On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, ... read more some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2.3.4.4 group A from 2014 into four key waterbird species-Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and common pochard (Aythya ferina)-and compared virus excretion and disease severity with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Our results showed that excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Africa in 2006, in Nigeria. The country experienced severe outbreaks in 2006 and 2007, strongly affecting the poultry population. Current knowledge on potential risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in poultry farms in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify potential farm-level risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in two areas of the country that were affected by the disease in 2006 and 2007, namely the States of Lagos and Kano. A case-control study was conducted at the farm level. A convenience sample of 110 farms was surveyed. Data on farm characteristics, farm management and trade practices were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with farms that confirmed positive for HPAI. Having a neighbouring poultry farm was identified as a potential risk factor for disease occurrence [OR, 5.23; 95% CI, (0.88-30.97); P-value = 0.048]. Farm staff washing their hands ...
To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in >1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird
Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses ...
Objective To discuss the imaging features of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2.Methods A descriptive study was carried out on a case of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2 in Meizhou,Guangdong Province,on June 18,2016.Results The patient was a child with cough,and white phlegm was detected followed by yellow sticky sputum,accompanying with fever.Imaging features included exudative patchy ground glass opacity,and pulmonary fibrosis was visible during the recovery period.The patient was discharged from hospital after antiviral and symptomatic treatments.Conclusion For pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2,except for the symptoms of influenza,exudative focus was present in bilateral lung CT images.Clinicians should consider the possibility of viral infection in children who had contact history with poultry and got fever and pulmonary infection.Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are important to improve the prognosis.
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Coopers hawk but not from waterfowl....
Read Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Free Online Library: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses.(RESEARCH) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Avian influenza Development and progression Encephalitis
NIAID CEIRS , Research Publication Commentary Smith, J. et al. A comparative analysis of host responses to avian influenza infection in ducks and chickens highlights a role for the interferon-induced transmembrane proteins in viral resistance. BMC Genomics (2015).. The recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 outbreak continues to have significant economic impacts on the international and domestic poultry industries and presents a potential public health concern. Avian influenza infects numerous avian hosts, including chickens and ducks. Reducing the spread of avian influenza requires an understanding of how the virus interacts with its avian hosts. However, it remains unclear why some species are more susceptible than others to certain strains of influenza. For instance, although ducks are infected they show minimal signs of disease to most HPAI viruses, while chickens are highly susceptible and quickly succumb to HPAI infections. Determining which genes are activated in chickens and ...
Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.
Dlugolenski, Daniel, Jones, Les, Saavedra, Geraldine, Tompkins, S. Mark, Tripp, Ralph A. and Mundt, Egbert 2011, Passage of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses mediates rapid genetic adaptation of a wild-bird isolate in poultry, Archives of virology, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 565-576, doi: 10.1007/s00705-010-0891-x. ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within 48 hours for positive cases. The ...
Translation Google Low pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected from feces of wild birds collected in Aichi prefecture Posted on December 12, 2018 On 12th December, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries reported that a low-pathogenic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in water. AU - Brown, Justin D.. AU - Swayne, David E.. AU - Cooper, Robert J.. AU - Burns, Rachel E.. AU - Stallknecht, David E.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Although fecal-oral transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) via contaminated water represents a recognized mechanism for transmission within wild waterfowl populations, little is known about viral persistence in this medium. In order to provide initial data on persistence of H5 and H7 AIVs in water, we evaluated eight wild-type low-pathogenicity H5 and H7 AIVs isolated from species representing the two major influenza reservoirs (Anseriformes and Charadriiformes). In addition, the persistence of two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses from Asia was examined to provide some insight into the potential for these viruses to be transmitted and maintained in the environments of wild bird populations. Viruses were tested at two temperatures (17 C and 28 C) and ...
Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was due to mutation of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 strain, which caused outbreaks in Italy between 1999 and 2000, and resulted in complete mortality of infected poultry. This outbreak places increased importance on the early detection of H7N1 AIV. Here we describe the development of a detection method for H7N1 virus from infected chickens using a specific antigen-capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA). A panel of mAbs was developed against the surface antigen HA of H7N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Singapore/94. The mAbs were screened by immunoflouorescence assays, ELISA and immunoblotting. Selected mAbs 5E5 and 8F10 were of isotypes IgM and IgG and were conformation- or linear epitope-specific, respectively. These mAbs were used as capture antibodies for AC-ELISA development. The detection limit was as little as 102-103 TCID50 units of virus derived from tissue culture supernatants. Virus from the tracheal swab samples of experimentally infected chickens ...
[email protected] WASHINGTON, January 17, 2016 -- The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the pathogenicity of eight of the nine H7N8 avian influenza detections announced on January 16. The turkey flocks have been confirmed as low pathogenic avian influenza, with additional testing ongoing for the ninth flock.. These January 16 detections were identified as part of surveillance testing in the control area surrounding the initial highly pathogenic H7N8 avian influenza (HPAI) case in that state, identified on January 15.. The pathogenicity of a virus refers to its ability to produce disease. Birds with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) often show no signs of infection or only have minor symptoms. HPAI viruses spread quickly and cause high mortality in domestic poultry. H7 LPAI viruses have been known to mutate into HPAI viruses in the past.. It appears that there was a low pathogenic virus circulating ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Austria Information received on 06/04/2017 from Mr Dr Ulrich Herzog, Chief Veterinary Officer, Verbrauchergesundheit,
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
Citation: Brown, J., Poulson, R., Carter, D., Lebarbenchon, C., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Spackman, E., Shepherd, E.M., Killian, M., Stallknecht, D. 2012. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Avian Diseases. 56:969-975. Interpretive Summary: Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to cause disease in different bird species. Gulls are reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from them. However, two hemagglutinin subtypes (H13 and H16) are maintained almost exclusively within gull populations. In this study the host range of these gull-adapted influenza strains was examined. Multiple strains of H13 LPAI virus were used to challenge ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), mallards (Anas platryrhynchos), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). The susceptibility to H13 LPAI viruses varied between species and viral strain. Gulls ...
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
What is avian influenza? Avian influenza, or bird flu, is an infection caused by influenza A viruses, which normally infect only birds. These influenza A viruses are found in wild birds worldwide and are quite contagious among birds. In many wild species of birds, especially in birds that swim or live near water including ducks, geese and gulls, infection with avian influenza generally does not cause illness, but may lead to serious disease in domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys . What types of avian influenza viruses are there and which cause serious disease in birds? Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on certain proteins present on the outer layer of the virus. These proteins are hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 16 different H subtypes and 9 different N subtypes. Any combination of these two protein types is possible to form a virus subtype, for example H9N3, H7N7, or H5N1. The ability of avian influenza viruses to cause serious ...
The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required. of a 1/10 dilution of bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid [18] is deemed a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The primary subtypes of ...
To assess the impact of different routes of inoculation on experimental infection of avian influenza (AI) viruses in chickens, this study compared virus replication and cytokine gene expression in respiratory and gastrointestinal organ tissues of chickens, which were inoculated with four low pathogenic subtypes, H6N1, H10N7, H10N8, and H13N6 AI viruses via the aerosol, intranasal, and oral routes respectively. Aerosol inoculation with the H6N1, H10N7, and H10N8 viruses significantly increased viral titres and upregulated the interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β genes in the trachea and lung tissues compared to intranasal or oral inoculation. Furthermore, one or two out of six chickens died following exposure to aerosolized H6N1 or H10N8 virus respectively. The H13N6 virus reached the lung via aerosol inoculation although failed to establish infection. Collectively, chickens were more susceptible to aerosolized AI viruses compared to intranasal or oral inoculation, and virus ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results.
National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats. The virus isolation was performed by inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and AIV isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay. For subtying of AIV, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were confirmed by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 subtypes was performed using 28 H5 AIV isolates. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 819 AIV were isolated from 141,560 samples. Virus isolation rates for AIV were 0.6, 0.4, 0.1, and 2.7% in wild birds (n = 202),
CFIA had earlier stated that the outbreak, which occurred near Woodstock, Ontario, was a case of H5 avian influenza, but the agency had not verified its exact serotype. H5N2 avian influenza has been prevalent in nine avian influenza cases in bordering Minnesota, as well as two confirmed cases in South Dakota. OIE stated that the Ontario outbreak could have been spread through wild birds in the Mississippi flyway, which includes Minnesota, but added that it was doubtful it was related to earlier Canadian avian influenza outbreaks in British Columbia that began in December 2014. ...
Samples from Changhua County, Yunlin County and Pingtung County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farms have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months. Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in two abattoirs in Taipei City and Pingtung County. Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis. H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI. The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir. After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports ...
Samples from Yunlin County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farm has been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farm have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farm are under intensified surveillance for three months ...
Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake ...
Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID,...
Genetic variation on internal protein matric (M1) and non structural protein (NS1) of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Via Virology Journal: Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt. The provisional abstract: Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment...
Author Summary H5N1 influenza virus has been responsible for poultry outbreaks over the last 12 years-the longest recorded example of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulation in poultry. The ecological success of this virus in diverse species of both poultry and wild birds with sporadic introduction to humans suggests that it is a likely source of the next human pandemic. Genome sequences of H5N1 viruses reveal extensive genetic reassortment (mixing) with other influenza subtypes to produce many H5N1 genotypes that have developed into multiple genetically distinct clades, some of which have spread to affect over 60 countries. Here, we analyze all available sequence data of avian influenza viruses from Eurasia and show that the original HPAI H5N1 virus (referred to as A/goose/Guangdong/1/96) was likely introduced directly into poultry as an intact virus particle from wild aquatic birds. In contrast, H5N1 genotypes were generated in aquatic poultry populations after the introduction of A/goose
Vaccines are found in integrated control strategies to protect poultry against H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). any of the H5 avian influenza vaccines were safeguarded against A/chicken/Western Java/SMI-HAMD/2006 (SMI-HAMD/06) and were partially safeguarded against A/chicken/Papua/TA5/2006 (Papua/06) but were not safeguarded against A/chicken/Western Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Experimental inactivated vaccines made with PWT/06 HPAI disease or rg-generated PWT/06 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) disease seed strains safeguarded chickens from lethal challenge, as did a combination of a commercially available live fowl poxvirus vaccine expressing the H5 influenza virus gene and inactivated Legok/03 vaccine. These studies PHA-767491 indicate that antigenic variants did emerge in Indonesia following widespread H5 avian influenza vaccine usage, and efficacious inactivated vaccines can be developed using antigenic variant wild-type viruses or rg-generated LPAI virus seed strains ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. ...
Avian influenza (AI) or bird flu is a group of viruses that occur naturally in birds. A virus is pathogenic if it can cause illness or death. Some AI viruses can infect birds but not cause many bird illnesses or death. Other AI viruses, termed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), can cause large numbers of bird illnesses and deaths. Currently there is concern about one of these viruses, known as highly pathogenic H5N1, because it is causing severe disease in chickens and other poultry on several continents. It has also been found in wild birds in the same areas. In some instances, people who have had close contact with sick poultry have also become infected and gotten very sick. Approximately half of the people known to be infected have died.. Source. This entry was posted on Monday, May 11th, 2009 at 7:31 am and is filed under Bird Flu. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site. ...
The 64-year-old male patient from Kunming, who was known to have contact with dead poultry, had onset on November 21 and was in a serious condition.. This is the first human case reported in the Mainland since October 2017. As winter approaches, based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza (H7N9) viruses, their activity in the Mainland is expected to increase, a spokesman for the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP). LISTEN: H7N9 avian influenza in China: Should we be worried?. Since 2013, 1,564 human cases have been reported with all but 31 reported in China. 766 cases have been reported just since Oct. 2016.. Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human cases can be expected.. Related: Avian influenza in humans 2017: Hong Kong officials break it ...
Fluhunter: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1(Determination of virulence potential;PCR-typing of the pathogenicity) , FR304 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
In April and May 2008, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were found dead in Hokkaido in Japan. In this study, an adult whooper swan found dead beside Lake Saroma was pathologically examined and the identified H5N1 influenza virus isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Pathological findings indicate that the swan died of severe congestive edema in the lungs. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the isolates revealed that they are the progeny viruses of isolates from poultry and wild birds in China, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong. Antigenic analyses indicated that the viruses are distinguished from the H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry before 2007. The chickens vaccinated with A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) survived for 14 days after challenge with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1), although a small amount of the challenge virus was recovered from the tissues of the birds. These findings indicate that H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are circulating in
Cause of high lethality and dissemination to human being, new development of rapid method for the detection of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is still necessary. For the detection of AIV subtype H5N1, typical pathogenic AIV, new method to confirm sub-typing of this virus is also needed. For the purpose of ultra-rapid detection and sub-typing of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of AIV, this study was planned. As the results we could demonstrate an ultra-rapid multiplex real-time PCR (URMRT PCR) for the detection of AIV In this study, the URMRT PCR were optimized with synthesized AIV H5- and AIV Nl-specific DNA templates and GenSpector TMC, which is a semiconductor process technology based real-time PCR system with high frequencies of temperature monitoring. Under eight minutes, the amplifications of two AIV subtype-specific PCR products were successfully and independently detected by 30 cycled ultra-rapid PCR, including melting point analysis, from |TEX|$1{\times}10^3$|/TEX| copies of
Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of avian influenza virus (AIV) and at least 105 species of wild birds have been reported to harbor these viruses [1]. The migratory nature of these bird populations may help disseminate AIV across countries and continents. Most of the wild birds have been reported to harbor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses [2-5] although highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have also been isolated from some species [6]. To understand how AIV is evolving in nature, it is important to identify the AIV subtypes circulating within wild bird populations.. A number of surveillance programs have been undertaken to isolate and identify the subtypes of AIV present in wild bird species e.g., waterfowl and geese [3, 7, 8] with limited reports in raptors. Thus, van Borm et al [9] detected HPAI H5N1 in Thai eagles that were smuggled into Belgium and Ducatez et al [10] isolated HPAI H5N1 from vultures in Burkina Faso. Due to their carnivorous feeding ...
Detailed Analysis & SWOT analysis, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Trends 2020, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Growth 2020, Bird Flu TreatmentIndustry Share 2020, Bird Flu TreatmentIndustry Size, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Research, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Analysis,Bird Flu Treatment market Report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process of whole Enterprise Aluminum Lithium Alloys market. Overview of the Bird Flu Treatment Market: -. Report on the Global Bird Flu Treatment Market Report, History and Forecast 2014-2025, Breakdown Data by Companies, Key Regions, Types and Application. Bird flu is a viral infection caused by avian influenza A viruses in birds. The viruses that cause the disease in birds can mutate and spread to humans. Bird flu is named H or N depending on the protein found on the surface of ...
H9N2 is the most prevalent low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in domestic poultry in the world. Two distinct H9N2 poultry lineages, G1-like (A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97) and Y280-like (A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/1997) viruses, are usually associated with binding affinity for both α 2,3 and α 2,6 sialic acid receptors (avian and human receptors), raising concern whether these viruses possess pandemic potential. To explore the impact of mouse adaptation on the transmissibility of a Y280-like virus A/Chicken/Hubei/214/2017(H9N2) (abbreviated as WT), we performed serial lung-to-lung passages of the WT virus in mice. The mouse-adapted variant (MA) exhibited enhanced pathogenicity and advantaged transmissibility after passaging in mice. Sequence analysis of the complete genomes of the MA virus revealed a total of 16 amino acid substitutions. These mutations distributed across 7 segments including PB2, PB1, PA, NP, HA, NA and NS1 genes. Furthermore, we generated a panel of recombinant or mutant H9N2 viruses
The United States Department of Agricultures Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) today released an epidemiology report outlining its initial findings through June 5 about how highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was likely entering new premises during this period of time. After conducting investigations on over 80 commercial poultry farms, APHIS analysis indicates that there are likely several ways the virus could be transmitted, including lapses in biosecurity practices and environmental factors. APHIS cannot, however, associate HPAI transmission with one factor or group of factors in a statistically significant way at this time, and will continue to update this report regularly as more analyses are completed. Read More. ...
Polybasic cleavage sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are considered to be the most important determinants indicating virulence of the avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, evidence is accumulating that these sites alone are not sufficient to establish high pathogenicity. There need to exist other sites located on the HA protein outside the cleavage site or on the other proteins expressed by AIV that contribute to the pathogenicity. We employed rule-based computational modeling to construct a map, with high statistical significance, of amino acid (AA) residues associated to pathogenicity in 11 proteins of the H5 type viruses. We found potential markers of pathogenicity in all of the 11 proteins expressed by the H5 type of AIV. AA mutations S-43HA1-D, D-83HA1-A in HA; S-269-D, E-41-H in NA; S-48-N, K-212-N in NS1; V-166-A in M1; G-14-E in M2; K-77-R, S-377-N in NP; and Q-48-P in PB1-F2 were identified as having a potential to shift the pathogenicity from low to high. Our results suggest that the
Reports of sporadic avian influenza outbreaks involving domestic poultry date back to the 1960s. With the exception of A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which was isolated from a turkey breeding establishment, all viruses characterised prior to 2004 fit the criteria of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Only in retrospect was A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 shown to meet the criteria of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In 2004, Canada reported its first case of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The outbreak, which began in a broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, involved an H7N3 LPAI virus which underwent a sudden virulence shift to HPAI. ...
CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low WASHINGTON, April 6, 2015 -- The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a third commercial turkey flock in Stearns County, Minnesota. This is the sixth confirmation in a commercial flock in Minnesota. The flock of 76,000 turkeys is located within the Mississippi flyway where this strain of avian influenza has previously been identified. CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low. No human infections with the virus have been detected at this time.. This flock is in the control area for a previous detection. As part of our response protocol, samples were tested by the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory as part of our standard ...
The discussion of these concerns should take place in a scientific framework and should recognize that control of MPAI reduces the risk of HPAI. That inactivated vaccines have reduced a flocks susceptibility to AI infection, have reduced the quantity of virus shed post challenge, have reduced transmission and have markedly reduced disease losses, are scientific facts. The current regulations preventing vaccination against H5 or H7 MPAI have had the effect of promoting circulation of MPAI virus in commercial poultry and live poultry markets. In the absence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, there is no justification for forbidding the use of inactivated vaccine. ...
EFSAs role is to provide EU risk managers with independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the animal health and welfare dimension of avian influenza and any possible food safety issues. Since the risk of avian influenza was first identified, EFSA has issued a substantial body of scientific advice to assist risk managers in making appropriate decisions and actions. To carry out its scientific work, EFSA exchanges information with national food safety authorities, the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and other international organisations active in this field.. EFSA has provided scientific advice on the food safety aspects of avian influenza confirming that there is no available epidemiological evidence that avian influenza can be transmitted to humans through consumption of food.. EFSA has also issued advice on the animal health and welfare aspects of avian influenza, providing information on the risks of the virus entering and ...
The natural reservoir of influenza A virus is waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks (genus Anas). Although it has long been assumed that waterfowl are asymptomatic carriers of the virus, a recent study found that low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) infection in Bewicks swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) negatively affected stopover time, body mass and feeding behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether LPAI infection incurred ecological or physiological costs to migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in terms of body mass loss and staging time, and whether such costs could influence the likelihood for long-distance dispersal of the avian influenza virus by individual ducks. During the autumn migrations of 2002-2007, we collected faecal samples (n=10918) and biometric data from mallards captured and banded at Ottenby, a major staging site in a flyway connecting breeding and wintering areas of European waterfowl. Body mass was significantly lower in infected ducks than in ...
It was less than two months ago that FAO issued a warning that H5N8 avian influenza virus had been detected in wild birds in Tyva Republic in southern Russia and would likely spread in a south-westerly direction with the autumn migration of waterbirds. The virus, which is highly pathogenic for poultry, appears already to have travelled westward as far as Poland and Hungary, and southwards to Kerala Province in India, according to recent official notifications to the World Organization for Animal Health, or OIE.. Events in the past week demonstrated that the virus has already spread from wild birds to domestic poultry, said FAO chief veterinary officer Juan Lubroth. The H5N8 virus has been detected in wild birds as well as domestic ducks in four States of India, and in Hungary, in a swan found dead in the southeastern part of the country, and a turkey flock in Totkomlos.. The dead Mute Swan in Hungary was found in late October near saline soda Lake Fehér-tó in Csongrád County, a well-known ...
Both high and low pathogenic subtype A avian influenza remain ongoing threats to the commercial poultry industry globally. The emergence of a novel low pathogenic H7N9 lineage in China presents itself as a new concern to both human and animal health and may necessitate additional surveillance in commercial poultry operations in affected regions. Sampling data was simulated using a mechanistic model of H7N9 influenza transmission within commercial poultry barns together with a stochastic observation process. Parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood. We assessed the probability of detecting an outbreak at time of slaughter using both real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) and a hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HI assay) before considering more intense sampling prior to slaughter. The day of virus introduction and R 0 were estimated jointly from weekly flock sampling data. For scenarios where R 0 was known, we estimated the day of virus introduction into a barn under different sampling
In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and turkey farming operations in the Midwestern region of the United States. As of May 30, more than 43 million birds in 15 states had been destroyed as a result of the outbreak, including nearly 30 million in Iowa alone, the nations largest egg producer. In the Midwestern U.S., the average price of eggs had increased 120% between April 22 and May 30. The effects however were seen nationwide, with prices in California up 71% in the same timeframe.[1] The virus was first identified in Minnesota in early March. Prior to April 20, it affected commercial turkey farms almost exclusively, in the states of Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and at 28 farms in Minnesota, where the virus was initially identified. Migratory waterfowl are assumed to have brought the disease to the Midwest, but how it made its way into poultry barns is undetermined.[2] No human cases have been reported, ...
A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this thoroughfare. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005-2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable
Background: The H9N2 subtype of influenza A viruses is considered to be widespread in poultry industry. Adamantane is a group of antiviral agents which is effective both in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infections. These drugs inhibit M2 protein ion channel which has role on viral replication. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to evaluate M gene of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 subtype in order to find adamantane drug resistance mutations. METHODS: Over 100 suspected samples were collected from different geographical regions of Iran during 2012-2013. Samples were injected via allantoic sac of 9-11 day-old chicken embryos. A total of 11 out of 100 were AIV. The H9N2 subtype was confirmed by specific RT-PCR. The RT-PCR was conducted for full length M gene. PCR amplified products were purified and then conducted for commercial direct sequencing. Finally, sequences were checked for possible sites of adamantane resistance mutations. RESULTS: Overall, 8 out of 11 viruses
Download Letter to Secretary of State Dijksma on the outbreak of bird flu in Hekendorp. Mr President-In-Office, On a poultry farm in hekendorp (municipality of Oudewater) is on 15 november JL. an outbreak of bird flu (Avian Influenza, AI) of the H5 variant established. It concerns high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is of type H5N8. HPAI is bestrijdingsplichtig in the European legislation. With this letter I message you about this infection and the measures I have affected. Monitoring and early warning In Netherlands are on commercial poultry farms regularly samples taken, which are tested for bird flu (regular monitoring). In Addition There is a system in which veterinarians in certain disease symptoms, that may indicate bird flu, submit samples for research (early warning). For bird flu is a hailing at a suspicion.. Last Friday, 14 november. a poultry farm in hekendorp (municipality of Oudewater) samples submitted because the chicken disease symptoms had that possibly being on bird flu. ...
Sequences of H5N1 virus from live bird markets in China matched sequences from patients who had recently visited the live bird markets, according to a paper in the December 2011 Journal of Virology. Live poultry markets have ...
The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Anin vitrotranscribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid extracted from H5 negative samples or from other pathogens producing respiratory ...
Backyard chickens can be infected because they may have contact with a wild bird. If you have chickens, keep an eye out for any of the symptoms and report it to public health.. A recent outbreak of bird flu in the United States has spread across 19 states and affected more than 30 million birds. California is one of the 19 states and has had two confirmed commercial poultry flocks infected with flu this year. In January, a turkey flock was found to be infected in Stanislaus County, and in February, a flock of chickens was infected in Kings County. The two outbreaks combined to involve more than 100,000 infected birds.. Dean Blumberg, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at UC Davis Childrens Hospital, explains what bird flu is, how its spread and whether Californians are at risk.. What is bird flu?. Bird flu is the common name for avian influenza. The avian influenza virus is related to human influenza, but it primarily affects various bird species.. How is it spread?. In some ways, its ...
Two street dogs died after eating dead chicken from a poultry farm in India… Azeri dog died from bird flu virus… Suspected bird flu outbreak leaves 4 dogs and about 100 chickens dead in Ivory Coast… Significant numbers of dogs in Thailand carry the H5N1 strain of the bird flu virus. These headlines have caused a lot of dog owners to be apprehensive. Given the fact that dogs are highly valued pets, any dog owner would fear for the health of the pet. What is bird flu? Are dogs really susceptible to this disease?. Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu is an illness that is caused by any strain of the influenza virus that has adapted to a specific host. As the name suggests, the virus has adapted to birds. Bird flu is a highly transmissible disease of birds. This virus has a wide range of symptoms. While some species of wild birds can carry the virus without getting sick, other birds and poultry would get ill when infected. Infected poultry would show either of the two forms of the ...
2008-2009] UNICEF Egypte requested a post-assessment of the impact of the communication efforts made by UNICEF in co-operation with the MOHP on Avian Influenza as well as an evaluation of the whole Community Intervention Education Programme implemented by UNICEF in co-operation with MOHP in rural Egypt. SPAN Consultants provided a key expert team of communciation and health experts to perform the post assessment and evaluation. The assignment aims to obtain reliable and objective information on the impact of Avian Influenza Community Outreach Program on the target communities, in order to use the results as guideline for future planning and design of similar communication interventions. The lesson learned from the evaluation will be applied for further improvement of activities related to raising public awareness on Avian Influenza among the target audiences exposed to the risk of infection. The aims of the UNICEF-supported Avian Influenza Community Education Program are: 1) enhancing knowledge ...
Belmopan, 29th June, 2012. The Belize Agricultural Health Authority has placed a national poultry health alert following Mexico officially reporting a major outbreak of highly pathogenic H7N3 Avian Influenza in three commercial poultry layer farms in the central Mexican state of Jalisco.
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [16 #poultry / #wildbirds #outbreaks].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry and wild birds epizootics in Germany.. Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Code: [ ][ ]. _____. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Germany. Information received on 10/03/2017 from Dr. Karin Schwabenbauer, Ministerial Dirigentin and Chief Veterinary Officer , Directorate of Animal Health, Animal Welfare, Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) , Bonn, Germany. ...
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [a #poultry #outbreak].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N6 subtype, poultry epizootics in Japan.. Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Code: [ ]. _____. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6, Japan. Information received on 25/01/2017 from Dr Kazuo Ito, Director, International Animal Health Affairs Office, Animal Health Division, Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan. ...
Abstract: The emergence of human infections with a novel H7N9 influenza strain has raised global concerns about a potential human pandemic. To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from wild birds during routine surveillance in China: A/Baers Pochard/Hunan/414/2010 (BP/HuN/414/10) (H7N1) and A/Common Pochard/Xianghai/420/2010 (CP/XH/420/10) (H7N1). To better understand the molecular characteristics of these two isolated H7N1 viruses, we sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed their entire genomes. The results showed that the two H7N1 strains belonged to a Eurasian branch, originating from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic analysis of their hemagglutinin (HA) genes showed that BP/HuN/414/10 and CP/XH/420/10 have a more distant genetic relationship with A/Shanghai/13/2013 (H7N9), with similarities of 91.6% and 91.4%, respectively. To assess the replication and pathogenicity of these viruses in different
The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While prior H5N1 strains have been known, they were significantly different from the current H5N1 strain on a genetic level, making the global spread of this new strain unprecedented. The current H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species especially over a wide area). Unless otherwise indicated, H5N1 in this article refers to the recent highly pathogenic strain of H5N1. In the first two months of 2006 H5N1 spread to Africa and Europe in wild bird populations possibly signaling the beginning of H5N1 being endemic in wild migratory bird populations on multiple continents for decades, permanently changing the way poultry are farmed. In addition, the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 to wild birds, birds in zoos and even ...
What It Means for US Poultry. Large outbreaks of AI do not often occur in the United States. Although there is a fear of potential spillover of AI strains from birds to humans, there is a more imminent risk of economic loss due to AI infections. Although there has been only one report of AI infection in a U.S. commercial flock, the entire industry suffers (4). As of January 7th, 2015, at least 30 countries have implemented restrictions on the importation of US poultry, including a ban on poultry from Oregon and Washington (3). Thailand, South Korea, and Sri Lanka, have gone as far to ban all US poultry and poultry products (3).. AI Clinical Signs. Avian influenza can sometimes have no clinical signs in poultry. In low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI), some clinical signs include coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge. Morbidity and mortality are usually low in LPAI strains. Some clinical signs that can manifest in HPAI include: cyanosis (blue coloration of skin and membranes due to low oxygen) ...