On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Africa in 2006, in Nigeria. The country experienced severe outbreaks in 2006 and 2007, strongly affecting the poultry population. Current knowledge on potential risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in poultry farms in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify potential farm-level risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in two areas of the country that were affected by the disease in 2006 and 2007, namely the States of Lagos and Kano. A case-control study was conducted at the farm level. A convenience sample of 110 farms was surveyed. Data on farm characteristics, farm management and trade practices were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with farms that confirmed positive for HPAI. Having a neighbouring poultry farm was identified as a potential risk factor for disease occurrence [OR, 5.23; 95% CI, (0.88-30.97); P-value = 0.048]. Farm staff washing their hands ...
To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in >1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird
Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses ...
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Coopers hawk but not from waterfowl....
Read "Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Free Online Library: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses.(RESEARCH) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Avian influenza Development and progression Encephalitis
Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.
Dlugolenski, Daniel, Jones, Les, Saavedra, Geraldine, Tompkins, S. Mark, Tripp, Ralph A. and Mundt, Egbert 2011, Passage of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses mediates rapid genetic adaptation of a wild-bird isolate in poultry, Archives of virology, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 565-576, doi: 10.1007/s00705-010-0891-x. ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within 48 hours for positive cases. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in water. AU - Brown, Justin D.. AU - Swayne, David E.. AU - Cooper, Robert J.. AU - Burns, Rachel E.. AU - Stallknecht, David E.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Although fecal-oral transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) via contaminated water represents a recognized mechanism for transmission within wild waterfowl populations, little is known about viral persistence in this medium. In order to provide initial data on persistence of H5 and H7 AIVs in water, we evaluated eight wild-type low-pathogenicity H5 and H7 AIVs isolated from species representing the two major influenza reservoirs (Anseriformes and Charadriiformes). In addition, the persistence of two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses from Asia was examined to provide some insight into the potential for these viruses to be transmitted and maintained in the environments of wild bird populations. Viruses were tested at two temperatures (17 C and 28 C) and ...
Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was due to mutation of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 strain, which caused outbreaks in Italy between 1999 and 2000, and resulted in complete mortality of infected poultry. This outbreak places increased importance on the early detection of H7N1 AIV. Here we describe the development of a detection method for H7N1 virus from infected chickens using a specific antigen-capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA). A panel of mAbs was developed against the surface antigen HA of H7N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Singapore/94. The mAbs were screened by immunoflouorescence assays, ELISA and immunoblotting. Selected mAbs 5E5 and 8F10 were of isotypes IgM and IgG and were conformation- or linear epitope-specific, respectively. These mAbs were used as capture antibodies for AC-ELISA development. The detection limit was as little as 102-103 TCID50 units of virus derived from tissue culture supernatants. Virus from the tracheal swab samples of experimentally infected chickens ...
[email protected] WASHINGTON, January 17, 2016 -- The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the pathogenicity of eight of the nine H7N8 avian influenza detections announced on January 16. The turkey flocks have been confirmed as low pathogenic avian influenza, with additional testing ongoing for the ninth flock.. These January 16 detections were identified as part of surveillance testing in the control area surrounding the initial highly pathogenic H7N8 avian influenza (HPAI) case in that state, identified on January 15.. The pathogenicity of a virus refers to its ability to produce disease. Birds with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) often show no signs of infection or only have minor symptoms. HPAI viruses spread quickly and cause high mortality in domestic poultry. H7 LPAI viruses have been known to mutate into HPAI viruses in the past.. "It appears that there was a low pathogenic virus circulating ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Austria Information received on 06/04/2017 from Mr Dr Ulrich Herzog, Chief Veterinary Officer, Verbrauchergesundheit,
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Vietnam Information received on 20/05/2019 from Dr Dong Pham Van, Director General, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of
Citation: Brown, J., Poulson, R., Carter, D., Lebarbenchon, C., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Spackman, E., Shepherd, E.M., Killian, M., Stallknecht, D. 2012. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Avian Diseases. 56:969-975. Interpretive Summary: Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to cause disease in different bird species. Gulls are reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from them. However, two hemagglutinin subtypes (H13 and H16) are maintained almost exclusively within gull populations. In this study the host range of these gull-adapted influenza strains was examined. Multiple strains of H13 LPAI virus were used to challenge ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), mallards (Anas platryrhynchos), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). The susceptibility to H13 LPAI viruses varied between species and viral strain. Gulls ...
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
What is avian influenza? Avian influenza, or "bird flu," is an infection caused by influenza A viruses, which normally infect only birds. These influenza A viruses are found in wild birds worldwide and are quite contagious among birds. In many wild species of birds, especially in birds that swim or live near water including ducks, geese and gulls, infection with avian influenza generally does not cause illness, but may lead to serious disease in domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys . What types of avian influenza viruses are there and which cause serious disease in birds? Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on certain proteins present on the outer layer of the virus. These proteins are hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 16 different H subtypes and 9 different N subtypes. Any combination of these two protein types is possible to form a virus subtype, for example H9N3, H7N7, or H5N1. The ability of avian influenza viruses to cause serious ...
The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required. of a 1/10 dilution of bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid [18] is deemed a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The primary subtypes of ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results.
CFIA had earlier stated that the outbreak, which occurred near Woodstock, Ontario, was a case of H5 avian influenza, but the agency had not verified its exact serotype. H5N2 avian influenza has been prevalent in nine avian influenza cases in bordering Minnesota, as well as two confirmed cases in South Dakota. OIE stated that the Ontario outbreak could have been spread through wild birds in the Mississippi flyway, which includes Minnesota, but added that it was doubtful it was related to earlier Canadian avian influenza outbreaks in British Columbia that began in December 2014. ...
Samples from Changhua County, Yunlin County and Pingtung County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farms have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months. Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in two abattoirs in Taipei City and Pingtung County. Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis. H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI. The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir. After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports ...
Samples from Yunlin County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farm has been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farm have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farm are under intensified surveillance for three months ...
Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID,...
Genetic variation on internal protein matric (M1) and non structural protein (NS1) of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Via Virology Journal: Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt. The provisional abstract: Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment...
Author Summary H5N1 influenza virus has been responsible for poultry outbreaks over the last 12 years-the longest recorded example of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulation in poultry. The ecological success of this virus in diverse species of both poultry and wild birds with sporadic introduction to humans suggests that it is a likely source of the next human pandemic. Genome sequences of H5N1 viruses reveal extensive genetic reassortment (mixing) with other influenza subtypes to produce many H5N1 genotypes that have developed into multiple genetically distinct clades, some of which have spread to affect over 60 countries. Here, we analyze all available sequence data of avian influenza viruses from Eurasia and show that the original HPAI H5N1 virus (referred to as A/goose/Guangdong/1/96) was likely introduced directly into poultry as an intact virus particle from wild aquatic birds. In contrast, H5N1 genotypes were generated in aquatic poultry populations after the introduction of A/goose
Vaccines are found in integrated control strategies to protect poultry against H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). any of the H5 avian influenza vaccines were safeguarded against A/chicken/Western Java/SMI-HAMD/2006 (SMI-HAMD/06) and were partially safeguarded against A/chicken/Papua/TA5/2006 (Papua/06) but were not safeguarded against A/chicken/Western Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Experimental inactivated vaccines made with PWT/06 HPAI disease or rg-generated PWT/06 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) disease seed strains safeguarded chickens from lethal challenge, as did a combination of a commercially available live fowl poxvirus vaccine expressing the H5 influenza virus gene and inactivated Legok/03 vaccine. These studies PHA-767491 indicate that antigenic variants did emerge in Indonesia following widespread H5 avian influenza vaccine usage, and efficacious inactivated vaccines can be developed using antigenic variant wild-type viruses or rg-generated LPAI virus seed strains ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. ...
Avian influenza (AI) or bird flu is a group of viruses that occur naturally in birds. A virus is pathogenic if it can cause illness or death. Some AI viruses can infect birds but not cause many bird illnesses or death. Other AI viruses, termed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), can cause large numbers of bird illnesses and deaths. Currently there is concern about one of these viruses, known as highly pathogenic H5N1, because it is causing severe disease in chickens and other poultry on several continents. It has also been found in wild birds in the same areas. In some instances, people who have had close contact with sick poultry have also become infected and gotten very sick. Approximately half of the people known to be infected have died.. Source. This entry was posted on Monday, May 11th, 2009 at 7:31 am and is filed under Bird Flu. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site. ...
The 64-year-old male patient from Kunming, who was known to have contact with dead poultry, had onset on November 21 and was in a serious condition.. "This is the first human case reported in the Mainland since October 2017. As winter approaches, based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza (H7N9) viruses, their activity in the Mainland is expected to increase," a spokesman for the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP). LISTEN: H7N9 avian influenza in China: Should we be worried?. Since 2013, 1,564 human cases have been reported with all but 31 reported in China. 766 cases have been reported just since Oct. 2016.. Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human cases can be expected.. Related: Avian influenza in humans 2017: Hong Kong officials break it ...
...Genetic analyses of avian influenza in wild birds can help pinpoint li...Persistence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) ...The new work by USGS has nationwide importance because it offers a met...In the study USGS scientists conducted the first-ever survey of avian...,New,research,findings,can,improve,avian,flu,surveillance,programs,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
WHO advises that travellers to countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should avoid poultry farms, or contact with animals in live bird markets, or entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, or contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals. Travellers should also wash their hands often with soap and water. Travellers should follow good food safety and good food hygiene practices.. WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event, nor does it currently recommend any travel or trade restrictions. As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute respiratory symptoms while travelling or soon after returning from an area where avian influenza is a concern.. WHO encourages countries to continue strengthening influenza surveillance, including surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and to carefully review ...
Since 1959, 42 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI viruses did not circulate in wild migratory birds. However, five outbreaks having also used vaccination as a management tool in addition to stamping-out strategies.
Since prehistoric times, the Bering Strait area (Beringia) has served as an avenue of dispersal between the Old and the New Worlds. On a field expedition to this area, we collected fecal samples from dabbling ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia, and Pt. Barrow, Alaska, and characterized the subtypes of avian influenza virus present in them. Four of 202 samples (2%) from Alaska were positive for influenza A virus RNA in two independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening assays, while all shorebird samples from the Chukchi Peninsula were negative. Subtypes H3N8 and H6N1 were recorded once, while subtype H8N4 was found in two samples. Full-length sequences were obtained from the three unique isolates, and phylogenetic analysis with representative sequences for the Eurasian and North American lineages of influenza A virus showed that one HA gene clustered with the Eurasian rather than the North American lineage. However, the closest relative to this ...
What is the meaning of H5N1 virus? How is H5N1 spread? Is Influenza A the same as bird flu? Bird flu known as Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. How does the bird flu spread? Who first discovered ...
Citation: Szretter, K.J., Gangappa, S., Zeng, H., Chen, H., Matsuoka, Y., Sambhara, S., Tumpey, T.M., Swayne, D.E., Katz, J.M. 2009. Early control of H5N1 influenza virus replication by the Type I interferon response in mice. Journal of Virology. 83(11):5825-5834. Interpretive Summary: H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) has caused infection in humans. This study examined the role of interferon, a naturally produced antiviral substance in animals, in preventing severe disease in a mouse model for human infection. When infected with the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, mice that could not produce interferon lost weight, had multiple organs with lesions, and had more rapid time-to-death compared to mice that produced interferon. This suggests that correct interferon response in animals will reduce the severity of disease from H5N1 HPAI virus infections. Technical Abstract: Widespread distribution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in domesticated ...
Answer: Avian Influenza (AI) is a contagious type A influenza ("flu") virus of birds that occurs worldwide, and is not uncommon in wild birds of many types. Some strains of AI can mutate, and are capable of also affecting other animals and occasionally people.. Question: What kinds of Avian Influenza are there?. Answer: There are many types of AI, but in general we refer to them as low (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI) AI. LPAI is like our "low-grade" flu: it is not much of a problem, though it may cause some production losses in poultry. HPAI is a severe problem, causing severe disease and death in susceptible birds. The type of AI is more specifically referred to by its specific type of proteins: the hemagglutinin (H) type, and the neuraminidase (N) type. If a strain of AI has either the H5 or H7 type of protein, its considered HPAI and is watched carefully.. Question: How is Avian Influenza spread?. Answer: As a flu virus, AI replicates in the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tract, so ...
SAα2,6 and SAα2,3 linked sialic acid molecules on epithelial cell membrane served as receptors for influenza virus, which are specifically recognized by human and avian influenza viruses, respectively. The distribution of these two species of sialic acids in human respiratory tract from different anatomical sites and different age groups was investigated. The results showed that SAα2,3Gal species was prevalent in respiratory bronchiole and lung alveolar epithelium, but was infrequent in trachea, bronchus and bronchiole. On the contrary, the SAα2,6Gal species was more common in the trachea and bronchus and to a lesser degree in the alveolar epithelium. When compared the expression levels of SAα2,6Gal and α2,3Gal in the respiratory tract among different age groups, no significant difference was found. In the ex vivo H5N1 virus infection study, alveolus epithelium were found to be more susceptible to avian influenza than trachea and bronchus epithelial cells. These results suggest that the ...
Hatta, M.; Kawaoka, Y., 2005: A clue to the molecular mechanism of virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in 2004
The fifth wave of the H7N9 influenza epidemic in China was distinguished by a sudden increase in human infections, an extended geographic distribution, and the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Genetically, some H7N9 viruses from the fifth wave have acquired novel amino acid changes at positions involved in mammalian adaptation, antigenicity, and hemagglutinin cleavability. Here, several human low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and HPAI H7N9 virus isolates from the fifth epidemic wave were assessed for their pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammalian models, as well as their ability to replicate in human airway epithelial cells. We found that an LPAI virus exhibited a similar capacity to replicate and cause disease in two animal species as viruses from previous waves. In contrast, HPAI H7N9 viruses possessed enhanced virulence, causing greater lethargy and mortality, with an extended tropism for brain tissues in both ferret and mouse models. These HPAI ...
Soubies SM, Hoffmann TW, Croville G, Larcher T, Ledevin M, Soubieux D, Quere P, Guerin JL, Marc D, Volmer R (2013). Deletion of the C-terminal ESEV domain of NS1 does not affect the replication of a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 in ducks and chickens. The Journal of general virology 94, 50-58.. Hoffmann TW, Munier S, Larcher T, Soubieux D, Ledevin M, Esnault E, Tourdes A, Croville G, Guerin JL, Quere P, Volmer R, Naffakh N, Marc D (2012) Length variations in the NA stalk of an H7N1 influenza virus have opposite effects on viral excretion in chickens and ducks. Journal of virology 86: 584-588.. Bavagnoli L, Dundon WG, Garbelli A, Zecchin B, Milani A, Parakkal G, Baldanti F, Paolucci S, Volmer R, Tu Y, Wu C, Capua I, Maga G (2011) The PDZ-ligand and Src-homology type 3 domains of epidemic avian influenza virus NS1 protein modulate human Src kinase activity during viral infection. PloS one 6: e27789.. Volmer C, Soubies SM, Grenier B, Guerin JL, Volmer R (2011) Immune response in the ...
BIRD FLU Common Name Avian Influenza, influenza Virus A Flu. type AFlu, Genus A Flu (Eng.) Overview Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. Most cases of avian influenza in-fection in...
The reported signs and symptoms of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A virus infections in humans range from conjunctivitis to influenza-like illness (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to lower respiratory disease (pneumonia) requiring hospitalization.. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus infections in people have been associated with a wide range of illness from conjunctivitis only, to influenza-like illness, to severe respiratory illness (e.g. shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, respiratory failure) with multi-organ disease, sometimes accompanied by nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and sometimes neurologic changes (altered mental status, seizures).. ...
H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have shown expanded host range and can infect mammals, such as humans and swine. To date the mechanisms of mammalian adaptation and interspecies transmission of H9N2 AIVs remain poorly understood. To explore the molecular basis determining mammalian adaptation of H9N2 AIVs, we compared two avian field H9N2 isolates in a mouse model: one (A/chicken/Guangdong/TS/2004, TS) is nonpathogenic, another one (A/ chicken/Guangdong/V/2008, V) is lethal with efficient replication in mouse brains. In order to determine the basis of the differences in pathogenicity and brain tropism between these two viruses, recombinants with a single gene from the TS (or V) virus in the background of the V (or TS) virus were generated using reverse genetics and evaluated in a mouse model. The results showed that the PB2 gene is the major factor determining the virulence in the mouse model although other genes also have variable impacts on virus replication and pathogenicity. ...
Dutch authorities to cull poultry after avian influenza outbreak - Reuters News: AMSTERDAM (Reuters) - Health authorities will .02/23/2018 23:38:24PM EST.
Bird flu (Avian influenza, AI) is an acute contact venereal toxicity infectious disease against the domestic poultry industry at present.
Bird flu (Avian influenza, AI) is an acute contact venereal toxicity infectious disease against the domestic poultry industry at present.