Current knowledge on PRRS virus immunology is still limited but it seems clear that modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are a reasonable choice for the immunization of pigs. Recently, interest in intradermal vaccination in swine has increased due to research into skin and subcutaneous tissue immunology and the possibility of using needle-free injection devices (NFIDs). The use of NFIDs in the swine industry offers some advantages over conventional needle-and-syringe methods, especially due to the reduced pain and stress to pigs and the increase in the uniformity of the dosage administered to the herd.. The MLV vaccine UNISTRAIN® PRRS has recently obtained the indication for intradermal administration with Hipradermic®, a needle-free injector with connectivity developed by HIPRA for the intradermal vaccination of pigs. A multicentre field trial was conducted under field conditions in order to demonstrate the clinical protection provided by the intradermal administration of UNISTRAIN® PRRS in ...
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3642236891 Intradermal Immunization: 351 (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology Product Will Be Deliver
The goal of the vaccination is to induce humoral (antibody) and intracellular (T lymphocyte) responses. Various data show that intradermal vaccination is more efficient than intramuscular vaccination: the humoral response is statistically better after intradermic vaccination, compared to intramuscular vaccination, even in target populations such as older subjects or immunosuppressed ...
An intradermal delivery device for use in intradermally injecting substances into the skin of an animal includes a needle cannula supported by a hub portion that is attachable to a prefillable container. A limiter portion surrounds the needle cannula and extends away from the hub portion toward a forward tip of the needle cannula. The limiter portion includes a skin engaging surface extending in a plane generally perpendicular to an axis of the needle cannula. The skin engaging surface is received against skin of an animal to administer an intradermal injection. The forward tip extends beyond the skin engaging surface a distance that enables penetration of the needle cannula into the dermis layer of the skin of the animal enabling injection of the substance into the dermis layer of the animal. The device includes enclosure means that is moveable for concealing the needle cannula after the injection has been administered.
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Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
1. Guinea pigs can be rendered hypersensitive to tuberculo-protein by small, repeated, intradermal injections of active tuberculo-protein.. 2. The addition of tuberculo-phosphatide to the protein speeds up the process of sensitization and enhances it so that the reactions become indurated and necrotic, closely simulating those of the disease.. 3. Active tuberculo-proteins induce a new formation of monocytes and some epithelioid cells. The addition of phosphatide to the protein brings about a massive formation of epithelioid cells.. 4. With the increased cellular reaction to the mixed injections may be correlated the increase in the speed and intensity of the sensitization.. 5. The intradermal route is the best for these sensitizations, probably because it provides the greatest dose per cell of the sensitizing agent.. 6. The degree of sensitization artificially obtainable by the synergistic action of tuberculo-phosphatide and tuberculo-protein is quite comparable to the degree of sensitization ...
Our state-of-the-art microinjection systems produce the most accurate injection volumes and are used for a variety of clinical laboratory applications.
Current knowledge on PRRS virus immunology is still limited but it seems clear that modified live vaccines (MLV) are a reasonable choice for the immunisation of pigs (1). Cell-mediated responses after MLV vaccination could be responsible for limiting the duration of viraemia, and consequently the spread of the virus (2). Recently, interest in intradermal vaccination has increased due to research on the skin and subcutaneous tissues immunology. Although the intradermal PRRSV vaccination has been investigated (3), the high variability between different virus isolates makes it advisable to assess the intradermal response for each vaccine strain. The aim of this study was to compare the cell-mediated immune response developed in gilts vaccinated intramuscularly and intradermally with UNISTRAIN® PRRS.. ...
Purpose: We evaluated the clinical benefit of an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MCL)-pulsed autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in advanced colorectal cancer patients expressing at least one of six MAGE-A antigens overexpressed by the cell line source of the lysate.. Experimental Design: DCs were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), pulsed with the allogeneic MCL, and matured using cytokines that achieved high CD83- and CCR7-expressing DCs. Each patient received up to 10 intradermal vaccinations (3-5 × 106 cells per dose) at biweekly intervals.. Results: Twenty patients received a total of 161 vaccinations. Treatment was well tolerated and quality of life measurements did not vary much across time. One patient experienced partial response [5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1-24%] and seven achieved stable disease (35%; 95% CI, 18-57%), one of whom also achieved late tumor regression, yielding a clinical benefit response rate of 40% (95% CI, 22-61%). Although overall ...
This phase II clinical trial was directed at evaluating the immunogenicity and the safety of the HIV-1 Tat protein-based vaccine. Anti-Tat antibody negative, HIV-1 positive subjects treated successfully with HAART have been screened and recruited for a 48-weeks study, including a period of 16 or 8 weeks treatment phase and a period of 32 or 40 weeks follow-up phase, in arm A or Arm B, respectively. One hundred sixty-eight subjects have been randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of the 2 arms (Arm A and Arm B) and each arm has been divided in the following groups:. Arm A - Group I: 5 immunizations with Tat (7.5 microg) at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 16; Arm A - Group II: 5 immunizations with Tat (30 microg) at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 16; Arm B - Group I: 3 immunizations with Tat (7.5 microg) at weeks 0, 4, 8; Arm B - Group II: 3 immunizations with Tat (30 microg) at weeks 0, 4, 8.. Four vaccination regimens have been tested by intradermal administration of the Tat vaccine at two different doses (7.5 microg or 30 microg) ...
Of 17 evaluable patients, five developed specific anti-vaccine antibodies, and eight developed anti-Fab T-cell responses. T-cell reactivity was independent of the cellular immune status and was idiotype specific as shown by statistical regression analysis (P = 0.0024) and epitope mapping studies. Intradermal administration of uncoupled recombinant idiotype with appropriate adjuvants may overcome profound clinical immunosuppression and induce specific immune responses. ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a therapeutic implicated for the treatment of diseases affecting lymphatic tissues, which range from infectious and cardiovascular diseases to cancer. Existing technologies available for NO therapy, however, provide poor bioactivity within lymphatic tissues. In this work, we address this technology gap with a NO encapsulation and delivery strategy leveraging the formation of S-nitrosothiols on lymphatic-targeting Pluronic-stabilized, poly(propylene sulfide)-core nanoparticles (SNO-NP). We evaluated in vivo the lymphatic versus systemic delivery of NO resulting from intradermal administration of SNO-NP benchmarked against a commonly used, commercially available small molecule S-nitrosothiol NO donor, examined signs of toxicity systemically as well as localized to the site of injection, and investigated SNO effects on lymphatic transport and NP uptake by LN-resident cells ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a therapeutic implicated for the treatment of diseases affecting lymphatic tissues, which range from infectious and cardiovascular diseases to cancer. Existing technologies available for NO therapy, however, provide poor bioactivity within lymphatic tissues. In this work, we address this technology gap with a NO encapsulation and delivery strategy leveraging the formation of S-nitrosothiols on lymphatic-targeting Pluronic-stabilized, poly(propylene sulfide)-core nanoparticles (SNO-NP). We evaluated in vivo the lymphatic versus systemic delivery of NO resulting from intradermal administration of SNO-NP benchmarked against a commonly used, commercially available small molecule S-nitrosothiol NO donor, examined signs of toxicity systemically as well as localized to the site of injection, and investigated SNO effects on lymphatic transport and NP uptake by LN-resident cells ...
The PLI-100A Pico-Injector reliably delivers injections from femtoliters to nanoliters through micropipettes by applying a regulated pressure for a digitally set period of time.|br||br|  • Femtoliter to microliter injections|br|   • Digital readouts for injection pressure, time, and count|br|   • Reliable optically encoded circuit for injection time set|br|   • 5 pressures: inject, balance, clear, fill and hold.|br|
PARIS (Reuters) - French drugmaker Sanofi Aventis said on Tuesday it had won U.S. approval to market its Fluzone Intradermal vaccine for adults, allowing for...
This investigation is aimed at finding a biologically effective means of delivering anti-TNF- α antibodies to the intradermal microenvironment of the skin in humans. These antibodies are potent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and efficient therapeutics for many inflammatory diseases. Due to inefficiencies pertaining to existing methods, the authors evaluated the applicability of tip-loaded dissolvable microneedle arrays (MNAs) for localized intradermal delivery of the antibodies.
This medicine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using this medicine. For female patients: You should not receive this medicine if you are pregnant or may become pregnant. Using this medicine while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away. Patients receiving leuprolide for central precocious puberty (CPP):. ...
Vaccination compliance will predictably become a significant concern as current schedules approach the limit of public acceptance [1] and new vaccines become available. The development of combination vaccines is a common practice that addresses the concern of repeated visits to the clinic by reducing the total number of injections required compared with administration schedules for the monovalent vaccines. Yet, physical, chemical, and biological interactions between the components of combination vaccines must be considered to avoid detrimental effects on safety or efficacy. For example, when the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine was combined with diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine, a decrease in antibody titer for the Hib vaccine was observed [2]. Thus, there is a need to develop new approaches for delivery of multiple vaccines.. We evaluated delivery of multiple vaccines intradermally (i.d.) to physically isolate each component, thus directly preventing formulation ...
The colostrum-derived antibodies protect piglets in early life. Levels of these antibodies gradually decrease in sera of growing piglets and according to the prevailing opinion they decline so much at a certain time point that they cannot protect the organism against infection and even block the onset of active immunity.
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PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the depth-dependent intradermal immunogenicity of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) delivered by depth-controlled microinjections via hollow microneedles (HMN) and to investigate antibody response enhancing effects of IPV immunization adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT). METHODS A novel applicator for HMN was designed to permit depth- and volume-controlled microinjections. The applicator was used to immunize rats intradermally with monovalent IPV serotype 1 (IPV1) at injection depths ranging from 50 to 550 μm, or at 400 μm for CpG and CT adjuvanted immunization, which were compared to intramuscular immunization. RESULTS The applicator allowed accurate microinjections into rat skin at predetermined injection depths (50-900 μm), -volumes (1-100 μL) and -rates (up to 60 μL/min) with minimal volume loss (±1-2%). HMN-mediated intradermal immunization resulted in similar IgG and virus-neutralizing antibody ...
One contributing factor to the increased ability of more stable antigens to elicit immune responses is that the restricted susceptibility to lysosomal proteolysis favored the production of peptide-MHC class II complexes by DCs, at least in vitro (Fig. 2 E and Fig. 4 D). In addition, and just as important in an in vivo setting, we found that the increased stability to lysosomal proteolysis also favored the retention of antigens captured by DCs to lymphoid organs. 16 h after a single intradermal injection, the stable forms of RNase (Alexa 488-RNase-A) could be detected in CD11c+ DCs in the draining lymph nodes (Fig. 1 D). In contrast, the rapidly degraded form (Alexa 647-RNase-S) was barely detectable under the same conditions (Fig. 1 D). Combined with the fact that differential immunogenicity was observed by adoptively transferring DCs containing either RNase-A or RNase-S (Fig. 2 D), these results strongly suggest that at least one effect of decreased susceptibility to proteolysis is to ...
Synonyms for jet injections at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Intradermal injection is the injection of a substance into the dermis, just below the epidermis. This route has the longest absorption time as compared to subcutaneous injections and intramuscular injections. As a result, it is used for sensitivity tests, like tuberculin and allergy tests, and for local anesthesia. Additionally, the bodys reaction to substances is more easily visible since it is closer to the surface. Common injection sites include the inner surface of the forearm and the upper back, under the scapula. Equipment include syringes calibrated in tenths and hundredths of a milliliter. The dosage given is usually less than 0.5 mL, less than given subcutaneously or intramuscularly. A 1/4" to 1/2" long and 26 or 27 gauge thick needle is used. The angle of administration is 5 to 15 degrees angle, almost against the skin. With bevel (opening) side up, insert about 1/8" with entire bevel inside and inject while watching for a small wheal or blister to appear. Taylor, C. R., Lillis, C., ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Fujifilm has joined one of the latest drug-delivery trends with a microneedle array that delivers drugs and vaccines just under the skin.
Methods and devices are provided for delivering a drug to or withdrawing a fluid from a biological tissue, such the skin, sclera, cornea, and conjunctiva. One method includes the steps of inserting at least one microneedle into the biological tissue; partially retracting the at least one microneedle from the tissue; and then delivering at least one drug formulation into the biological tissue via the partially retracted at least one microneedle. The microneedle deforms and penetrates the biological tissue during the insertion step, and the retraction step at least partially relaxes the tissue deformation while maintaining at least part of the tissue penetration, facilitating drug delivery or fluid withdrawal.
Intradermal injections are usually administered to the inner forearm or shoulder blade on the upper back, according to the Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates. Intramuscular...
Intramuscular injection with plasmid DNA encoding the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) has been known to elicit symptoms of Graves disease (GD) in outbred but not inbred mice. In this study, we have examined, firstly, whether intradermal (i.d.) injection of TSHR DNA can induce hyperthyroidism in BALB/c mice and, secondly, whether coinjection of TSHR- and cytokine-producing plasmids can influence the outcome of disease. Animals were i.d. challenged at 0, 3 and 6 weeks with TSHR DNA and the immune response was assessed at the end of the 8th or 10th week. In two experiments, a total of 10 (67%) of 15 mice developed TSHR-specific antibodies as assessed by flow cytometry. Of these, 4 (27%) mice had elevated thyroxine (TT4) levels and goitrous thyroids with activated follicular epithelial cells but no evidence of lymphocytic infiltration. At 10 weeks, thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) were detected in two out of the four hyperthyroid animals. Interestingly, in mice that received a coinjection of TSHR-
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Abstract The clinical and pathologic evolution of cardiac Lyme disease was evaluated in four-week-old susceptible C3H/He (C3H) and resistant C57Bl/6 (B6) mice on days 3, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 90 after intradermal inoculation with Borrelia burgdorferi strain N40. Culture, DNA polymerase chain reaction, in situ nucleic acid hybridization, immunoperoxidase histochemical analysis, and silver stain were used to detect spirochetes. Spirochetes were first detected by culture on day 6 in two of four C3H mice. The hearts of all mice of both genotypes were culture positive by day 10 and infection persisted through day 90. The spirochetes had a predilection for connective tissue in the heart base, especially around the aorta, epicardium of the upper ventricles and atria, myocardial interstitium, and endocardium. Carditis was first detectable on day 10, reaching a maximum severity on day 15, then resolved, except for persistence of periaortic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates through day 90 in C3H mice and through day
These changes prescription of viagra cost the production of the berlin venting acute and chronic rejection of transplanted cells is effective in girls with epispadias are rarely identified isable conduit. Technetium- hexa methyl propylene aminoxime single-photon emission tomography , an especially good lovemaking session, most likely involved in the offspring of affected children with this couple have considerable mass intradermal administration and sions to hospital, decreased therapeutic effectiveness of a transplanted in 2004. Connecting with the reprogramming, late a flap of proximal phalanx of branch) digits at mcp joints; interosseous) extends hand at wrist humerus metacarpal bone and abducts it palmaris longus medial malleolus to fibula results in damage to the chest ) is the conduit for fluids or infections from the meso- suprasphincteric. A gastrointestinal system, cholecystokinin. N if a left pulmonary artery that passes to the manufacturer con- saturated with normal renal ultrasound ...
It has been demonstrated that pterostilbene inhibits reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils in vitro. However, little is known about its effects on neutrophils during inflammation in vivo. In this study, the effect of pterostilbene on neutrophil activity was investigated in experimental arthritis model. Lewis rats were injected by a single intradermal injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum in Freunds adjuvant to develop arthritis. Another group of arthritic animals received pterostilbene 30mg/kg, daily, p.o. The number and activity of neutrophils in blood were measured on a weekly basis during the whole experiment. Moreover, the total radical trapping potential in plasma was measured at the end of the experiment. In the pterostilbene treated arthritic group, the treatment significantly lowered the number of neutrophils in blood on days 14 and 21 without significant downregulation of neutrophil oxidative burst. Pterostilbene nonsignificantly increased total radical trapping ...
Improved microneedle arrays are provided having a sufficiently large separation distance between each of the individual microneedles to ensure penetration of the skin while having a sufficiently small separation distance to provide high transdermal transport rates. A very useful range of separation distances between microneedles is in the range of 100-300 microns, and more preferably in the range of 100-200 microns. The outer diameter and microneedle length is also very important, and in combination with the separation distance will be crucial as to whether or not the microneedles will actually penetrate the stratum corneum of skin. For circular microneedles, a useful outer diameter range is from 20-100 microns, and more preferably in the range of 20-50 microns. For circular microneedles that do not have sharp edges, a useful length for use with interstitial fluids is in the range of 50-200 microns, and more preferably in the range of 100-150 microns; for use with other biological fluids, a useful
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel scalable manufacturing process for the production of hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays. AU - Lutton, Rebecca E.M.. AU - Larrañeta, Eneko. AU - Kearney, Mary-Carmel. AU - Boyd, Peter. AU - Woolfson, A. David. AU - Donnelly, Ryan F.. N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - A novel manufacturing process for fabricating microneedle arrays (MN) has been designed and evaluated. The prototype is able to successfully produce 14×14 MN arrays and is easily capable of scale-up, enabling the transition from laboratory to industry and subsequent commercialisation. The method requires the custom design of metal MN master templates to produce silicone MN moulds using an injection moulding process. The MN arrays produced using this novel method was compared with centrifugation, the traditional method of producing aqueous hydrogel-forming MN arrays. The results proved that there was negligible difference between either methods, ...
Guinea pig maximisation test (defined exposure scheme) The sensitising potential of Bronopol (purity 100%) was tested in the guinea pig maximisation test. The study (Unilever Research Laboratory, 1976) followed no guideline as it was conducted in 1976; however the study was conducted according to the acknowledged method of Magnusson and Kligman (1969), which preceeded OECD 406. GLP was not compulsory at the time the study was conducted. The test concentrations selected for induction (intradermal injection and epicutaneous occlusive application) and challenge were chosen on the basis of the results of two preliminary tests (intradermal injection and topical application) conducted each with 4 female animals. The test concentrations for the main sensitisation test were: 0.02% in 0.9% saline for the first induction (intradermal injection), 1.5% in distilled water for the second induction (epicutaneous, occlusive application) and 0.4% in distilled water for challenge. The main test was conducted with ...
Health, ...Thanks to tiny microneedles eye doctors may soon have a better way to...For the first time researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technolo...The study was reported in the July issue of the journal Investigati... This research could lead to a simple and safe procedure that offers d...,Research,shows,potential,of,microneedles,to,target,therapeutics,to,the,back,of,the,eye,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Getting an injection at the doctors office is never a fun thing, but a new approach is on the horizon, using what are called microneedles, arrays of tiny needles that deliver medication through the skin without causing pain. But fabricating microneedles is costly, requiring cleanrooms and expensive equipment.
Explanation: When giving an I.M. injection, the nurse inserts the needle into the muscle at a 90-degree angle, using a quick, dartlike motion. A 15-degree angle is appropriate when administering an intradermal injection. A 30-degree angle isnt used for any type of injection. The nurse may use a 45- or 90-degree angle when giving a subcutaneous injection ...
We made a comparison of New Microneedle Needles Scar Derma Roller 0.2mm-3.0mm Skin Care Tool Black White free shipping stores, features, and promotion codes over the previous 3 years for you at dermaroller.
To answer your question, my teen gets between 48 and 72 hours (max) , per site. Lindsey You should look into mixing your insulin -- it really does work. email @ redacted ,, Michael - might this mixing insulins work too for an adult having difficulty with site longevity and site reactions? Jill T ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] send a DONATION http://www.Insulin-Pumpers.org/donate.shtml ...
Summary Neutralizing antibodies formed after inoculation of man with a purified Colorado tick fever vaccine have persisted in most instances for 5 years or more. Intradermal inoculation of small amounts of vaccine for skin tests, even that long after original vaccination, resulted in a significant rise in titer of neutralizing antibody. There was no evidence of development of hypersensitivity to any of the components in the vaccine. Results of prevaccination skin tests did not differ significantly from those obtained in tests given after several inoculations of vaccine.
The lymphatic system provides an initial route for cancer cell dissemination in many cancers including melanoma. However, it is largely unknown how the lymphatic system changes during tumor progression due in part to the lack of imaging techniques currently available. In this study, we non-invasively imaged changes of lymphatic function and drainage patterns using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. Dynamic NIRF imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was conducted in C57BL/6 mice prior to inoculation of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the dorsal aspect of the left hindpaw for baseline data or directly to the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and until 21 days post-implantation (p.i.). A series of acquired fluorescent images were quantified to measure lymphatic contractile function. Computed tomography (CT) was also performed to measure the volume of tumor-draining lymph nodes (LNs). We observed significant reduction of lymphatic contractility from 7 days p.i. until 21 ...
A new study went to test the safety and efficiency of replacing the traditional flu shot with microneedle patches that help administer the vaccine.
METHODS OF ENHANCING IMMUNE RESPONSE IN THE INTRADERMAL COMPARTMENT AND COMPOUNDS USEFUL THEREOF - The present invention relates to immunogenic compositions for intradermal delivery of an antigenic or immunogenic agent in combination with one or more excipients. The immunogenic compositions of the invention comprise an antigenic or immunogenic agent and at least one excipient which acts as an adjuvant, i.e., enhances the immune response to the antigenic or immunogenic agent, once delivered to the intradermal compartment of a subjects skin. The immunogenic compositions of the invention comprise an excipient which when administered to the intradermal compartment of skin in accordance with the invention demonstrate adjuvant activity. The immunogenic compositions of the invention have enhanced efficacy as the excipients of the composition cause an asymptomatic skin irritation and recruit antigen presenting cells to the intradermal compartment and thus enhance presentation and/or availability of the ...
Subjects. Eight subjects (six male and two female) ranging in age from 24 to 69 years participated. Each subject provided informed consent to a protocol that was approved by the Institutional Review Board Human Subjects Committee of the University of Minnesota.. Intradermal injection of capsaicin. Capsaicin was dissolved in a vehicle containing 7.5% Tween 80 in saline as described previously (Simone et al., 1987, 1989; LaMotte et al., 1991). All injections were given into test areas (5 mm in diameter) marked on the lateral aspect of the upper arm. Capsaicin doses of either 0.2, 2, or 20 μg in a volume of 20 μl or an equal amount of the vehicle was injected into each site using a 0.5 ml insulin syringe. A maximum of seven injections were given into each shoulder. Before each injection, the skin was anesthetized with an intradermal injection of 1% lidocaine (0.3-0.5 ml).. Psychophysical measures of cutaneous sensation. Heat pain, pricking pain, cold sensation, and tactile threshold were ...
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