TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation and characterization of indomethacin loaded films by piezoelectric inkjet printing. T2 - a personalized medication approach. AU - Arshad, Muhammad Sohail. AU - Shahzad, Aqeel. AU - Abbas, Nasir. AU - AlAsiri, Ali. AU - Hussain, Amjad. AU - Kucuk, Israfil. AU - Chang, M. W.. AU - Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan. AU - Ahmad, Zeeshan. N1 - Not for REF. Accepted manuscript unavailable for upload. PY - 2020/2/7. Y1 - 2020/2/7. N2 - The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of piezoelectric inkjet technology in the preparation of custom-made indomethacin (IMC) films. Indomethacin solutions with and without PVP were printed onto polymeric sheets using a commercial inkjet printer. Drug loading was varied by selecting a machine parameter different dots per inches (DPIs). The printed patches were evaluated for particulate morphologies, drug loading, in vitro release and ex vivo skin permeation and anti-inflammatory effects using hind paw inflammation model. Calculated ...
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The process and quality of metallization greatly affects the performance and cost of solar cells. Screen printing of silver paste and fire-through of the silicon nitride antireflection layer is the most widely used method for front side metallization, but it produces a very resistive metal-silicon contact, which significantly limits the cell efficiency. The rapid progress in nanotechnology may provide opportunities to improve solar cell manufacturing process and performance without increasing the fabrication cost. As an example, this paper will discuss the substantial contact resistance reduction that can be achieved using inkjet printed metal nanoparticle inks.
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Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction ...
In flexible electronics, multilayer hard/soft materials are widely used to utilize both the superior electrical properties of inorganic semiconductors and robust mechanical properties of polymers simultaneously. However, the huge mismatch in mechanical properties of the hard and soft materials makes mechanics analysis challenging. We here present an analytical model to study the mechanics of multilayer hard/soft materials in flexible electronics. Third-order polynomials are adopted to describe the displacement field, which can be used to easily derive both strain and stress fields. Then, the principle of virtual work was used to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions, which can be solved numerically. Two types of loadings, pure bending and transverse shear, are studied. The normal strain distributions along thickness direction in the bimaterial regions clearly show zigzag profiles, due to the huge mismatch in the mechanical properties of the hard and soft materials. The effect of ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Hydrogel based dermal patch with integrated flexible electronics for on demand drug delivery. AU - Bagherifard, S.. AU - Tamayol, A.. AU - Comotto, M.. AU - Mostafalu, P.. AU - Akbari, M.. AU - Annabi, N.. AU - Ghaderi, M.. AU - Sonkusale, S.. AU - Guagliano, M.. AU - Dokmeci, M. R.. AU - Khademhosseini, A.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - It is now widely accepted that the incorporation of growth factors can improve the healing process of chronic wounds. In this paper we combined thermo-responsive drug microcarriers and flexible electronics to create a wound dressing capable of on demand drug delivery. Monodisperse thermo-responsive micoparticles containing active molecules were fabricated using a microfluidic system and were embedded inside a hydrogel. A miniaturized closed-loop electrical system with a flexible heater and temperature sensor was used to heat up the hydrogel and maintain its temperature during the release.. AB - It is now widely accepted that the incorporation of ...
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Carbon nanotube inks for dip-pen nanolithography patterning were formulated for applications such as electroactive composites and self-sensing composites.
Applications Industrial Use Typical cleaning agents in the metal cleaning sector are mainly petrochemicals of fossil origin. Estimated to account for more than 1/10 of total demand, these petrochemical solvents contributes significantly to total VOC emissions. Ester solvents are environmental friendly and safe alternatives. Moreover due to their high efficiency and low evaporation rate the use of Radia esters is also cost effective. Offset Ink Vegetable oil esters are excellent alternatives for mineral distillates in offset printing. Radia ester solvents comply with the most recent legislation regarding food contact materials (Swiss Ordinance and EU 10/2011) and are therefore the solvents of choice for the formulation of offset printing inks for food contact. They improve pigment wetting which results in stronger color intensities, and higher molecular weight esters with low viscosity allow the formulation of low migration inks.
Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) is a scanning probe lithography technique in which the tip of an atomic force microscope is used to write molecules directly onto a substrate, allowing nanostructured surface patterning on scales of under 100 nm. Since the driving force of DPN for transporting materials is molecular diffusion through the sub-micrometer sized water meniscus formed between the AFM tip and the surface, large-sized ink materials are not efficiently transported through this water meniscus. For this reason, bacterial cells (1-2 micrometer or larger in length) patterning with DPN technique is often considered to be impossible. Overcoming this limitation, researchers have developed a stamp-on DPN method that uses a previously developed hydrogel-coated tip and carrier agents to generate micrometer-sized bacterial cells.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been explored in recent years to pattern nanoparticles and organic/biomolecules on solid surfaces. In particular, dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) has been successfully demonstrated to write molecules on a surface by using an AFM tip coated with desired molecular ink (1, 2). AFM has also been used to push (slide) and arrange nanoparticles on solid surfaces (3-4). Application of an electric field between the AFM probe and substrate is known to produce effects like oxidation of surfaces and curing of polymers (5). However, use of electric fields in DPN has been limited to electrochemical reduction of metals on surfaces (6, 7).. In this work we demonstrate the direct deposition of gold nanoparticles on solid surfaces using electric field assisted DPN (E-DPN). Bias voltage applied to AFM probes coated with gold nanoparticles is found to play a critical role in releasing the particles onto a substrate. E-DPN has also been used on metal (nickel) substrates to ionize ...
Silicon ink has sometimes been described as a Dream Material for printed electronics. Conductive or semi-conductive inks that can be printed directly onto a variety of substrates to create transistors or other electronic devices have been talked about and promoted for a number of years but few companies have succeeded in commercializing products for the…
Recently, flexible electronics has attracted increasing attention, including batteries, displays[1], conformal antenna arrays[2], radio-frequency identification tags[3], electronic circuits fabricated in clothing[4], and biomedical devices[5], with new characteristics like large area, nonplanar forms, low manufacturing cost, disposable and wearable style, environmentally sustainable production methods, recycling, lightweight, lower energy consumption, and the integration of electronics as a part of other structures[6-10].. Traditionally, etching silicon technology is widely adopted in the microfabrication of conductive patterns in flexible electronics[11-14]. This method involves not only a complicated process but also much pollution. In recent years, many new manufacturing techniques have been improved, such as screen printing[15], gravure[16], inkjet printing[17], dip-pen nanolithography[18], nanoimprint lithography[19], etc.. Though the new technologies have shown great advantages compared ...
0029] The term optionally substituted means the anteceding group may be substituted or unsubstituted. When substituted, the substituents of an optionally substituted group may include, without limitation, one or more substituents independently selected from the following groups or a particular designated set of groups, alone or in combination: lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, lower alkynyl, lower alkanoyl, lower heteroalkyl, lower heterocycloalkyl, lower haloalkyl, lower haloalkenyl, lower haloalkynyl, lower perhaloalkyl, lower perhaloalkoxy, lower cycloalkyl, phenyl, aryl, aryloxy, lower alkoxy, lower haloalkoxy, oxo, lower acyloxy, carbonyl, carboxyl, lower alkylcarbonyl, lower carboxyester, lower carboxamido, cyano, hydrogen, halogen, hydroxy, amino, lower alkylamino, arylamino, amido, nitro, thiol, lower alkylthio, lower haloalkylthio, lower perhaloalkylthio, arylthio, sulfonate, sulfonic acid, trisubstituted silyl, N3, SH, SCH3, C(O)CH3, CO2CH3, CO2H, pyridinyl, thiophene, furanyl, lower ...
The retina sits at the back of the eye. Our study has shown, for the first time, that cells derived from the mature central nervous system, the eye, can be printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Although our results are preliminary and much more work is still required, the aim is to develop this technology for use in retinal repair in the future. They now plan to attempt to print other types of retinal cells, including the light-sensitive photoreceptors - rods and cones. Scientists have already been able to reverse blindness in mice using stem cell transplants. And there is promising work into electronic retina implants implants in patients. Clara Eaglen, of the RNIB, said: Clearly its still at a very early stage and further research is needed to develop this technology for use in repairing the retina in humans. The key to this research, once the technology has moved on, will be how much useful vision is restored. Even a small bit of sight can make a real difference, for some people ...
Boiling of liquid metals has been extensively studied in the frame of nuclear reactors safety analyses [Kottowski ( 1994)]. General features related to liquid metal boiling have been described by Dwyer (1976). Foust (1976) has reported various analytical calculations and experimental data, which tend to show a high level of superheat at boiling inception for sodium and potassium. However, this seems to be highly dependent on the purity of the liquid metals, the wetting of the surface, the heat-up kinetics (dT/dt) and the absence of microbubbles in the liquid. Most of the work performed since 20 years ago in subassembly configurations present a low level of superheat, which is clearly more representative of industrial applications.. Apart from superheat, effect of thermal conductivity and high saturation temperature, the boiling of liquid metals at normal pressure presents many analogies with boiling of water at normal pressure: high liquid-to-vapor density ratio, similar flow configurations ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Constituents of the printing inks and results Example C1 1 C2 C3 2 C4 Laromer ® LR 8986 36 36 36 (Epoxy acrylate) [parts by weight] Laromer LR 8987 36 36 36 (Urethane acrylate from BASF) [parts by weight] Laromer LR 9013 9 9 9 9 9 9 [parts by weight] Pigment Hostaperm Pink 5 5 5 5 5 5 [parts by weight] Lucirin ® TPO 1 1 1 1 1 1 [parts by weight] (Photoinitiator) Darocur ® 1173 4 4 4 4 4 4 [parts by weight] (Photoinitiator) Laromer ® LR 8956 5 5 5 5 5 5 [parts by weight] NVP 40 40 DA 40 40 CHD 40 40 Viscosity I.C.I at 23° C., 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.38 0.3 0.3 1/20 s [Pas] Belt speed [m/min] required for 2 × 15 3 × 15 3 × 15 3 × 15 5 × 15 5 × 15 curing and number of passes as a measure of the reactivity Adhesion to immediately Polypropylene, transparent 5 5 5 5 5 5 Polyethylene terephthalate 4 1 1 5 1 1 (PET X13 Melinax) Polyvinyl chloride 1 1 1 1 3 3 (PVC TF M120) After 14 days Polypropylene, transparent 4 1 2 4 1 1 Polyethylene terephthalate 2 1 1 3 1 1 (PET X13 ...
The discovery could lead to dramatic improvements and addresses one of the biggest challenges in flexible electronics, an industry still in its infancy with applications such as bendable batteries, robotic skins, wearable monitoring devices and sensors, and connected fabrics.
Breast conserving surgery, or lumpectomy, is performed in 60-75% of women diagnosed with breast cancer (McCahill, JAMA.2012;307(5):467-75). After the surgeon removes breast tissue during a lumpectomy, a pathologist analyzes the tissue to ensure that it has
An odor control substrate that is applied with an activated carbon ink is provided. The activated carbon ink is applied in a pattern that covers from about 25% to about 95% of the surface area of the substrate. Although not covering the entire surface, the present inventors have discovered that the activated carbon ink is still capable of providing good odor reduction qualities to the substrate. To further enhance the aesthetic appeal of the odor control substrate to a consumer, one or more colored inks may also be applied the substrate in a pattern that may or may not overlap with the activated carbon ink pattern. The colored ink(s) may contrast well with the activated carbon ink to provide an overall design that is more aesthetically than otherwise would be provided by a uniform coating of activated carbon ink.
This means, for example, that if you want to treat a sharp ears or ear pain, select points near the toes and fingers, to treat the shoulders and the hips, you place near elbows or knees. For a more chronic condition, you also press the tender spots around the ears and eyes, hips and shoulders. Often, the pressure points of a pair of musicians will be more sensitive on one side of the body than on the other side.. The FDA and scientists say that colored inks often contain lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, titanium and other heavy metals. Some are industrial grade colors suitable for ink or auto paint the printer. Black tattoo inks are often made of soot, they contain known cancer substances known as PAHs. You can see an acupuncturist, a kinesiologist or a practicing physician to see if your body art is affecting you in any way.. Mental problems, lung problems, dry language, lumb algie, edema, constipation, diarrhea, pain and weakness during marital abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, sore ...
A device and manufacturing method are provided comprising first and second substrates comprising a main channel provided in at least one of the substrates and a first connecting channel provided in at least one of the substrates and in fluid communication with the main channel. The main channel comprising spaced apart electrodes and filling the main channel at least partially with liquid metal. The method further comprising a first heater substrate comprising a first suspended heater element in fluid communication with the first connecting channel with the first suspended heater element operable to cause a fluid non-conductor to separate the liquid metal and selectively interconnect the electrodes and surface joining the first, second, and first heater substrates.
Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new liquid metal alloy. This animation shows how the new negative electrode - made of a sodium-cesium alloy, which is represented by orange and green balls - easily coats the solid ceramic electrolyte in sodium-beta batteries. The liquid metal alloy enables the batteries to operate at lower temperatures and last longer, while also streamlining their manufacturing process and reducing the risk of accidental fire.
Galinstan metal alloy and other liquid metals Galinstan is a silvery liquid eutectic mixture of gallium, indium and tin, made by Geratherm. It has a melting point of Tm=−20°C, Tb,1300 ºC,ρ=6440 kg/m3 , sound speed 2950 m/s, viscosity 0.0024 Pa∙s at 20 ºC.. They are much more viscous than Hg. In 2003, ¼ of silvery thermometers use galinstan instead of mercury. Any alloy containing gallium in a concentration of 65-95 wt.-%, indium in a concentration of 5-22 wt.-% and tin in a concentration of 0-11 wt.-%, can be used for thermometers, but ample margin must be allowed to avoid shatter by freezing; e.g. Tm,−10°C.. There can be other liquid metals at room temperature, as Na-K 22/78%wt eutectic alloy, with Tm=-12.6 ºC, Tb=785 ºC, ρL=866 kg/m3 at 20 ºC (at 100 ºC, ρL=855 kg/m3 , αL=340∙10-6 1/K, cL=936 J/(kg∙K), kL=23 W/(m∙K), µL=505∙10-6 Pa∙s, σL=115∙10-3 N/m and σele=2.5∙106 S/m, i.e. 4% that of Cu). It is used for high-temperature heat-transfer fluid, catalyst, ...
Low concentrations of metallic nanoparticle inks often produce a coffee-ring effect, thereby resulting in high electrical resistance in inkjet-printed lines. The coffee-ring effect is due to a convection flow of ink droplets and can be overcome by reducing the flow. Here we report the formation of absorption
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Linting. Removal of lint from the surface of uncoated paper is generally considered to be a paper problem, but it can often be solved by manipulating the ink. Decreasing the ink. Decreasing the ink tack and increasing the flow of dampening solution are two of the ways to reduce linting.. Trapping. Variations in trapping result in color variation in lithography. Causes of trapping problems when attempting to trap on wet ink are entirely different than those when attempting to trap on dry ink. Wet trapping is the ability of a wet ink film to accept another wet ink film printed over it, while dry trapping is the ability of a dry film to accept a wet film printed over it.. Wet trap. To assure good wet trap, two things must be kept under control: ink tack and ink film thickness. PIA/GATF has always recommended that inks vary by one or two tack units on multiunit presses. A thin ink film will not trap properly over a thick ink film, so that even if ink tack is properly controlled, ink film thickness ...
In one of the most significant announcements in renewable energy for the year Nanosolar, producer of CIGS solar cells made using nanoparticle ink and roll-printing technology, announced that it has shipped its first product and received their first check from product revenue. They are already sold out for the next 12 months and are working to scale their production capacity as fast as possible. The advent of low cost thin film cells, that according to Nanosolar will be able to be produced sold for $0.99 per Watt, should mean that low cost solar can be produced at the lowest cost ever and can be produced at sites that are more distributed than from thermal solar. When this cost is achieved, it will mean that solar is competitive with all other forms of power production and only geographical limitations -- lack of sun -- will limit its proliferation -- and of course the problem of storage of energy. This moves the...
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A team of University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers has created the most functional flexible transistor in the world - and with it, a fast, simple and inexpensive fabrication process thats... Read more ...
Medgadget held a Google Hangouts with John Rogers of the Rogers Research Group, about their flexible skin sensor technology to measure blood flow in vessel
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A die-carrier assembly, subjected to the external tensile forces and bending moments applied to the flexible carrier is considered. The objective of the analysis is to develop a simple, easy-to-use, and physically meaningful predictive analytical (mathematical) model aimed at understanding the physics of the combined action of tension and bending experienced by the carrier and transmitted to the die through the more-or-less compliant bond. The addressed stresses include the interfacial shearing and peeling stresses, as well as the normal stress acting in the cross sections of the die. The obtained formulae can be used in the analysis and design of assemblies of the type in question. ...
NSFs mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education made by scientists, engineers, and educators from across the country.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced 15 Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI) grants for fiscal year 2012, awarding nearly $30 million to 68 investigators at 26 institutions.
Permian Mining Solvent M is controlled boiling range solvent with balanced hydrocarbon which make it suitable to be used as in metal mining applications such as the extraction of Copper, Uranium and other precious metals in liquid/liquid extradition form. It also can be used as a base fluid in the manufacture of mining industry explosives thanks to its high solvency and emulsion properties. Other application is ink oil for offset printing ink.. ...
New research shows how inkjet-printing technology can be used to mass-produce electronic circuits made of liquid-metal alloys for soft robots and flexible electronics.
(Repeats for wider audience) * Infections prompted CDC probe * FDA does not directly regulate tattoo inks By Gene Emery Aug 22 (Reuters Health) - Contaminated tattoo ink caused atleast 22 skin and
New Distress Oxide ink pads from Ranger & Tim Holtz! This Salty Ocean Distress Oxide ink pad is perfect for card making, scrapbooking, mixed media, art journals, planners, and many other paper crafts. Tim Holtz Distress Oxide ink pads combine water based dyes with pigment inks. They are opaque and will work well on black and kraft papers as well as white. Try pressing several onto a craft sheet, spraying on water and pressing your paper into the mix. Youll get a creamy blend of colors! When dry, spritz it with water to get fun, light splotches on your paper.. Of course, Distress Oxide inks are perfect for stamping! The colors layer without getting muddied as long as you dry them between each layer. You can also paint with this ink. Its a wonderful addition to your paper crafting supplies!. Collect all 12 new Distress Oxide Ink Pads: New Distress Oxide ink pad bundle (link).. ...
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The printhead must have heating capability to print any material influenced by viscosity changes. Oil based inks are sensitive to temperature. Waxes and hot-melt materials are solids at room temperature. It is even possible to print with metallic alloys such as lead, tin, indium, zinc and aluminium. The process of printing of low-melting point metals is called direct melt printing and was introduced in 1971 by Johannes F Gottwald patent, US3596285, Liquid Metal Recording with a Continuous inkjet (CIJ) long before any form of 3D Printing was ever considered. Thermoplastic DOD inkjets print at or above the piezoelectric Curie temperature and must be continuously poled to work. Piezo D33 displacement had to be optimized to lower drive voltages. See Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) for relevant theory. Prior research in 1980 by James McMahon about the six piezo physical poling states and tests to maximize piezo resonant and anti-resonant frequencies sped up the development time. Howtek, ...
The lecture will describe our research activities which are based on forming micro and nanoparticles and droplets, while achieving new functionalities by inkjet printing of these materials. The main ink systems that will be presented are: microemulsion based ink for security printing, which converts into organic nanoparticles, conductive inks containing silver and copper nanoparticles for obtaining plastic electronics devices and solar cells, and thermal glass inks for the automotive industry. Once printed, the dispersed particles and droplets can self assemble, leading to unique structures, such as photonic crystals while the particles are monodispersed, or arrays of conductive rings. In these rings, the particles assembly led to a remarkable phenomena, sintering at room temperature, which enables forming a transparent conductive electrodes for plastic electroluminescent devices. Finally, the inkjet printing technology will be shown as a production tool, in which beads containing cells can be utilized
We have investigated whether inkjet printing technology can be extended to print cells of the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and glia, and the effects on survival and growth of these cells in culture, which is an important step in the development of tissue grafts for regenerative medicine, and may aid in the cure of blindness. We observed that RGC and glia can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric printer. Whilst inkjet printing reduced the cell population due to sedimentation within the printing system, imaging of the printhead nozzle, which is the area where the cells experience the greatest shear stress and rate, confirmed that there was no evidence of destruction or even significant distortion of the cells during jet ejection and drop formation. Importantly, the viability of the cells was not affected by the printing process. When we cultured the same number of printed and non-printed RGC/glial cells, there was no significant difference in cell ...
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An ingenious new method of creating artificial bone makes use of something many people have in their home: an inkjet printer. Find out how an inkjet printer can turn out artificial bones.
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Printing in the Nineteenth Century. In mid of the 19th century, development came into image transferring plate technology. Tags. The History of Printing and Printing Processes The earliest dated printed book known is Diamond Sutra Share Flipboard Email Print Wang Jie / Wikimedia Commons. Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images using a master form or template. Printing, or the process of reproducing text and images, has a long history behind it. Short History of Offset Printing. Equipped with state of the art relay technology, a logic component which allows you to control each operation of the machine, the Padflex SM was designed as an open ink-well pad printing machine and was manufactured in 1969. However, offset printing has revealed time and time again that traditional methods are just as effective. This report studies the Offset Printing Ink market size (value and volume) by players, regions, product types and end industries, history data 2014-2018 and forecast data ...
An offset printing plate precursor comprising a substrate having provided thereon a layer containing a substance capable of absorbing radiant rays and converting the radiant energy to heat energy, and a thin layer, wherein printing is performed by following the steps of: (a) subjecting the printing plate precursor to irradiation with active light, (b) subjecting the printing plate precursor to irradiation with light/heat convertible radiant rays or heat treatment, to thereby imagewise distribute a hydrophilic area and a lipophilic area of the thin layer, and (c) bringing the thin layer into contact with printing ink to form a printing plate in which the lipophilic area has received the printing ink, to thereby perform offset printing.
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