL-17A or IL-17F could not induce CXCL1 expression in IL-17RA−/− fibroblast cells and that transfection of human IL-17RA did not rescue the expression of CXCL1 as was seen in wild-type cells (26). When the cells were cotransfected with both human IL-17RA and IL-17RC and treated with either human IL-17A or IL-17F, production of CXCL1 was restored, suggesting that a heterodimeric IL-17RA/IL-17RC receptor was required for signaling (26). Recently, it ...
Clone REA285 recognizes both, the free and complexed forms (homodimer p80 and heterodimer p70) of the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 (IL-12) as well as of interleukin-23 (IL-23). IL-12, also known as natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF) or cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (CLMF), is expressed by activated macrophages that serve as an essential inducer of Th1 cells development. It acts as a growth factor for activated T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. IL-12 has been found to be important for sustaining a sufficient number of memory and effector Th1 cells to mediate long-term protection to intracellular pathogens. Overexpression of IL-12 was observed in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of IL-12 in the pathogenesis of the disease. IL-23, a heterodimeric cytokine which functions in innate and adaptive immunity, may constitute with IL-17 an acute response to infection in peripheral tissues. It stimulates
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Relative expression of interferon-gamma from human NK cells, as determined by Taqman ® real time PCR. Relative Condition expression NK media only 1 1:625 IL-27 1 1:125 IL-27 1 1:25 IL-27 1 1:5 IL-27 1 100 ng/ml IL-27 1 IL-2 only (100 ng/ml) 320 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 120 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 240 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 340 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 310 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) 190 IL-12 only (100 ng/ml) 650 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-12 740 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-12 710 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-12 690 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-12 705 IL-27 + IL-12 (100 ng/ml) 820 IL-18 only 1 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-18 1 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-18 1 IL-27 + IL-18 (100 ng/ml) 1 IL-2 + IL-12 2800 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 + IL-12 1500 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 + IL-12 1600 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 + IL-12 1700 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 + IL-12 2600 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) + IL-12 2100 IL-2 + IL-18 500 IL-27 + 1:625 IL-2 + IL-18 300 IL-27 + 1:125 IL-2 + IL-18 300 IL-27 + 1:25 IL-2 + IL-18 600 IL-27 + 1:5 IL-2 + IL-18 500 IL-27 + IL-2 (100 ng/ml) + ...
Simoni, Y., Fehlings, M., Kløverpris, H.N. et al.. Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals and tissues. It also provides a global, ...
Innate Immune Response to Influenza Virus at Single-Cell Resolution in Human Epithelial Cells Revealed Paracrine Induction of Interferon Lambda 1 ...
Mei, Alessandra and Mameli, Giuseppe and Serra, Caterina and Poddighe, Luciana and Uleriand, Elena and Dolei, Antonina (2009) Regulation of human endogenous retroviruses of the W family by type III interferon λ2 and HIV in astrocytes. ...
Recombinant Human IL-29/IFN-lambda 1 is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 181 amino acids. Background: IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, also named interferon-λ2 (IFN-λ2), IFN-λ3, and IFN-λ1, respectively, are newly ident
Structure: Monomer
Secreted by: Dendritic Cells, Macrophages
Functions: T cell proliferation
Disease areas: Autoimmune and inflammatory disease
The rise of nanomaterial use in a variety of applications, including biomedical imaging and drug delivery, has led to concern about the potentially hazardous impacts on human health. Mast cells are critical for innate and ...
TRANCE, a TNF Family Cytokine, Promotes Angiogenesis [Kim, Young-Mi, Kim, Young-Myoung, Lee, You Mie, Kim, Hae-Sun, Choi, Yongwon, Kim, Kyu-Won, Lee, Soo-Young, Kwon, Young-Guen] / 이화여자대학교 세포신호전달연구센터 / ...
CCL4, CCL20, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-18, MIF, TNSF15, IL-1β, IL-1R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-7R, IL-8, IL-10R, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-3, IL-15, IL-16, IL-21, IL-21R, IL-22, IL-17D, LITAF, NK-lysin, CD25, CD80, CD83, CD86, IFN-α, IFN-r, TGFB4, B-defensin8 ...
Brief summary of the role the IL-33 and its T1/ST2 receptor pathway plays in disease pathology. Commercially availible T1/ST2 monoclonal antibody
Interleukiin-10 ehk IL-10 on paljude selgroogsete loomade mitmete lümfisüsteemi rakkude poolt teatud sündmuste korral vabastatavad endogeensed lühiajalised valgulised signaalmolekulid, mis vahendavad tõenäoliselt põletikuvastaseid jaimmunosupressiivseid toimeid (immuunvastuse pidurdamine) ning mis liigitatakse põletikuvastaste tsütokiinide hulka. IL-10-t toodavad ja vabastavad T- (CD4 T-rakud, CD8 T-rakud jt), B-rakud, monotsüüdid, dendriitrakud ja makrofaagid, aga ka kesknärvisüsteemi liigitatud gliiarakud jpt. Eri tüüpi tsütokiinid kasutavad nn segasignaale, nii näiteks inhibeerib IL-4 ja IL-10 eritamine Th1- tüüpi immuunvastuste supressiooni, vähendamaks makrofaagidelt tuleva IL-12 tootmist. Põletikutoime arvatakse seisnevat põletikutsütokiinide, nagu IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα ja GM-CSF, sünteesi inhibeerimises. Interleukiin-10 on 2. rühma (IL10- perekonna), mis koosneb interleukiin-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 (Mda-7) ja IL-26, interferoonidest (IFN-alfa, -beeta, ...
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As in the original Irish, Dáil Éireann is typically abbreviated to Dáil, which, unlike the former, is preceded by the definite article. Thus one says: a member of Dáil Éireann; but: a member of the Dáil.. ...
Looking for online definition of Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 6 in the Medical Dictionary? Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 6 explanation free. What is Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 6? Meaning of Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 6 medical term. What does Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 6 mean?
Scientists use cancer biomarkers to predict a patients risk of developing cancer, their prognosis and response to therapy and their chance of disease recurrence. A biomarker could be a genetic mutation, the presence of a particular protein or an inherited genetic variation. Moffitt researchers focused their attention on inherited genetic variations in genes called interleukins. They genotyped the DNA of 33 interleukin genes from 651 NSCLC patients. "Interleukins have important roles in regulating cell growth, cell death and in the activation of the immune system," explained Matthew Schabath, Ph.D., assistant member of the Cancer Epidemiology Program at Moffitt. "Inherited genetic variations in interleukins and other genes can change their function and promote cancer development or control a patients response to therapy." The researchers discovered that patients who had certain genetic variations in interleukin genes had a better response to either surgery or chemotherapy, resulting in ...
We identified group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in mouse lungs. Upon exposure to the protease allergen papain, lung ILC2s produced large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 and induced eosinophilia and mucus hyperproduction. Intranasal injections of recombinant IL-33 also stimulated lung ILC2s. ILC2s that were previously stimulated by an allergen persisted long after the initial inflammation was resolved and responded to allergen challenge more vigorously than naïve ILC2s. Microarray analyses of the gene expression profiles of ILC2s isolated from naïve and allergen-treated mice showed that allergen-experienced ILC2s have a similar gene profile to that of memory T cells. To further study the process of "memory ILC2" generation, we analyzed the expression of cell surface molecules on ILC2s from untreated mice and those after intranasal IL-33 injections at various time points, which showed differential expression of CD27, CD103, CD41 and the IL-25 receptor (IL-25R). Memory ILC2s expressed higher level ...
Background: Despite the importance of inflammation in cancer, the role of the cytokine IL-33, and its receptor ST2, in colon cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33, and its receptor isoforms (ST2 and ST2L), in colon cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-33 and sST2 were determined with ELISA. ST2 and IL-33 expression was detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ST2 expression in CT26 cells was stably suppressed using ST2-specific shRNA. Cytokine and chemokine gene expression was detected with qRT-PCR. Results: Human colon tumours showed lower expression of ST2L as compared with adjacent non-tumour tissue (P,0.01). Moreover, the higher the tumour grade, the lower the expression of ST2L (P=0.026). Colon cancer cells expressed ST2 and IL-33 in vitro. Functional analyses showed that stimulation of tumour cells with IL-33 induced the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). Knockdown of ST2 in ...
Although innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) functionally analogous to T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells are well characterized, an ILC subset strictly equivalent to IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells has only recently been proposed. Here, we report the absence of an intestinal regulatory ILC population distinct from group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), ILC2s, and ILC3s in (1) mice bred in our animal facility; (2) mice from The Jackson Laboratory, Taconic Biosciences, and Charles River Laboratories; and (3) mice subjected to intestinal inflammation. Instead, a low percentage of intestinal ILC2s produced IL-10 at steady state. A screen for putative IL-10 elicitors revealed that IL-2, IL-4, IL-27, IL-10, and neuromedin U (NMU) increased IL-10 production in activated intestinal ILC2s, while TL1A suppressed IL-10 production. Secreted IL-10 further induced IL-10 production in ILC2s through a positive feedback loop. In summary, ILC2s provide an inducible source of IL-10 in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas ...