Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human influenza, human avian influenza infection, human swine influenza infection and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). GIP also promotes the development of and collaboration among, for instance, influenza laboratories, cessation of influenza pandemics, influenza vaccines production, monitoring data sharing, health education [14]. In ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy adult who presented with influenza like illness. Strain QLD-01 shared genomic similarities ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 influenza season (August 30, 2009--June 12, 2010).. U.S. Viral Surveillance. Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, through June 12, 2010, approximately 740,000 influenza specimens were tested for influenza, and the number of laboratory-confirmed positives was approximately ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in ...
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and behavioral drivers of influenza seasonality is important for optimizing intervention strategies, especially in low and middle-latitude regions.
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or a single influenza outbreak reported but no increase in cases of ILI; and 5) no activity. § Widespread: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming; regional: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, ...
Of the 400 contacts in the group that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 11 (3 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 40 of 392 contacts (10 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-an individual protective efficacy of 73 percent. In the group of 135 affected households that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 10 (7 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 27 of the 136 households (20 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-a household protective efficacy of 63 percent. These findings suggest that treatment of the index case, coupled with simultaneous prophylaxis with Tamiflu of household contacts, can significantly reduce the secondary spread of influenza in households ...
Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza-related hospitalization during a season with mixed outbreaks of four influenza viruses: a test-negative case-control study in adults in Canada Academic Article ...
INTRODUCTION Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with 80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. RESULTS 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks ...
We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RIDT using NS specimens were evaluated against nasal swabs tested by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The performance parameter results were expressed as 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using binomial exact methods, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Two-sample Z tests were used to test for differences in sample proportions. Analysis was performed using SAS software version 9.3. From July 2013 to July
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza viruses in various proportions increased in some countries ranging from local to regional levels. Influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated in Japan and the Republic of Korea, while influenza B predominated in China. In some other countries, A(H3N2) ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can also be infected with human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, allow for mixtures of genes (reassortment) to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza ...
The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of the investigational fluID Rapid Influenza Test and the BinaxNOW® Influenza A & B Test in detecting influenza type A and influenza type B, with respect to fresh nasal wash / aspirate specimens collected from patients presenting with signs and symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI). Specimens to be evaluated in this study will be enrolled in a concurrent clinical study per protocol FLU-05, entitled Prospective Evaluation of the fluID Rapid Influenza Test. All subjects enrolled in the FLU-05 study will have consented to having their samples used in future investigations involving the fluID Test.. This study will be conducted during the 2008-2009 influenza season in North America and Hong Kong, which is anticipated to run from November 2008 to May 2009. Should the influenza season conclude in North America and Hong Kong prior to the attainment of the minimum target enrollment specified in the FLU-05 study, study sites in ...
The rapid evolution of the influenza A virus poses a global challenge to public health. Recent events, such as the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, have heightened concerns of potential pandemics. Thus, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of influenza virus evolution. Due to the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, large-scale sequencing of influenza viruses has become routine work in influenza surveillance, and analyses of these large-scale viral sequence data have significantly enhanced our understanding of influenza evolution. However, opportunities remain to extract even more useful information to inform influenza prevention and control strategy. As we know, seasonal influenza prevention and control rely largely on the availability of effective vaccines. However, timely and accurate recommendation of vaccine strains is quite challenging, as evidenced by frequent antigenic mismatches between the recommended vaccine strains and circulating ...
According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its "Prevention and Control of Influenza" guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is further divided into two subgroups: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Influenza represents a unique family of viruses since antibodies developed against one strain of influenza offer little or no protection from other strains. There are also two types of vaccines. The live ...
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. One example of a variant flu virus is H3N2v.. Sometimes, human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Comparison of the Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Adult Patients with Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza A or B during the 2011-2012 Influenza Season in Korea. T2 - A Multi-Center Study. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - So, Byung Hak. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Seo, Yu Bin. AU - Choi, Sung Hyuk. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Kim, Young Keun. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2013/5/3. Y1 - 2013/5/3. N2 - Background:During the 2011/2012 winter influenza season in the Republic of Korea, influenza A (H3N2) was the predominant virus in the first peak period of influenza activity during the second half of January 2012. On the other hand, influenza B was the predominant virus in the second peak period of influenza activity during the second half of March 2012. The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ...
Influenza. Action requested: Implement practices to prevent spread of influenza.. Background & Recommendations:. The influenza season is upon us in earnest. As of 1/9/16, the Health District had received reports of only four influenza-related hospitalizations and no influenza-related deaths, heightened school absenteeism, or outbreaks in long term care facilities. However, Providence Regional Medical Center Everett has reported more influenza-related hospitalizations in the past week and The Everett Clinic has reported marked increase in testing and positive results for influenza. Nationally, rates remained low as of last week, but reports are increasing. Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating.. All health care facilities should implement practices to prevent the spread of influenza. All health care providers and ancillary staff who come in direct contact with patients should be vaccinated against influenza; health care ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting influenza virus replication and therefore disease. Individuals with unique or rare polymorphisms in essential genes in this pathway are more susceptible to influenza virus and more likely to require hospital care or succumb to ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens characterized since May have been antigenically and genetically similar to the reference virus for this seasons vaccine. There has been no antiviral resistance detected to date.. Nationwide, influenza-like illness (ILI) activity was at 2.3%, above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 of the ...
Every year, more than one billion people suffer from influenza globally. It results in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 50,000 deaths, according to World Health Organization (WHO).. Influenza, commonly called as flu is an infectious disease caused by a virus. The continuous and excessive use of many approved antiviral medications leads to the development of resistance to these drugs. It worsens the situation and increases the count of serious illness and death.. Johnson and Johnsons investigational antiviral drug, pimodivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the count of virus in patients with a type of influenza.. Now, the company is hopeful to treat those influenza patients with pimodivir who get resistant to the approved line of antiviral medications.. Pimodivir is tested as monotherapy or in combination with the other approved flu drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated seasonal influenza.. Apart from oseltamivir, zanamivir ...
Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Cynthia Morgan, PhD, RN Pandemic Influenza Program Coordinator, Acting Anita Wheeler, BSN, RN School Nurse Consultant. Agenda. Everything you wanted to know about pandemic influenza but couldnt find anyone to ask What you can do to prepare your...
Our prospective surveillance in a district in Kenya is one of the first to report directly-measured rates of influenza-associated hospitalization in African adults and children.4 In developing countries, sentinel hospital surveillance can provide data for describing influenza epidemiology and seasonality, characterizing the circulating strains of influenza virus (to guide vaccinations) and monitoring influenza pandemics. Such surveillance can seldom be used to define the burden of influenza, however, because it often occurs in referral hospitals, where the denominator population is difficult to define and the health-seeking patterns may not be representative of the norm.21,22. The rate of influenza-associated hospitalization that we report in children of Bondo district who were aged < 5 years (i.e. 143.7 cases per 100 000 child-years) is lower than the corresponding values reported in South Africa, Thailand and the United States.23-25 In urban Soweto, South Africa, for example, 309 annual cases ...
Between 1988 and 2009, a probable ILI outbreak in a school was defined by MDH as a doubled absence rate with all of the following primary influenza symptoms reported among students: rapid onset, fever, illness lasting 3 or more days, and at least one secondary influenza symptom (e.g., myalgia, headache, cough, coryza, sore throat, or chills). A possible ILI outbreak in a school was defined as a doubled absence rate with reported symptoms among students, including two of the primary influenza symptoms and at least one secondary influenza symptom. Prior to the 2009-2010 influenza season, the number of schools reporting probable influenza outbreaks has ranged from a low of 38 schools in 20 counties in 1996-1997 to 441 schools in 71 counties in 1991-1992. The definition of ILI outbreaks changed beginning with the 2009-2010 school year. Schools reported when the number of students absent with ILI reaches 5% of total enrollment, or when three or more students with ILI are absent from the same ...
National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 82 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 03 October 2016 to 16 October 2016 (data as of 2016-10-28 04:04:36 UTC).The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 70925 specimens during that time period. 2979 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 2540 (85.3%) were typed as influenza A and 439 (14.7%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 135 (6.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1911 (93.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 21 (25.9%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 60 (74.1%) to the B-Victoria lineage. ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From August 1, 2009 to October 10, 2009, a total of 938 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at Korea University Guro Hospital with influenza-like illnesses were enrolled in the study. Throat or nasopharyngeal swab specimens ...
Introduction Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths.. Methods Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.. Results We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals ,5 years ...
Results and conclusion Knowing that the vaccine is effective (mhRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.54), being willing to prevent influenza transmission (mhRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.70), believing that influenza is highly contagious (RR 2.25; 95% CI 1.66 to 3.05), believing that influenza prevention is important (mhRR 3.63; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.59) and having a family that is usually vaccinated (RR 2.32; 95% CI 1.64 to 3.28) were statistically significantly associated with a twofold higher vaccine uptake. We therefore recommend targeting these predictors when developing new influenza vaccination implementation strategies for hospital HCWs. ...
Description of Invention:. National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. This novel influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited two types of broadly neutralizing, cross-protective antibodies-one directed to the highly conserved HA stem and a second proximal to the conserved receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral HA-providing a new platform for universal and seasonal influenza. In addition, HA-ferritin nanoparticles can be easily produced from simple expression vectors and without the production of infectious virus in eggs, and will facilitate influenza preparedness in the face of emerging epidemics.. This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a ...
An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population. Influenza pandemics are impossible to predict; and they may be mild, or cause severe disease or death. Severe disease may occur in certain risk groups, which may correspond to those at risk of severe disease due to seasonal influenza. However, healthy persons are also likely to experience more serious disease than that caused by seasonal influenza.. The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009 and was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. It is estimated to have caused between 100 000 and 400 000 deaths globally in the first year alone. ...
Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII), defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40). Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the
The Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) is monitoring the global circulation of influenza viruses, including pandemic, seasonal and other influenza viruses infecting, or with the potential to infect, humans including seasonal influenza. The Network comprises 5 WHO Collaborating Centres (WHO CCs), 4 Essential Regulatory Laboratories and 128 institutions in 99 countries, which are recognized by WHO as National Influenza Centres (NICs). Globally, since the beginning of the pandemic 19 April to 7 November, the total number of specimens reported positive for influenza viruses by NICs was 272,326. Of these, 187,290 (68.8%) were pandemic H1N1, 7771 (2.9%) were seasonal A (H1), 23,019 (8.5%) were A (H3), 48,653 (17.9%) were A (not subtyped) and 5593 (2.1%) were influenza B. As some laboratories are under pressure of the pandemic surge and do not test for seasonal subtypes, this data should be interpreted with caution. 2 ...
The WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza (VIDRL) in Melbourne is part of the World Health Organization Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN)
Adiego SB, Omenaca TM, Martinez CS, et al. Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1), Aragon, Spain, November 2008. Euro Surveill 2009 Feb 19;14(7):pii=19120 [Full text]. ANZIC Influenza Investigators, Webb SA, Pettila V, et al. Critical care services and 2009 H1N1 influenza in Australia and New Zealand. N Engl J Med 2009 Nov 12;361(20):1925-34 [Full text]. Bean B, Moore BM, Sterner B, et al. Survival of influenza viruses on environmental surfaces. J Infect Dis 1982 Jul;146(1):47-51 [Abstract]. Blyth CC, Kelso A, McPhie KA, et al. The impact of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus on seasonal influenza A viruses in the Southern Hemisphere, 2009. Euro Surveill 2010 Aug 5;15(31):pii=19631 [Full text]. Boelle PY, Bernillon P, Desenclos JC. A preliminary estimation of the reproduction ratio for new influenza A (H1N1) from the outbreak in Mexico, March-April 2009. Euro Surveill 2009 May 14;14(19):pii=19205 [Full text]. Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, et al. Transmission of influenza A in human ...
... :Influenza is a contagious illness that is brought on by RNA viruses. Scientists still do not much information as to how the virulent strains of influenza viruses developed, but research is ongoing as more and more new strains of influenza viruses keep developing each year.
The current retrospective database analysis describes and quantifies the burden of seasonal influenza in adults and children at the primary care level in Germany. The aim of the manuscript was to estimate the annual economic burden of influenza in Germany. Due to the lack of up to date cost data, we have assessed the resource consumption related to the treatment of episodes classified as influenza or ILI (ICD-10 J9-J11) by primary care physicians. The aim was not to evaluate the incidence of confirmed influenza in Germany. Due to this reason, we have used figures published by RKI to extrapolate the cost per episode to the economic burden in Germany. Our analysis, based on a very large sample of patients with clinically diagnosed influenza, showed that the annual economic burden of seasonal influenza can reach €3.1 billion. Interestingly, a substantial burden occurs in adults without risk factors for complications and thus outside the recommended groups for seasonal influenza ...
While the greatest risk of severe illness and death is seen in the elderly, as well as in children with high-risk conditions (asthma, compromised immune system, etc.) and young children, particularly those who are younger than 12 months of age, the majority of children hospitalized for influenza are previously healthy, and approximately 40 percent of pediatric influenza deaths occur among children without high-risk conditions. Previously healthy children without high-risk conditions who acquire influenza may be more likely to die before hospital admission and within three days of symptom onset.. While the impact of flu varies, it places a substantial burden on the health of people in the United States each year. The CDC estimates that influenza has resulted in between 9.2 million and 60.8 million illnesses, between 140,000 and 710,000 hospitalizations, and between 12,000 and 56,000 deaths annually since 2010.. ...
The two most common weapons to fight influenza are an annual immunization and the use of antiviral drugs. A team of investigators has found that statins - a drug widely used to lower cholesterol - may offer additional benefits that complement these approaches and reduces mortality among patients with influenza.. The researchers used data for hospitalized adults during the 2007-2008 influenza season to evaluate the association between patients prescribed statins and influenza-related deaths. The data were drawn from the Center for Disease Control and Preventions Emerging Infections Program, which conducts active surveillance for patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza in 59 counties in 10 states, including New Haven County in Connecticut.. Among 3,043 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza, 33% were given statin medications prior to or during hospitalization. After adjusting for various factors, patients not receiving statins were almost twice as likely to ...
H1N1 influenza subtype causes a relatively mild infection in humans, however it is highly transmittable between people and a new influenza pandemic has been declared. If this virus were to acquire some of the lethal capabilities of H5N1, then the ensuing pandemic could be devastating. This book critically reviews the current research and the most important discoveries in this highly topical field. Subjects covered include the NS1 protein of influenza A virus, the structure of influenza NS1, influenza B hemagglutinin, influenza A nucleoprotein, influenza A hemagglutinin glycoproteins, the M2 channel, virulence genes of the 1918 pandemic influenza, influenza virus polymerase, gene diagnostic microarrays, and computer-assisted vaccine design.
Background: In June 2009 a global influenza pandemic was declared by the World Health Organisation. A vaccination programme against H1N1 influenza was introduced in many countries from September 2009, but there was low uptake in both the general population and health professionals in many, though not all, countries. Purpose: To examine the psychological and demographic factors associated with uptake of vaccination during the 2009 pandemic. Method: A systematic literature review searching Web of Science and PubMed databases up to 24 January 2011. Results: 37 articles met the study inclusion criteria. Using the framework of Protection Motivation Theory the review found that both the degree of threat experienced in the 2009 pandemic influenza outbreak and perceptions of vaccination as an effective coping strategy were associated with stronger intentions and higher uptake of vaccination. Appraisal of threat resulted from both believing oneself to be at risk from developing H1N1 influenza and concern and
http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/clinician_pregnant.htm (2 of 4) [4/28/2009 4:21:44 PM] CDC - Influenza (Flu) , Interim Guidance Pregnant Women and Swine Influenza: Considerations for Clinicians The risk for swine influenza A (H1N1) might be reduced by taking steps to reduce the chance of being exposed to respiratory infections. There is no vaccine available yet to prevent swine influenza A (H1N1). These actions include frequent handwashing, covering coughs, and having ill persons stay home, except to seek medical care, and minimize contact with others in the household who may be ill with swine flu. Additional measures that can limit transmission of a new influenza strain include voluntary home quarantine of members of households with confirmed or probable swine influenza cases, reduction of unnecessary social contacts, and avoidance whenever possible of crowded settings. If used correctly, facemasks and respirators may help reduce the risk of getting influenza, but they should be used along with ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared a new test developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to diagnose human influenza infections and the highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses. The device, called the Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Detection and Characterization Panel (rRT-PCR Flu Panel), uses a molecular biology technique to detect flu virus and differentiate between seasonal and novel influenza. The device is used to isolate and amplify viral genetic material present in secretions taken from a patients nose or throat. The viral genetic material is labeled with fluorescent molecules, which are then detected and analyzed by a diagnostic instrument called the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast Dx, also cleared today by the FDA for diagnostic use simultaneously with the CDCs rRT-PCR Flu Panel. The test panel and diagnostic system can detect and identify commonly circulating human influenza viruses as well as influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Results ...
This review provides for the first time an assessment of the current understanding about the occurrence and the clinical significance of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in influenza patients, and their correlation with the presence of human influenza viruses in stools of patients with confirmed influenza virus infection. Studies exploring how human influenza viruses spread to the patients GI tract after a primary respiratory infection have been summarized. We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature up to June 2015 with regard to the above-mentioned aspects, focusing on human influenza viruses (A(H1N1), A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and B). Forty-four studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of any digestive symptoms ranged from 30.9 % (95 % CI, 9.8 to 57.5; I 2 = 97.5 %) for A(H1N1)pdm09 to 2.8 % (95 % CI, 0.6 to 6.5; I 2 = 75.4 %) for A(H1N1). The pooled prevalence of influenza viruses
Increased weekly influenza positive rates were observed from June to November, coinciding with the rainy season and school opening. Two or more peaks of influenza activity were observed with different dominant influenza types associated with each peak. A-H1N1, A-H3N2, and two types of B viruses circulated during the influenza season in varying proportions every year. Increased influenza activity for 2012 occurred 8 weeks late in week 29, rather than the expected week of rise of cases in week 21 as depicted in the established average epidemic curve and seasonal threshold. The intensity was severe going above the alert threshold but of short duration. Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains matched circulating influenza virus for more surveillance years than Northern Hemisphere vaccine strains ...
Influenza A and B viruses cause a pandemic threat to human health throughout the world [1]. Sporadic transmission of influenza viruses from birds to humans could lead to unpredictable pandemic outbreaks. Influenza is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract that can infect millions of people and kills hundreds of thousands of them [2]. Humans, infected with influenza A, manifest typically an acute upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, and sore throat. Disease severity depends mainly on the virulence of the influenza virus strain and immune competence of the patients [3]. Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, and they are further classed as A, B, and C viruses [4]. Until now, 17 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes have been described. However, only a limited number of influenza A viruses (IAV), such as H1, H2, H3, H5, H6, H7, and H9, have been implicated with human infection [5]. The high mutational rate of the virus and frequency of ...