Downloadable! This paper investigates wheter, in what direction, and to what extent one mode of technology transfer is influenced by the strength of intellectual property protection that host nations provide. Using data spanning the period 1977 - 1999, we find little support for the claim that strengthening intellectual property rights will have any sizable effect on the magnitude of overseas R&D investment by (US) multinationals. Any semblance of a positive relationship between these two variables vanishes the moment we introduce country fixed effects and time fixed effects into the regressions. One implication of our resutls is, that ceteris paribus, stronger intellectual property rights in the developing countries pursuant to the TRIPs agreement may not have any significant influence on technology transfer into thes countries via overseas R&D.
By Monika Ermert for Intellectual Property Watch. The issue of intellectual property did not make the headlines during the concluding session of the five-year-long UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis. And some critics are concerned it was intentional.. Discussing the future of the information society without talking about intellectual property seems odd and suggests an intentional omission, said Robin Gross, executive director of IP Justice. "We got," said Gross, "three minutes at the Tunis plenary, and thats it on the topic of intellectual property.". Symptomatic of this, according to Gross, was what happened to cyberlaw expert and Creative Commons founder Lawrence Lessig. The Stanford University professor was told immediately before his talk at a "Roundtable of Visionaries" organized by the ITU during WSIS preparations in Geneva in 2002 to not talk about intellectual property issues, but instead focus on Internet governance.. Lessig revealed this to reporters ...
Abstract: Special 301 of the 1988 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act grants the United States Trade Representative the authority to target countries that do not adequately protect intellectual property rights. The USTR has been investigating and negotiating with several countries, including Thailand, in an effort to improve intellectual property protections for American products. As a result, Thailand has instituted noteworthy changes in its copyright and patent laws. This Comment recommends that the USTR continue to negotiate with Thailand, and that the USTR continue to exert pressure on Thailand. This Comment also suggests that because Thailand has taken steps to improve protection of intellectual property rights, the USTR should refrain from imposing any trade sanctions under Special 301 against Thailand at this time ...
Protecting intellectual property rights is a critical component to the success of a technology company. In order for a tech company to determine how to protect its intellectual property, the company should understand how the key intellectual property rights work. In this Part 1 of a three-part series, we discuss how patent, copyright, and trade secret ownership works in the United States if there is no agreement in place to allocate these rights.. Patents Patents are a right to exclude others from using a technology for a limited period of time. In exchange for these rights, the patent holder must disclose the invention in the patent. Without an agreement in place to state the ownership of an invention that is patented, the following applies: ...
Enforcing Intellectual Property Rights - a comprehensive guide to copyright and ownership for businesses, innovative, and creative individuals - book review
Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access (ISSN: 2375-4516) provides Tri-annual publication of articles in all areas related to the fields of Copyrights, Intellectual Pro..
Frances Salisbury is a Patent Attorney at Mewburn Ellis LLP. She has a PhD from University of Edinburgh, where she researched the role of phytochrome photoreceptors in root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. She agreed to guest post on intellectual property rights in plant science - enjoy! Patents and other intellectual property rights can be a controversial topic in the area of plant research, and much confusion exists about what protection is available, whether such work should be protected, and how this impacts on academic research. In this article, I hope to provide a very brief introduction to some of the different intellectual property rights that are available for plant research, particularly thinking about aspects that might be protectable by a patent.. So, why would you want to protect your plant research? Essentially, licensing and selling intellectual property rights can be used to create revenue for future research, or might be exchanged for the right to use other peoples ideas ...
Standardization and Intellectual Property Rights: Conflicts Between Innovation and Diffusion in New Telecommunications Systems: 10.4018/978-1-878289-70-4.ch006: In todays environment of rapidly evolving information and communication technologies (ICTs), technical standardization is said to be confronted by a
We study the extent to which a countrys strength of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection mediates knowledge spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Following the opposing views in the IPR debate, we propose a negative effect of IPR strength on unintentional horizontal (intra-industry) knowledge diffusion. Using a unique firm-level dataset of large, publicly traded firms in 22 (mostly) developed countries, we find partial support for these expectations. Strong IPR indeed reduces horizontal knowledge diffusion, while it stimulates backward (to suppliers) knowledge diffusion. Somewhat unexpectedly however, we also find that forward (to customers) knowledge diffusion decreases with IPR strength. In general, and in line with earlier literature, the results regarding backward knowledge diffusion are most robust to changes in model specification. Our results contribute to the debate regarding the desirability of strengthening national IPR systems, and suggest that local firms might indeed
HADIH and WELCOME to the Union of BC Indian Chiefs Email Distribution List as part of our February 2000 conference, Protecting Knowledge: Traditional Resource Rights in the New Millennium. The purpose of this list is provide information relating to Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights/Traditional Resource Rights articles, news items and reports in the areas of culture and heritage. Our website contain links to other sites and you can access and/or download papers relating to the theme. Visit http://www.ubcic.bc.ca/Resources/conferences/PK.htm
The operation, which is coordinated through the HSI-led National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center (IPR Center), has resulted in the seizure of over 20,000 pairs of counterfeit and decorative contact lenses ...
The ambassadors to the World Trade Organization from Brazil and India on Tuesday charged that other WTO members had no grounds to block legitimate shipping of generic medicines on the basis of potential intellectual property rights conflicts in the transit country and said recent cases of doing so in the Netherlands call into question WTO rules. The concern was supported by 17 other developing country governments at Tuesdays WTO General Council meeting.. Meanwhile, the ambassadors of Brazil, India, the European Union and Switzerland are expected to meet on Wednesday, according to an official, to discuss ways to start negotiating within the WTO on a proposal to extend higher name protection wines and spirits enjoy to geographical indications on other products, and on a proposal to amend WTO rules on intellectual property rights to require the disclosure of origin of genetic material in patent applications. Over 100 WTO members have called for these topics to be negotiated but a smaller number ...
Patents and other forms of intellectual property are at the heart of a long-running, multifaceted battle over affordable access to medicines. Today, as the international community increasingly turns its attention to climate change, an important question is whether intellectual property will represent a meaningful obstacle to low- and middle-income countries as they seek to acquire the technologies necessary to reduce carbon emissions or mitigate the effects of climate change.. Innovation is critical to the development of alternative energy resources and mitigation technologies. The patent, the form of intellectual property most closely associated with innovation, grants to an inventor the exclusive right, typically for 20 years, to prevent others from making or using the patented product or process. But other forms of intellectual property should not be overlooked in terms of their potential to limit access to alternative energy resources and mitigation technologies. Copyright, for example, is ...
An apparatus for and a method of searching and organizing intellectual property (IP) is provided. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, an apparatus (and corresponding method) is provided for formulating and facilitating searches for intellectual property, and organizing results of such searches. In an exemplary embodiment, a search and organization server is provided with one or more modules to create and process search queries to be run on local or remote database systems. A class search module, for example, may be provided to provide on-line access to classification information and facilitate searching of intellectual property using select classifications. An IP thesaurus module may be provided for developing a list of elements (e.g., words, textual phrases, concepts, representations, numbers, identifications, pictures, graphics, features, etc.) found in select intellectual property information (e.g., groupings of patents). In accordance with an exemplary embodiment, the list of
Intellectual property (IP) is a creation of the mind. They are intangible assets for which exclusive rights are granted by law. These assets include artistic works, discoveries, inventions, designs, phrases, symbols, etc. Intellectual property is granted similar protective rights as those granted to physical property, and the stealing of that property is regulated in the U.S. at the federal level.. Protection of intellectual property affords the owner of the property exclusive rights to create, use and distribute the work. Owners are granted a temporary monopoly on the idea, and with the exception of trade secrets, owners disclose their process and/or original works to the government and the public.. In theory, by granting the owners protection from theft, IP regulation promotes creative and inventive progress. It allows owners to display their work to the public without the worry of losing profit through imitation.. Depending on the work, intellectual property falls into one of four categories: ...
by A. Bryan Endres & Carly E. Giffin. Abstract. Standard innovation theory assumes that intellectual property protection is a prerequisite to the development of technological advances. A strong intellectual property system, composed of both laws that establish intellectual property protection and a judicial or other adjudicative system to enforce the property right, has been considered necessary to stimulate innovation for the benefit of society. While not directly challenging this traditionally held belief, the authors used empirical data to test the assumption in the context of agriculture. This paper analyzed twenty years of agricultural production data from Argentina, Brazil, China, India, and the United States and their accompanying intellectual property systems. The authors sought to determine whether strong intellectual property laws, along with vigorous enforcement, do in fact correlate with greater innovation. The results of this empirical study were mixed. The authors analysis ...
The Intellectual Property Trade Policy Division (TMI) of Global Affairs Canada is interested in consulting Canadians on their experiences regarding intellectual property (IP) protection and enforcement in respect of Canadas existing and future trading partners, including China, MERCOSUR, Mexico, and the United States. The Royal Society of Canada has been encouraged to invite its Members to provide feedback. The feedback received from this questionnaire will help the Government of Canada with its negotiation and renegotiation of possible free trade agreements.. More details are below. To participate please contact Russel MacDonald.. ***. The Government of Canada is committed to creating the most favourable conditions for Canadian businesses to compete internationally and is working to negotiate free trade agreements with our trading partners to create new opportunities for Canadians and Canadian businesses, as well as to create jobs for the middle class and those working hard to join it.. The ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about North American Free Trade Agreement at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about North American Free Trade Agreement easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Some products referred to in this list may be subject to patents held by third parties. Any products subject to any such patent or other intellectual property right are referred to in this list as an indication of our technical capabilities to manufacture. The reference to any product subject to any patent or other intellectual property right held by third parties is not intended to represent that we are able to sell or supply any such product, as the ability to do so is subject to any applicable patent or intellectual property right. ...
Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access.. ...
Having an Intellectual Property Confidentiality Agreement is important for information centered business. This article shows how to write an Intellectual Property Statement.
Search intellectual property jobs in United Kingdom. Find United Kingdom intellectual property jobs, careers, employment, job search opportunities, job openings positions, job listings, vacancies jobs search on Jobcentreplusscotland.com - The most quality jobs - Anywhere.
Notes 1. Centre for Intellectual Property Law, Molengraaff Institute for Private Law, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. This paper is based on a presentation held at the Ius Commune Research School workshop on Intellectual Property at Edinburgh University School of Law, 19-20 June 2003. Reactions are most welcome. 2. Convention on Biodiversity, 1993, available at ,http://www.biodiv.org,. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 1994; Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1 C, Legal Instruments - Results of the Uruguay Round, available at ,http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/final_e.htm,. 3. M. Weatherall, In Search of a Cure: A History of Pharmaceutical Discovery, Oxford University Press, 1990, p. 3. Aboriginals seem to have had modified organisms for at least 100,000 years. See D. Posey, Commodification of the Sacred through Intellectual Property Rights, Journal of Ethnopharmacology (83), 2000, p. 6. 4. P. Rabinow, Making ...
Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celeras gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public effort. Across a range of empirical specifications, I find evidence that Celeras IP led to reductions in subsequent scientific research and product development on the order of 20 to 30 percent. Taken together, these results suggest that Celeras short-term IP had persistent negative effects on subsequent innovation relative to a counterfactual of Celera genes having always been in the public domain. ...
My take-away from this evidence is that - at least in some contexts - intellectual property can have substantial costs in terms of hindering subsequent innovation," said Williams. "The fact that these costs were - in this context - large enough to care about motivates wanting to better understand whether alternative policy tools could be used to achieve a better outcome. It isnt clear that they can, although economists such as Michael Kremer have proposed some ideas on how they might. I think this is an exciting area for future work ...
Libertarian guru Andrew Galambos intellectual property beliefs were so extreme that he paid royalties to the descendants of Thomas Paine every time he used the world "liberty." But did he steal his radical ideas from someone else?
Norway negotiates free trade agreements with other countries through the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The trade agreements secure Norwegian business access to international markets and facilitate trade with partner countries. In this page y...
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Latest version: http://www.imsglobal.org/question/. IPR and Distribution Notices. Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the specification set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.. IMS takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on IMSs procedures with respect to rights in IMS specifications can be found at the IMS Intellectual Property Rights web page: http://www.imsglobal.org/ipr/imsipr_policyFinal.pdf.. Copyright © 2005-2012 IMS Global ...
Memorandum of Understanding for the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Paragraph 8 - Intellectual Property. 1. Applicable Law. Nothing in this MOU should be read to alter the scope and application of Intellectual Property Rights and benefit sharing agreements as determined under relevant laws, regulations and international agreements of the Participants.. 2. Access to Data. To the greatest extent possible, GBIF is an open-access facility. All users whether GBIF Participants or others, should have equal access to data in databases affiliated with or developed by GBIF.. 3. Intellectual Property Rights to Biodiversity Data. GBIF promotes the free dissemination of biodiversity data and, in particular:. (a) should not assert any proprietary rights to the data in databases that are developed by other organisations and that subsequently become affiliated to GBIF;. (b) should seek, to the greatest extent possible, to make freely and openly available, with the least possible restrictions on reuse, ...
KIPOs Policy for Supporting the Use of Intellectual Property Assets - Focus on Government-owned Inventions -. September 13, 2007 Dr. Taemin EOM Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO). Contents. Current Status of Government-owned Inventions in Korea. Ⅰ. Slideshow 4150814 by ianna
June 17, 2015. Australia: The Intellectual Property Legislation Amendment (TRIPS Protocol and Other Measures) Regulation 2015, which was enacted on June 17, 2015, amends the Patents Regulations 1991 in order to complete, together with the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 2015, the implementation of the WTO General Council Decision of August 30, 2003, on the implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health (WTO Decision) and the Protocol amending the WTO Agreement on TRIPS ("TRIPS Protocol"), relating to the compulsory licensing for the manufacture of patented pharmaceuticals for export to countries experiencing public health crises.. The Regulation also repeals document retention provisions and corrects minor technical errors in the Patents Regulations 1991, the Designs Regulations 2004 and the Trade Marks Regulations 1995.. ...
Misuse of Intellectual Property includes the unapproved download, creation, sale, transfer, access, reproduction or distribution of trademarks, copyrighted material, or patented inventions. Unapproved materials may include, but are not limited to: audio, video, research materials, or course materials provided by the instructor, such as the instructors notes or PowerPoint presentations, handouts, tests, outlines, and similar materials. (Administrative Regulation 7:6, Intellectual Property Disposition). ...
Supreme Court and Federal Circuit Update: Significant Intellectual Property Decisions for 2017-2018, Dayton Intellectual Property Law Association ...
Many years of intensive research and development activities are required to build solid and commercially profitable intellectual property assets. Turkey Intellectual Property Moroğlu Arseven 5 Mar 2015
... Oxford Nanopore has a broad patent portfolio, through in-house development and licensing agreements with third parties. Oxford Nanopore has an intellectual property portfolio of more than 650 issued patents and patent applications, in over 200 patent families. These cover all aspects of nanopore sensing including fundamental patents for nanopore sensing, and patents relating to DNA-sequencing.
The Centre for Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law (CIPIT) is a part of Strathmore Law School, and is an innovative Centre for evidence-based research and training in intellectual property and information technology law and policy.
Saba & Co. Intellectual Property, commonly referred to as Saba IP, is an intellectual property firm active in Middle East and Africa.
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Title: LexisNexis® Mealeys™ Intellectual Property Legal News, Description: Headline Intellectual Property Legal News from LexisNexis®, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 71412, Grade: 80, Type: RSS20
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The PPVFRA was enacted in 2001 after engaging debates were held in the country on how intellectual property rights should be introduced in Indian agriculture after the country joined the World Trade Organisation in 1995 and agreed to implement the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). ...
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare), New Delhi. Introduction It is widely believed that pharmaceutical patents promote monopoly and thus significantly delay the entry of generics. Due to the lack of competition, the prices of medicines rise. The current system of product patent protection due to the harmonized global intellectual property rights laws are widely considered to be a major barrier for the access to medicines, especially in the developing countries.1 [1] Until such a time the poor and middle income countries became signatories to the World Trade Organization s 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement, they had the freedom and flexibility to design patent laws that prohibited product patents. With the enforcement of the TRIPS agreement in 2005, developing countries have been compelled to modify and introduce TRIPS-compliant national patent laws. The TRIPS Agreement harmonized the life of patent to a minimum of 20 years besides mandating the granting of ...