The SCOP classification for the Adsorption protein p2 superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
1IFM: Two Forms of Pf1 Inovirus: X-Ray Diffraction Studies on a Structural Phase Transition and a Calculated Libration Normal Mode of the Asymmetric Unit
1IFI: MOLECULAR MODELS AND STRUCTURAL COMPARISONS OF NATIVE AND MUTANT CLASS I FILAMENTOUS BACTERIOPHAGES FF (FD, F1, M13), IF1 AND IKE
Read "Complete nucleotide sequence of a new filamentous phage, Xf109, which integrates its genome into the chromosomal DNA of Xanthomonas oryzae, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Those poor male bacteria! They have to contend with invading filamentous phage - something that Rogaine just cant cure! Well be talking more about male and female bacteria in a later lecture (sex in bacteria isnt quite the same concept as in eukaryotes).. What is significant here is that the virion of the filamentous phage (i.e. the viral particle) carries a single-strand of DNA - not a double helix. In the cell, this single-stranded genome (2.) is used as a template to synthesize a double-stranded replicative form (RF), which is essentially a plasmid (3.). The replicative form is used as a template to generate new single-stranded genomes (4.) that are packaged into virions (5.) to generate new phage. The cell doesnt die - it just grows more slowly and continues to secrete phage indefinitely.. The practical side of this story - if you use a cloning vector that is based on a filamentous bacteriophage (such as M13mp18 which is an engineered version of the phage M13) or merely contains an ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 31332386. Nat Microbiol 2019 Nov;4(11):1895-1906. Bacteriophages from the Inoviridae family (inoviruses) are characterized by their unique morphology, genome content and infection cycle. One of the most striking features of inoviruses is their ability to establish a chronic infection whereby the viral genome resides within the cell in either an exclusively episomal state or integrated into the host chromosome and virions are continuously released without killing the host. To date, a relatively small number of inovirus isolates have been extensively studied, either for biotechnological applications, such as phage display, or because of their effect on the toxicity of known bacterial pathogens including Vibrio cholerae and Neisseria meningitidis. Here, we show that the current 56 members of the Inoviridae family represent a minute fraction of a highly diverse group of inoviruses. Using a machine learning approach leveraging a combination of marker gene and genome ...
A type of single-stranded DNA bacteriophage ( virus which infects bacteria ) that has a capsid which is long and thin, like a filament. Examples include the viruses F1 and M13 ...
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Mouse anti-M13 phage coat protein g8p. Antibodies recognising M13 filamentous phage coat proteins are instrumental in the selection and detection of phages expressing specific antibody fragments or peptide sequences at their surface. The monoclonal antibodies manufactured and supplied by Exalpha react with either the pIII (g3p) or pVIII (g8p) proteins of M13 filamentous bacteriophage. All antibodies are available in a purified format. The antibodies are fully validated and are suitable for a wide range of techniques including ...
Mouse anti-M13 phage coat protein g8p. Antibodies recognising M13 filamentous phage coat proteins are instrumental in the selection and detection of phages expressing specific antibody fragments or peptide sequences at their surface. The monoclonal antibodies manufactured and supplied by Exalpha react with either the pIII (g3p) or pVIII (g8p) proteins of M13 filamentous bacteriophage. All antibodies are available in a purified format. The antibodies are fully validated and are suitable for a wide range of techniques including ...
E coli tolQ protein: from E coli; are involved in uptake of group A colicins & infection by filamentous bacteriophages; homologous to exbB protein; amino acid sequence given in first source
As announced earlier, we are looking forward to a seminar by Eric Grelet from C.N.R.S., Université de Bordeaux, who is here as part of the Åsgard program.. Title: "Filamentous phages as model system for self-assembly". ...
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A new kind of high avidity binding molecule, termed peptabody was made by harnessing the result of multivalent interaction. 85 kDa, with interchain disulfide bonds. Pab-S could be dissociated under denaturing and reducing circumstances and reassociated like a pentamer with full-binding activity. This intrinsic feature has an easy method to mix Pab substances with two different peptide specificities, creating heteropentamers with bispecific and/or chelating properties thus. binding actions for different receptors. A robust method of developing artificial ligands emerges by MCC950 sodium novel inhibtior the testing of huge phage libraries, displaying billions of different polypeptide sequences fused with coat proteins on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage (1, 2). For example, isolation of new peptide ligands allowed the mapping of antibody binding sites, the characterization of important residues in HLA-DR molecules, and the identification of protease substrates or inhibitors (for review see ...
During PACE, host E. coli cells flow continuously into a fixed-volume vessel (a lagoon) containing a population of filamentous bacteriophages that encode a library of evolving proteins. The lagoon is continuously drained to a waste container after passing through an in-line luminescence monitor that measures expression from a gene III-luciferase cassette on the AP. Dilution occurs faster than cell division but slower than phage replication. Each phage carries a protein-encoding gene to be evolved instead of a phage gene (gene III) that is required for infection. Phage encoding active library members trigger expression of gene III on the AP in proportion to the desired activity and consequently produce infectious progeny. Phage encoding less active library members produce fewer infectious progeny and are lost by dilution. From: Nat. Chem. Biol. 10, 216-222 (2014). PDF. ...
Despite recent progress, our understanding of enzymes remains limited: the prediction of the changes that should be introduced to alter their properties or catalytic activities in an expected direction remains difficult. An alternative to rational design is selection of mutants endowed with the anticipated properties from a large collection of possible solutions generated by random mutagenesis. We describe here a new technique of in vitro selection of genes on the basis of the catalytic activity of the encoded enzymes. The gene coding for the enzyme to be engineered is cloned into the genome of a filamentous phage, whereas the enzyme itself is displayed on its surface, creating a phage enzyme. A bifunctional organic label containing a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme and a ligand with high affinity for an immobilized receptor are constructed. On incubation of a mixture of phage enzymes, those phages showing an activity on the inhibitor under the conditions of the experiment are labeled. These ...
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth. The history of phage study is captured, in part, in the books published on the topic. This is a list of over 100 monographs on or related to phages. Rakonjac, J., Das, B. Derda, R. 2017. Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology. ISBN 9782889450954 Allen, H. K., Abedon, S. T. 2015. Viral Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms. ISBN 978-2-88919-448-3 Google Books Wei, H. 2015. Phages and Therapy as published as a special issue in Virologica Sinica consisting of four reviews, three research articles, six letters, and one insight article. Weitz, J.S., 2015. Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN 978-1-40087-396-8. Google Books Borysowski, J., Międzybrodzki, R., Górski, A., eds. 2014. Phage Therapy: Current Research ...
Over the last 120 years or so there have been seven cholera pandemics. Vaccines from killed bacteria do not give lasting immunity and therefore present research is concentrated on live vaccines. A new discovery at Harvard (Matthew K Waldor and John J Mekalanos, Science 1996;272:1910-4) has important implications for vaccine development as well as for bacterial science (Nigel Williams, Science1996;272:1869-70). Most cholera bacteria are benign but virulent strains can transmit the capacity for toxin production horizontally to other strains. and Waldor and Mekalanos have shown that this transmission is accomplished by a filamentous bacteriophage. A section of DNA within the bacterial chromosome, known as the CTX element, contains at least six genes including the toxin gene and it is this CTX segment which is transmitted by the phage. Toxin production and the formation of bacterial cell surface pili, which are responsible for gut wall adherence, are both regulated by a single bacterial gene, toxR. ...
N ew versions of the pADL phagemid vectors pADL-20b, pADL-22b, and pADL-23b are now available. The sequence of the Amp(R) gene sequence has been modified, allowing the cloning site to be opened by either SfiI or BglI restriction enzyme. This modification results in lower background during cloning and brings more flexibility for designing libraries. The pADL vector series is a collection of phagemid vectors for controlled display on the minor coat protein III which combines HIS tag for purification, epitope tag for detection and amber stop codon for conditional display. Expression of the fusion protein is tightly controlled, eliminating issues with toxic clones and library misrepresentation.. ...
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Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural genes for CT are shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13. The CTXΦ genome chromosomally integrated or replicated as a plasmid. CTXΦ used TCP as its receptor and infected V. cholerae cells within the gastrointestinal tracts of mice more efficiently than under laboratory conditions. Thus, the emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression. ...
The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12-130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7×10^4-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1) the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2) the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffmans n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among ...
The utilization of biological factors in the design, synthesis and fabrication of nano-scaled materials and devices presents novel, large scale solutions for the realization of future technologies. In particular, we have genetically modified the M13 Filamentous Bacteriophage for its use as a biological scaffold in the peptide-controlled nucleation and patterning of nanoscale semiconducting and magnetic materials. Through evolutionary phage display screening of inorganic substrates, functional peptides that influence material properties such as size, phase and composition during nucleation have been identified. The incorporation of these specific, nucleating peptides into the generic scaffold of the M13 coat structure provides a viable linear template for the directed synthesis of semiconducting and magnetic nanowires. Through further modification of the remaining proteins on the virus scaffold, other functionalities can be incorporated such as the directed patterning of the virus/nanowires ...
Rx Biosciences provides quality custom phage display library construction and screening services for biological research and drug discovery related projects. The gene of interest is randomly mutated to produce various combinations of the peptides or small antibodies [e.g. scFv and Fab] or proteins which get displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage [M13, fd, and f1 strains] as fusion proteins. Using a binding affinity-based process called panning; a small number of phages that display proteins specifically binding to a target of interest are recovered from the phage library that usually has a repertoire of many billions of unique displayed proteins. Finally, the proteins displayed by the selected phages are identified by phage amplification followed by DNA sequencing.. ...
Objective To research the interrelation of cholera toxin gene (CT gene) in manifestation of chitinase gene under different pH conditions among pathogenic and Non-pathogenic strains of in time depended chitinase activity, purification of expressed protein and SDS-PAGE analysis. gradients, tolerance to stress and safety from predators[7]. Emergent properties of chemotaxis, cell multiplication, induction of competence, bio?lm formation, commensal and symbiotic relationship with higher organisms, cycling of nutrients, and pathogenicity for humans and aquatic animals[8]. As factors mediating virulence of for humans and aquatic animals derive from mechanisms of adaptation to its environment, at different levels of hierarchical level, relationships with chitin represent a useful model for examination of the part of main habitat selection in the development of traits that have been identi?ed as virulence reasons in human disease[9]. In the current study primarily we targeted different climatic factors ...
Filamentous bacteriophages were engineered to express foreign genes with the ultimate purpose of displaying transmission control anti-malarial peptides as in phage display. It was hypothesized that expression of foreign genes would be possible using the phages promoters. This hypothesis was tested by assuming that promoters for the phage major coat protein (MCP) gene would also promote the expression of any foreign gene inserted downstream of the MCP gene. As proof of principle, the bacteriophages Pf3, Pf1, and M13 were engineered in this way to successfully synthesize Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Type 88 phage display on the EGFP recombinant Pf3 was attempted by fusing a second copy of its MCP gene to the existing EGFP gene. This resulted in a phage display Pf3 replacement vector which was then used to construct a phage for displaying an anti-malarial peptide.
A Pf1-like phage is involved in P. aeruginosa biofilm killing.Electron microscopic examination of the CsCl-purified phage revealed filamentous phage particles that were approximately 1.5 μm long (Fig. 3b). The genome of P. aeruginosa contains a filamentous prophage that is closely related to phage Pf1, and Pf1 genes are known to be upregulated in P. aeruginosa biofilms (66). Moreover, it is known that Pf1 can infect a cell by using T4P (24). Flagella have also been reported to be receptors for filamentous phage (44), and our data suggest that the P. aeruginosa Pf1-like phage may additionally infect a cell through the flagellum. We also carried out PCR with Pf1-specific primers 437F and 437R using DNA extracted from the CsCl-purified phage band. The 894-bp PCR product was sequenced, and the sequence showed 100% identity with the sequence of the Pf1-like prophage from P. aeruginosa. We also hybridized a PCR-labeled, Pf1-specific DNA probe with individual plaques generated from the biofilm ...
A Pf1-like phage is involved in P. aeruginosa biofilm killing.Electron microscopic examination of the CsCl-purified phage revealed filamentous phage particles that were approximately 1.5 μm long (Fig. 3b). The genome of P. aeruginosa contains a filamentous prophage that is closely related to phage Pf1, and Pf1 genes are known to be upregulated in P. aeruginosa biofilms (66). Moreover, it is known that Pf1 can infect a cell by using T4P (24). Flagella have also been reported to be receptors for filamentous phage (44), and our data suggest that the P. aeruginosa Pf1-like phage may additionally infect a cell through the flagellum. We also carried out PCR with Pf1-specific primers 437F and 437R using DNA extracted from the CsCl-purified phage band. The 894-bp PCR product was sequenced, and the sequence showed 100% identity with the sequence of the Pf1-like prophage from P. aeruginosa. We also hybridized a PCR-labeled, Pf1-specific DNA probe with individual plaques generated from the biofilm ...
Azorhizobium caulinodans nfrA protein: RNA-binding protein that stimulates the elongation of poly(A) tails; may be involved in the regulation of nifA; homologous to HF-I protein of Escherichia coli; Do Not confuse with nrfA, a cytochrome c nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.2.2); DO NOT confuse with NfrA protein of E. coli, a bacteriophage N4 adsorption protein; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank X76450
Recombinant antibody engineering involves the use of viruses or yeast to create antibodies, rather than using mice. Advances in molecular biology have lead to the ability to synthesize antibodies de novo in vitro - completely without the use of animals.. These techniques rely on rapid cloning of immunoglobulin gene segments to create libraries of antibodies with slightly different amino acid sequences from which antibodies with desired specificities can be selected. Recombinant antibodies are translated from recombinant DNA and displayed on the surfaces of cells or phage particles. In 1990 John McCafferty demonstrated that variable regions from antibodies could be displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage. In 1990 John McCafferty demonstrated that variable regions from antibodies could be displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage. Since then, various antibody display platforms using yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, and ribosomes have been developed. General production methods for ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. In combating HBV infections, HBV diagnosis and vaccination are therefore critical. The hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is a key target molecule in developing vaccines and diagnostic systems. To date, although HBsAg has been expressed in bacteria, yeasts and mammalian cells, there are still limitations in the existing ones, which leave the necessity for searching new HBsAg production methods. In this study, a simple phage display-based method was developed to produce the purified full-length HBsAg molecules for further immunization studies. For this purpose, the HBsAg coding gene was cloned into a pCANTAB5E phagemid vector and expressed on the surface of M13 filamentous phages. The HBsAg-expressing phage nanosystem was then used as immunization agent in BALB/cJ mice. The ELISA results for sera obtained from mice immunized with HBsAg-displaying phage particles revealed an immune response ...
The transmembrane protein ToxR is the master regulator of V. cholerae pathogenesis. ToxR is required for expression of the major virulence factors CT and TCP (27). However, ToxR is not the direct activator of TCP genes and apparently also not the direct activator of CT genes (4). Instead, ToxR, together with another transmembrane protein, TcpP, activates the toxTgene under inducing environmental conditions (8, 13). ToxT, an AraC-like transcriptional activator, then directly activates the genes encoding CT and TCP (4). The environmental signals that stimulate toxT transcription were originally thought to be sensed and responded to by ToxR (7) but now appear to be inducing conditions for the expression of tcpP (2, 31). Thus, TcpP, once made, appears to "coerce" ToxR into activating toxT transcription, something ToxR apparently does not normally do in the absence of TcpP (13). Thetcp genes (including tcpP and toxT) are on a large pathogenicity island that may in fact be a filamentous bacteriophage ...
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Rakkudes paiknevad kromosoomid paarikaupa. Üks kromosoom igast paarist on saadud emalt, teine paariline isalt. Kuid kromosoomid ei pärandu muutumatuna vanemalt lapsele. Kui munarakk ja spermatosoid ühinevad, siis toimub homoloogiliste kromosoomide vahel rekombinatsioon, mille tulemusena vahetavad kromosoomid paarikaupa üksteisega sama pikki lõike. Saadud hübriidne kromosoom sisaldab lõike mõlemast paarilisest kromosoomist ja just hübriidne kromosoom pärandub järglastele. Paljude põlvkondade möödudes on toimunud palju rekombinatsioone ja segmendid on laiali pillutatud üle kogu genoomi. Mõned segmendid on püsinud põlvkondade vältel rekombineerumata ja need esinevad paljudel inimestel. Need segmendid on haplotüübid, mis võimaldavad geneetikutel uurida seoseid geenide ja haiguste vahel. Fossiilsed andmed ja geneetilised uuringud on näidanud, et kõik inimesed põlvnevad anatoomiliselt moodsatest esivanematest, kes elasid Aafrikas umbes 150 000 aastat tagasi. Inimest võib ...
Thule aitab teil kõike turvaliselt, hõlpsalt ja stiilselt transportida, et saaksite aktiivset elu elada. Thule - Bring your life
Tugevad emotsioonid funktsioneerivad nagu pudel viina: kui te pudeli endale sisse kallate, siis kogete harilikust kaine-olekust hoopis erinevaid, hoopis võimsamaid elamusi. Alkohol saab teist lihtsalt üleni jagu. Viinauimas tundub inimesele tihti, et ta kogeb midagi suurejoonelist, mõistab äkitselt kõike jne jne. Samas ei arva enamik inimesi, et alkohol ja selle tekitatud elamused oleks hästi uhke ja keeruline värk, midagi, mis on inimeseks oleku jaoks tähtis ja eristaks meid loomadest ...