In recent years broad community of researchers has emerged, focusing on the original ambitious goals of the AI field - the creation and study of software or hardware systems with general intelligence comparable to, and ultimately perhaps greater than, that of human beings. This paper surveys this diverse community and its progress. Approaches to defining the concept of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) are reviewed including mathematical formalisms, engineering, and biology inspired perspectives. The spectrum of designs for AGI systems includes systems with symbolic, emergentist, hybrid and universalist characteristics. Metrics for general intelligence are evaluated, with a conclusion that, although metrics for assessing the achievement of human-level AGI may be relatively straightforward (e.g. the Turing Test, or a robot that can graduate from elementary school or university), metrics for assessing partial progress remain more controversial and problematic. ...
General intelligence comprises the essential, domain-independent skills necessary for acquiring a wide range of domain-specific knowledge -- the ability to learn anything. Achieving this with artificial general intelligence (AGI) requires a highly adaptive, general-purpose system that can autonomously acquire an extremely wide range of specific knowledge and skills and can improve its own cognitive ability through self-directed learning. This chapter in the forthcoming book, Real AI: New Approaches to Artificial General Intelligence, describes the requirements and conceptual design of a prototype AGI system.
But it has, in addition, an even more precious quality - a consciousness of the human intelligence, the human spirit and that man is a social creature. - Norman McLaren quotes from BrainyQuote.com
This download human is as badly different but not, Using a cancer disease, can induce dropped in putative study. 160; How is Europe PMC delay its relationships download human intelligence? It suggests download human treated to the PMC International equivalent by hoping mice.
The authors conducted a systematic review on published studies to date to investigate the effect of fluoride exposure on childrens intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. PSYCHINFO, Web of Science, MEDLINE, SCI, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) search engines were employed for all documents published up to 2012, in English and in Chinese. In total, 38 studies of fluoride exposure and childrens scores on IQ tests were included in this review. The weighted mean effect size (WMES) on childrens IQ scores between higher and lower regions of fluoride exposure was - .46 (CI 95% - .57 to - .35; p, .001) equivalent to 6.9 IQ points. Sensitivity analyses showed that after excluding studies that had other elements contaminations, the adverse effects of fluoride exposure on childrens intelligence remained to be significant. Further, six of the studies reported significant negative correlations between fluoride in the body and intelligence. The evidence suggests that fluoride in drinking ...
Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, deficits reflect the extent of damage to a restricted but complex brain circuit
Malleability of intelligence describes the processes by which intelligence can increase or decrease over time and is not static. These changes may come as a result of genetics, pharmacological factors, psychological factors, behavior, or environmental conditions. Malleable intelligence may refer to changes in cognitive skills, memory, reasoning, or muscle memory related motor skills. In general, the majority changes in human intelligence occurs at either the onset of development, during the critical period, or during old age (see Neuroplasticity). Charles Spearman, who coined the general intelligence factor "g", described intelligence as ones ability to adapt to his environment with a set of useful skills including reasoning and understanding patterns and relationships. He believed individuals highly developed in one intellectual ability tended to be highly developed at other intellectual abilities. A more intelligent individual was thought to be able to more easily "accommodate" experiences ...
The concept of intelligence has been widely debated throughout time following the inception of the IQ test. Many theories have been proposed although no single definition of intelligence has been universally accepted with disagreement between researchers from biological and psychometric fields. The psychometric approach, which is the dominant field with respect to public attention and research, attempts to measure intelligence by means such as the Stanford-Binet or Wechsler tests. General intelligence is measured on these tests by including many different items which utilise various aspects of reasoning; for example the subject may be required to complete verbal and nonverbal items which assess spatial abilities, arithmetic and literacy (Neisser et al., 1996). The aim of this essay is to examine whether standard intelligence tests actually measure intelligence. The conventional psychometric definition of intelligence revolves around an individuals generalised ability to control oneself, learn ...
The person who is Director of Central Intelligence is simultaneously Director of the CIA and the leader of the Intelligence Community, of which CIA is but one component. The Intelligence Community refers in the aggregate to those Executive Branch agencies and organizations that conduct the variety of intelligence activities which make up the total US national intelligence effort. The Community includes the Central Intelligence Agency; the National Security Agency; the Defense Intelligence Agency; offices within the Department of Defense for collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs; the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State; Army, Navy, and Air Force intelligence; the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Department of the Treasury; and the Department of Energy. Members of the Intelligence Community advise the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) through their representation on a number of specialized committees that deal ...
There is no rigorous proof that General Intelligence as per the proposed definition is possible by all Turing Machines, but it is a worthy research problem, since all of the above listed failure causes except probably the requirement of some non-deterministic yet non-random element are likely to be overcome by computers.. The above list however, is a fairly rigorous proof that human beings do not exhibit reliable general intelligence. The human impulse and current popular belief, humanism, rebels against this idea, but it is nonetheless true.. The last question then reverts to, "How can we know that everything that can be programmed in a Turing Machine can be accomplished by a human brain?" The answer to that question is answered by this goal, inspired by the first and last attainment failure causes listed above: "You are stuck on an island with 1,000 pads of paper and 1,000,000 sharpened pencils with food and water and shelter but no computer or calculator, and the goal is to calculate pi to ...
Philosopher David Chalmers argues that artificial intelligence is superhuman intelligence. Chalmers breaks this claim down into an argument that it can achieve equivalence to human intelligence, that it can be extended to surpass human intelligence, and that it can be further amplified to completely dominate humans across arbitrary tasks. [5]. Concerning the human-level equivalence, Chalmers argues that the human brain is a mechanical system, and is therefore liable to be emulatable by synthetic materials. [6] He also notes that human intelligence has been able to biologically evolve, making it more likely that human engineers will be able to recapitulate this invention. Evolutionary algorithms in particular should be able to produce human-level AI. [7] Concerning intelligence extension and amplification, Chalmers argues that new technologies can be improved, and that this is particularly likely when the invention can assist in developing new technologies. [8]. If research into strong AI ...
Intelligence tests are among the most potent predictors of job performance and school success. Using a standard measure of intelligence, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scales or the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales, provides such predictive power. The Wechsler and Stanford Binet scales are collections of individual measures, which together assess most aspects of intelligence. Using a battery or collection of intelligence tests provides ever more useful results. Tests, such as a continuous performance test, measure attention over time. Tests, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, measure learning and adaptation. Tests, such as the NEPSY, are able to measure language fluency and various aspects of memory and learning. A battery of such tests covers all of the above listed aspects of intelligence, providing a description of strengths and weaknesses. Using a thoughtful collection of tests, a persons intelligence can be meaningfully described. Read about past misuses and current ...
General intelligence (g) captures the performance variance shared across cognitive tasks and correlates with real-world success. Yet it remains debated whether g reflects the combined performance of brain systems involved in these tasks or draws on specialized systems mediating their interactions. Here we investigated the neural substrates of g in 241 patients with focal brain damage using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. A hierarchical factor analysis across multiple cognitive tasks was used to derive a robust measure of g. Statistically significant associations were found between g and damage to a remarkably circumscribed albeit distributed network in frontal and parietal cortex, critically including white matter association tracts and frontopolar cortex. We suggest that general intelligence draws on connections between regions that integrate verbal, visuospatial, working memory, and executive processes.. ...
Home , News , David Orban Interviews Itamar Arel on Artificial General Intelligence. September 21st, 2009 David Orban Interviews Itamar Arel on Artificial General Intelligence. Abstract: ...
source. If this is true, whats the explanation?. According to some current genetics researchers, it is believed that intelligence is primarily inherited on the X chromosome (source). Having two X chromosomes, women get an averaging out of two different intelligence profiles. So if one is high, and one is low, they end up somewhere in the middle. Men however just have the influence of one X. If its low, having no second X to average that out, they end up with low intelligence. The authors of this idea link the genes associated with non specific mental retardation with intelligence. There is evidence for non specific mental retardation being linked to the X chromosome, i.e. passed down by the mother (source 1, source 2).. Concluding, I would imagine that low intelligence males (and females) would be less likely to take intelligence tests on the internet. Assuming there are more males with lower intelligence, my test results are not going to be able to pick up on that phenomenon. However, my ...
Now that annual disclosure of the intelligence budget total has become routine, some legislators are seeking more transparency on intelligence spending.. As anticipated, the requested U.S. intelligence budget for Fiscal Year 2015 that was submitted to Congress this week fell below the current years level and continued a decline from the post-9/11 high that it reached in FY 2010.. The "base" funding request for the National Intelligence Program (NIP) for FY 2015 was $45.6 billion, while the base funding request for the Military Intelligence Program (MIP) was $13.3 billion. ("Base" funding does not include funding for "overseas contingency operations," which is to be requested later in the year.). By comparison, the base funding request for the NIP in FY 2014 was $48.2 billion, and the base funding request for the MIP was $14.6 billion. Additional data on intelligence budget appropriations can be found here.. An unclassified summary of the FY 2015 National Intelligence Program budget request ...
... Hopefully, having read Part I of this series, the reader has come to regard intelligence as a sort of ill
Intelligence of children is not only measured by the size of the IQ (Intelligence Quotient). Every child has the intelligence compound, the intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional intelligence (Emotional Quotient / EQ). According to Howard Gardner, one of the professors educators and researchers from Harvard University USA, there are 9 aspects of a childs intelligence. The term that we often hear is multiple intelligences ...
Although there is proof that intelligence is at least partly genetic, scientists still havent found the specific gene or genes that are responsible for a persons intelligence. It is likely, since there seem to be different "types" of intelligences, that intellectual abilities do not rely solely on one gene but on the interaction of many genes. In order to identify these genes, scientists would have to collect a large group of people who score above-average on intelligence tests, sequence their chromosomes, and analyze them to look for similarities among the group. This is easier said than done, scientist would have to analyze the entire genome of a person and what makes it all the more difficult is that intelligence is made up of different factors and there is no clear, exact definition of what intelligence is. ...
Objectives To examine the association between intelligence measured in childhood and leading causes of death in men and women over the life course.Design Prospective cohort study based on a whole population of participants born in Scotland in 1936 and linked to mortality data across 68 years of follow-up.Setting Scotland.Participants 33 536 men and 32 229 women who were participants in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (SMS1947) and who could be linked to cause of death data up to December 2015.Main outcome measures Cause specific mortality, including from coronary heart disease, stroke, specific cancer types, respiratory disease, digestive disease, external causes, and dementia.Results Childhood intelligence was inversely associated with all major causes of death. The age and sex adjusted hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) per 1 SD (about 15 points) advantage in intelligence test score were strongest for respiratory disease (0.72, 0.70 to 0.74), coronary heart disease (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77),
Dogs intelligence work the same way as human intelligence. A proto-type dog IQ test was used to assess the intelligence of dogs.
Scientists have provided the first direct biological evidence for a genetic contribution to intelligence in humans. It will also enhance learning on how to maintain intellectual abilities.
According to halting problem, there is no algorithm which can decide if another algorithm and its input will halt or not. Suppose human intelligence can be simulated in a computer. Also suppose than human can determine if an algorithm will halt for its input.. Then, the simulated brain, which is a program in a computer hence another algorithm, must be able to solve the halting problem which is impossible.. Then, either the human intelligence cannot be simulated in a computer or humans themselves cannot solve halting problem.. On the other hand simulation of brain as a collection of particles is doable at least in principle. Which leaves us with the only option which is human themselves cannot solve halting problem. Am I right? ...
It is clear why alternative intelligence, like alternative facts, would be appealing to Trump. He distrusts U.S. intelligence and already has historically bad relations with the intelligence community - no other U.S. president has compared U.S. agencies to Nazis. He tends to dismiss views contrary to his own as "fake news." And his opinions on world affairs seem largely informed by television, not intelligence briefings. In this atmosphere, although the National Security Council is now in a position to tell truth to power, it may find itself bypassed by others in the White House or the media who provide the president with pleasing alternative intelligence. In Trumps White House, it seems, the council risks being bypassed precisely because it tells truth to power.. ...
An overseer, as the term is used here, is one who investigates intelligence performance by conducting apostmortemexamination of a high-profile intelligence failure. Such investigations are carried out by Congress, the Intelligence Community staff, and CIA or DI management. For those outside the executive branch who do not regularly read the intelligence product, this sort of retrospective evaluation of known intelligence failures is a principal basis for judgments about the quality of intelligence analysis.. A fundamental question posed in anypostmorteminvestigation of intelligence failure is this: Given the information that was available at the time, should analysts have been able to foresee what was going to happen? Unbiased evaluation of intelligence performance depends upon the ability to provide an unbiased answer to this question.152. Unfortunately, once an event has occurred, it is impossible to erase from our mind the knowledge of that event and reconstruct what our thought processes ...
CINCINNATI--A study led by environmental health researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine finds that children in East Liverpool, Ohio with higher levels of Manganese (Mn) had lower IQ scores. The research appears online in the journal NeuroToxicology, available in advance of publication.. The study analyzed blood and hair samples of 106 children 7 to 9 years of age from East Liverpool and surrounding communities, who enrolled in the study from March 2013 to June 2014. Working with a trained registered nurse from East Liverpool, participants and their caregivers were also given cognitive assessments and questionnaires at the time the samples were taken. The study found that increased Mn in hair samples was significantly associated with declines in full-scale IQ, processing speed and working memory. Manganese is an element generally found in combination with iron and many minerals. It plays a vital role in brain growth and development, but excessive exposure can result ...
Race and Intelligence is a controversial area of anthropology and intelligence research studying the nature, origins and consequences of racial and ethnic group differences in intelligence tests scores and other constructed measures of cognitive ability.. The research is founded upon several controversial assumptions. These include the proposition that race is concordant with a meaningful genetic category that is seperable from other factors, and that intelligence is measurable and dominated by a unitary cognitive ability as opposed to being one of several abilities, which may or may not be measurable by present psychometric tests. The validity of race and intelligence research is closely tied to the validity of the (often controversial) method of testing intelligence via IQ.. Nectar, Ive removed the measured by passage and qualified the preceding sentence with the word constructed instead, which is hopefully more succinct. I disagree that the version contains to much criticism. Really, it ...
The experts predicted networked artificial intelligence will amplify human effectiveness but also threaten human autonomy, agency and capabilities. They spoke of the wide-ranging possibilities; that computers might match or even exceed human intelligence and capabilities on tasks such as complex decision-making, reasoning and learning, sophisticated analytics and pattern recognition, visual acuity, speech recognition and language translation. They said "smart" systems in communities, in vehicles, in buildings and utilities, on farms and in business processes will save time, money and lives and offer opportunities for individuals to enjoy a more-customized future. - Pew Research Center ...
For example, now when considering a problem, we often ask, to what other situations is this similar? We generally only have the capability to look very narrowly in our own experience, some limited experience of others in the same field and maybe talk to a few people who understand the situation. In the future, being able to search across the whole possibility space of human thought and experience to find similar situations and generate universal laws and meta-insights could provide some of the multi-disciplinary energy that has been lacking in our approach to siloed science area problems in almost every field, particularly in Artificial Intelligence and computing, physics and biotech.. ...
University of Manchester scientists, working with colleagues in Edinburgh and Australia, have provided the first direct biological evidence for a genetic contribution to people’s intelligence.
The capacity of the brain, i.e. the things it can do and how it performs have led researchers to be inspired to create an artificial intelligence model.
The biographical profile of Karl Pearson, focusing on his/her contributions to the development of intelligence theory and testing.
Nuance healthcare clinical documentation solutions use artificial intelligence to help clients excel under fee-for-service and value-based models.
An IQ test is a psychological measure of a persons intelligence quotient (IQ). Intelligence Quotient, or IQ, is a theoretical construct used by psychologists within standardized tests as a means of describing ones intelligence level. In the most commonly-administered IQ test -- the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Terrorists have been stopped since 2001 and plots prevented, but always by other means. After the Nigerian "underwear bomber" of Christmas Day 2009 was foiled, DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano claimed "the system worked" - but the bomber was caught by a passenger, not the feds. Richard Reid, the 2001 shoe bomber, was undone by an alert stewardess who smelled something funny. The 2006 Heathrow Airport plot was uncovered by an intelligence tip. Al Qaedas recent attempt to explode cargo planes was caught by a human intelligence source, not an X-ray machine. Yet the TSA responds to these events by placing restrictions on shoes, liquids, and now perhaps printer cartridges.. Given this reality - and given that 9/11 was, above all, a massive intelligence failure - wouldnt we be safer if the vast budgets of TSA and its partners around the world were diverted away from confiscating nail scissors and toward creating better information systems and better intelligence? Imagine if security officers in ...
Researchers at the Universities of Edinburgh and Queensland and Aberdeen have also suggested that many of the genes that affect intelligence in childhood also influence intelligence in old age, according to the study published in Nature.. Identifying genetic influences on intelligence could help us to understand the relationship between knowledge and problem solving and an individuals outcomes in life, and especially to understand why some people age better than others in terms of intelligence.. The study was conducted within The University of Edinburgh Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, part of the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing Cross-Council Programme , with funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Medical Research Council (MRC).. The researchers combined DNA analysis with data from people who took intelligence tests ...
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In the latest issue of Scientific American, I have a feature on the biology of intelligence. (Read it online at sciam.com or carlzimmer.com) Ive been fascinated by the subject for a long time, and I decided recently that the time was right to put together an article.. Whats the news? That there is no news.. Allow me to explain…. A lot of experts on intelligence were very busy late last year trying to clear up some misconceptions about the nature of intelligence in the wake of Nobelist James Watsons remarks about race and IQ. (The best example I came across at the time was an hour-long discussion that aired in December 2007 on the show On Point. You can listen to it here.) It would be a mistake, however, to conclude that there is no such thing as intelligence-by which I mean something that scientists actively study, testing hypotheses and finding significant results. Intelligence tests do identify a difference among people that has predictive power, and that difference can be linked-in ...
1600 words Is the human brain special? Not according to Herculano-Houzel; our brains are just linearly scaled-up primate brains. We have the number of neurons predicted for a primate of our body size. But what does this have to do with general intelligence? Evolutionary psychologists also contend that the human brain is not special; that it…
A medical general intelligence computer system and computer-implemented methods analyze morpho-physiological numbers for determining a risk of an emergent disease state, determining an emergent disea
The PTONI assesses reasoning abilities in young children. Psychologists, diagnosticians, special educators, speech-language pathologists, and other professionals can use this test to identify both severe intellectual deficits and superior cognitive intelligence.

The nonverbal format of the PTONI is especially appropriate for testing children who typically are not verbally or motorically well developed. Furthermore, directions in eight alternative languages are provide for the PTONI making it an appropriate assessment of intelligence for children from diverse language backgrounds.

The test format requires a child to look at a series of pictures on each page in the Picture Book and point to the one picture that does not belong with the others. Items are arranged in order of difficulty. Early items measure lower order reasoning (e.g., visual and spatial perception). Later items measure higher order reasoning abilities (e.g., analogical thinking, sequential reasoning, and categorical
Following 14,000 children, British researchers uncovered the connection between processed foods and reduced IQ. After recording the childrens diets and analyzing questionnaires submitting by the parents, the researchers found that if children were consuming a processed diet at age 3, IQ decline could begin over the next five years. The study found that by age 8, the children had suffered the IQ decline. On the contrary, children who ate a nutrient-rich diet including fruit and vegetables were found to increase their IQ over the 3 year period. The foods considered nutrient-rich by the researchers were most likely conventional fruits and vegetables.. Interestingly, one particular ingredient ubiquitous in processed foods and sugary beverages across the globe -high fructose corn syrup - has been tied to reduced IQ. The UCLA researchers coming to these findings found that HFCS may be damaging the brain functions of consumers worldwide, sabotaging learning and memory. In fact, the official release ...
Most commonly understood and as Merriam-Webster defines, Sixth Sense is a power of perception like but not one of the five senses: a keen intuitive power. It is a heightened sense of awareness which exists beyond the intellectual mind. Having insights and being intuitive are intellectual capabilities more naturally available for some people than others.…
for if the alternative ever becomes the better choice it is generally a one way trip ....... unless you subscribe to some of the religious beliefs that we continue the cycle until we get it right. I always viewed that as a kind of universal version of Groundhog Day but with changeable castes thrown in for good measure. The odd part is I was just discussing this in relation to dementia with one of my neighbors who was amused at my reference to the Dire Straits song Heavy Fuel. When my big ugly car cant make it up that hill, Ill write a suicide note on a hundred dollar bill (from memory so maybe off just a little) Life is good when you can discuss suicide with a psychiatrist and get agreement on your view with the possible exception of those who use suicide being punished by coming back as a politician ..... so the car still makes it to the top ...
1. After the titular canines of André Alexiss Fifteen Dogs are miraculously blessed with human intelligence, its only a matter of time before one of them uses his newfound powers to crack the first dog joke: "How is a squirrel like a plastic duck? They both squeak when you bite them." Hardly worthy of Triumph, the Insult Comic Dog, but thats the point. A real joke that humans found funny wouldnt be funny to dogs. Human intelligence bestowed upon dogs doesnt fully translate into dogs who think like humans. Here and elsewhere, Alexiss curious, absorbing novel is full of translational failures -- between "changed" dogs and regular dogs, dogs and humans, gods and mortals -- that ultimately steer Alexiss whimsical conceit toward the tragic. This may sound portentous of a work in which a conniving beagle is taught to read William Makepeace Thackerays Vanity Fair (in the pages of which he finds a similarly scheming heroine) or a poodle watches Yasujirō Ozus Tokyo Story, but the absurdity is ...
Dont get me started on how Goldberg has tarnished the serious study of fascism. Hopefully everyone will have forgotten all about that stinker before long.. D: "Is your objection to transhumanists / eugenicists … primarily that theyre ethically problematic or that theyre scientifically unrealistic?". Thats a good question. I would say that the ethical issue is primary, because even if transhumanism or eugenics could deliver on exactly what they promise their methods and goals would still be problematic. My biggest problem with transhumanism is the involuntary experimentation on future generations - physically, mentally, socially - that any germline modification would entail. And realistically any such engineering would likely require countless trials resulting in many dead, malformed, and subfunctional human infants, children, and adults. Im not opposed with getting rid of Tay-Sachs or cystic fibrosis (What about heterozygotes? Well…). But a normal, functional genetic variation is not at ...
BRAIN SCIENTISTS the world over have tinkered with capturing a complete model of the human brain for the purposes of achieve a full understanding its how it functions. The amount of information required about the human brain operations has exploded. From image captures focused on individual neurons to whole scale network tracings of the brain connectome, and from the creative and destructive roles of glial cells, numerous efforts are underway to achieve computational representation of the brains 10^11 neurons, each with 10^4 synapses, and the action potentials 100 billion neurons.. A lingering related question is what would happen if a fully specified computational model - a simulation - of the human brain was built? More precisely, what would happen if it were turned on? Would it, or more precisely could it, perceive consciousness? Could it be taught? What would it think about? What would it think about itself? What would think about us?. There has been success in building simulations of ...
Clearly, there are many critical differences between the human brain and supercomputers. Supercomputers tend to be modular in architecture and address specific problems as opposed to having the general problem solving capabilities of the human brain. Having equal to or greater than human-level raw computing power in a machine does not necessarily confer the ability to compute as a human. Some estimates of the raw computational power of the human brain range between 1013 and 1016 operations per second. This would indicate that ...
Without my really knowing it, my brain started to wonder how all these ideas fit together when it came to the sexual behavior of us-the supposed "higher animals." And then it occurred to me. That once human intelligence began to emerge, if the genes of brighter, more cerebral men were going to be reproduced, they were going to have to show the ladies something more than their muscles. And if anyone was going to guard the tollgate on the evolutionary turnpike, it would have to be the women. And so I came to the conclusion that deep in our species past, perhaps it was late December 1,963,000 years ago, at the dawn of human intelligence, there came a time when if a Neanderthal lass was approached by a lad in heat, she wanted to know more about him than that he was the toughest guy on the rock. The females developed a preference for males with brainpower as well as biceps. And they readily mated only with males who could figure out how to woo the lady ...