Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human influenza, human avian influenza infection, human swine influenza infection and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). GIP also promotes the development of and collaboration among, for instance, influenza laboratories, cessation of influenza pandemics, influenza vaccines production, monitoring data sharing, health education [14]. In ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy adult who presented with influenza like illness. Strain QLD-01 shared genomic similarities ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 influenza season (August 30, 2009--June 12, 2010).. U.S. Viral Surveillance. Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, through June 12, 2010, approximately 740,000 influenza specimens were tested for influenza, and the number of laboratory-confirmed positives was approximately ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in ...
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and behavioral drivers of influenza seasonality is important for optimizing intervention strategies, especially in low and middle-latitude regions.
These findings demonstrate a strong association between early, sustained, and layered application of nonpharmaceutical interventions and mitigating the consequences of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States. In planning for future severe influenza pandemics, nonpharmaceutical interven …
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or a single influenza outbreak reported but no increase in cases of ILI; and 5) no activity. § Widespread: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming; regional: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, ...
Background The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase™) is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1). Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Methods and Findings The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus ...
Of the 400 contacts in the group that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 11 (3 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 40 of 392 contacts (10 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-an individual protective efficacy of 73 percent. In the group of 135 affected households that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 10 (7 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 27 of the 136 households (20 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-a household protective efficacy of 63 percent. These findings suggest that treatment of the index case, coupled with simultaneous prophylaxis with Tamiflu of household contacts, can significantly reduce the secondary spread of influenza in households ...
Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza-related hospitalization during a season with mixed outbreaks of four influenza viruses: a test-negative case-control study in adults in Canada Academic Article ...
INTRODUCTION Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with 80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. RESULTS 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks ...
We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RIDT using NS specimens were evaluated against nasal swabs tested by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The performance parameter results were expressed as 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using binomial exact methods, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Two-sample Z tests were used to test for differences in sample proportions. Analysis was performed using SAS software version 9.3. From July 2013 to July
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza viruses in various proportions increased in some countries ranging from local to regional levels. Influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated in Japan and the Republic of Korea, while influenza B predominated in China. In some other countries, A(H3N2) ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can also be infected with human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, allow for mixtures of genes (reassortment) to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza ...
The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of the investigational fluID Rapid Influenza Test and the BinaxNOW® Influenza A & B Test in detecting influenza type A and influenza type B, with respect to fresh nasal wash / aspirate specimens collected from patients presenting with signs and symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI). Specimens to be evaluated in this study will be enrolled in a concurrent clinical study per protocol FLU-05, entitled Prospective Evaluation of the fluID Rapid Influenza Test. All subjects enrolled in the FLU-05 study will have consented to having their samples used in future investigations involving the fluID Test.. This study will be conducted during the 2008-2009 influenza season in North America and Hong Kong, which is anticipated to run from November 2008 to May 2009. Should the influenza season conclude in North America and Hong Kong prior to the attainment of the minimum target enrollment specified in the FLU-05 study, study sites in ...
The rapid evolution of the influenza A virus poses a global challenge to public health. Recent events, such as the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, have heightened concerns of potential pandemics. Thus, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of influenza virus evolution. Due to the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, large-scale sequencing of influenza viruses has become routine work in influenza surveillance, and analyses of these large-scale viral sequence data have significantly enhanced our understanding of influenza evolution. However, opportunities remain to extract even more useful information to inform influenza prevention and control strategy. As we know, seasonal influenza prevention and control rely largely on the availability of effective vaccines. However, timely and accurate recommendation of vaccine strains is quite challenging, as evidenced by frequent antigenic mismatches between the recommended vaccine strains and circulating ...
According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its Prevention and Control of Influenza guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is further divided into two subgroups: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Influenza represents a unique family of viruses since antibodies developed against one strain of influenza offer little or no protection from other strains. There are also two types of vaccines. The live ...
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. One example of a variant flu virus is H3N2v.. Sometimes, human ...
Since 2009, in Ontario, reportable disease surveillance data has been used for timely in-season estimates of influenza severity (i.e., hospitalizations and deaths). Due to changes in reporting requirements influenza reporting no longer captures these indicators of severity, necessitating exploration of other potential sources of data. The purpose of this study was to complete a retrospective analysis to assess the comparability of influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths captured in the Ontario reportable disease information system to those captured in Ontarios hospital-based discharge database. Hospitalizations and deaths of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases reported during the 2010-11 to 2013-14 influenza seasons were analyzed. Information on hospitalizations and deaths for laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were obtained from two databases; the integrated Public Health Information System, which is the provincial reportable disease database, and the Discharge Abstract Database, which
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Comparison of the Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Adult Patients with Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza A or B during the 2011-2012 Influenza Season in Korea. T2 - A Multi-Center Study. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - So, Byung Hak. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Seo, Yu Bin. AU - Choi, Sung Hyuk. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Kim, Young Keun. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2013/5/3. Y1 - 2013/5/3. N2 - Background:During the 2011/2012 winter influenza season in the Republic of Korea, influenza A (H3N2) was the predominant virus in the first peak period of influenza activity during the second half of January 2012. On the other hand, influenza B was the predominant virus in the second peak period of influenza activity during the second half of March 2012. The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ...
Influenza. Action requested: Implement practices to prevent spread of influenza.. Background & Recommendations:. The influenza season is upon us in earnest. As of 1/9/16, the Health District had received reports of only four influenza-related hospitalizations and no influenza-related deaths, heightened school absenteeism, or outbreaks in long term care facilities. However, Providence Regional Medical Center Everett has reported more influenza-related hospitalizations in the past week and The Everett Clinic has reported marked increase in testing and positive results for influenza. Nationally, rates remained low as of last week, but reports are increasing. Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating.. All health care facilities should implement practices to prevent the spread of influenza. All health care providers and ancillary staff who come in direct contact with patients should be vaccinated against influenza; health care ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting influenza virus replication and therefore disease. Individuals with unique or rare polymorphisms in essential genes in this pathway are more susceptible to influenza virus and more likely to require hospital care or succumb to ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens characterized since May have been antigenically and genetically similar to the reference virus for this seasons vaccine. There has been no antiviral resistance detected to date.. Nationwide, influenza-like illness (ILI) activity was at 2.3%, above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 of the ...
Every year, more than one billion people suffer from influenza globally. It results in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 50,000 deaths, according to World Health Organization (WHO).. Influenza, commonly called as flu is an infectious disease caused by a virus. The continuous and excessive use of many approved antiviral medications leads to the development of resistance to these drugs. It worsens the situation and increases the count of serious illness and death.. Johnson and Johnsons investigational antiviral drug, pimodivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the count of virus in patients with a type of influenza.. Now, the company is hopeful to treat those influenza patients with pimodivir who get resistant to the approved line of antiviral medications.. Pimodivir is tested as monotherapy or in combination with the other approved flu drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated seasonal influenza.. Apart from oseltamivir, zanamivir ...
Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Cynthia Morgan, PhD, RN Pandemic Influenza Program Coordinator, Acting Anita Wheeler, BSN, RN School Nurse Consultant. Agenda. Everything you wanted to know about pandemic influenza but couldnt find anyone to ask What you can do to prepare your...
Our prospective surveillance in a district in Kenya is one of the first to report directly-measured rates of influenza-associated hospitalization in African adults and children.4 In developing countries, sentinel hospital surveillance can provide data for describing influenza epidemiology and seasonality, characterizing the circulating strains of influenza virus (to guide vaccinations) and monitoring influenza pandemics. Such surveillance can seldom be used to define the burden of influenza, however, because it often occurs in referral hospitals, where the denominator population is difficult to define and the health-seeking patterns may not be representative of the norm.21,22. The rate of influenza-associated hospitalization that we report in children of Bondo district who were aged < 5 years (i.e. 143.7 cases per 100 000 child-years) is lower than the corresponding values reported in South Africa, Thailand and the United States.23-25 In urban Soweto, South Africa, for example, 309 annual cases ...
Between 1988 and 2009, a probable ILI outbreak in a school was defined by MDH as a doubled absence rate with all of the following primary influenza symptoms reported among students: rapid onset, fever, illness lasting 3 or more days, and at least one secondary influenza symptom (e.g., myalgia, headache, cough, coryza, sore throat, or chills). A possible ILI outbreak in a school was defined as a doubled absence rate with reported symptoms among students, including two of the primary influenza symptoms and at least one secondary influenza symptom. Prior to the 2009-2010 influenza season, the number of schools reporting probable influenza outbreaks has ranged from a low of 38 schools in 20 counties in 1996-1997 to 441 schools in 71 counties in 1991-1992. The definition of ILI outbreaks changed beginning with the 2009-2010 school year. Schools reported when the number of students absent with ILI reaches 5% of total enrollment, or when three or more students with ILI are absent from the same ...
National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 82 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 03 October 2016 to 16 October 2016 (data as of 2016-10-28 04:04:36 UTC).The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 70925 specimens during that time period. 2979 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 2540 (85.3%) were typed as influenza A and 439 (14.7%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 135 (6.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1911 (93.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 21 (25.9%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 60 (74.1%) to the B-Victoria lineage. ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From August 1, 2009 to October 10, 2009, a total of 938 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at Korea University Guro Hospital with influenza-like illnesses were enrolled in the study. Throat or nasopharyngeal swab specimens ...
Introduction Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths.. Methods Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.. Results We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals ,5 years ...
Results and conclusion Knowing that the vaccine is effective (mhRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.54), being willing to prevent influenza transmission (mhRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.70), believing that influenza is highly contagious (RR 2.25; 95% CI 1.66 to 3.05), believing that influenza prevention is important (mhRR 3.63; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.59) and having a family that is usually vaccinated (RR 2.32; 95% CI 1.64 to 3.28) were statistically significantly associated with a twofold higher vaccine uptake. We therefore recommend targeting these predictors when developing new influenza vaccination implementation strategies for hospital HCWs. ...
Description of Invention:. National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. This novel influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited two types of broadly neutralizing, cross-protective antibodies-one directed to the highly conserved HA stem and a second proximal to the conserved receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral HA-providing a new platform for universal and seasonal influenza. In addition, HA-ferritin nanoparticles can be easily produced from simple expression vectors and without the production of infectious virus in eggs, and will facilitate influenza preparedness in the face of emerging epidemics.. This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a ...
An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population. Influenza pandemics are impossible to predict; and they may be mild, or cause severe disease or death. Severe disease may occur in certain risk groups, which may correspond to those at risk of severe disease due to seasonal influenza. However, healthy persons are also likely to experience more serious disease than that caused by seasonal influenza.. The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009 and was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. It is estimated to have caused between 100 000 and 400 000 deaths globally in the first year alone. ...
Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII), defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40). Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza.² Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States: trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).•TIV is injected into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh. It can be used for people 6 months of age or older, including those with chronic medical conditions, pregnant ...
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, seasonal influenza vaccination). Cases were ILI patients with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for influenza. Vaccination was defined as having received one dose ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire population is immunized at usual vaccination coverage. At higher levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza, the impact of this enhanced risk is less marked, as seasonal vaccine has ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines is being replaced with cell culture vaccines. Cell culture based production of vaccines is expected to reduce the problems associated with ...
Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza outbreaks, and are the consequence of antigenic drift or shift, respectively. For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 ...
To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case-control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%-93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant
We limited our search to studies with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection, which may have underestimated case rates because of variable testing and reporting of results. Other studies have reported estimated incidence rates of influenza-associated outcomes among pregnant women without laboratory confirmation of influenza disease. A study that used multiple data sources-not all of which contained laboratory-confirmed influenza disease-to quantify influenza-associated hospitalizations in Canada from 1994-2000 reported a rate of 150 influenza-associated hospitalizations (95% CI: 140-170) per 100,000 pregnant women per influenza season [37]. This rate was more than 10-fold higher than the highest rate reported by the four studies of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among pregnant women in our study. A study of symptomatic probable and confirmed cases of 2009 pandemic influenza among pregnant women on Reunion Island found a rate of 3,568 cases per 100,000 pregnant women (95% ...
These recommendations for treatment and chemoprophylaxis are the same ones used for others who are at higher risk of complications from influenza. As is recommended for other persons who are treated, antiviral treatment with zanamivir or oseltamivir should be initiated as soon as possible after the onset of influenza symptoms, with benefits expected to be greatest if started within 48 hours of onset based on data from studies of seasonal influenza. However, some data from studies on seasonal influenza indicate benefit for hospitalized patients even if treatment is started more than 48 hours after onset. Health care providers should initiate empiric antiviral treatment as soon as possible. Waiting for laboratory confirmation of influenza to begin treatment with antiviral drugs is not necessary. Patients with a negative rapid influenza diagnostic test should be considered for treatment if clinically indicated because a negative rapid influenza test result does not rule out influenza virus ...
Seqirus Fluvax (previously bioCSL) is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for administration in children ≥5 years of age; however, it is not recommended for use in children , 9 years of age (refer to 4.7.11 Adverse events and 4.7.13 Variations from product information below).. All the influenza vaccines currently available in Australia are either split virion or subunit vaccines prepared from purified inactivated influenza virus that has been cultivated in embryonated hens eggs. The influenza virus composition of vaccines for use in Australia is determined annually by the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee following recommendations by the World Health Organization based on global influenza epidemiology.23. Since the late 1970s, influenza vaccines have contained three strains of influenza virus - two influenza A subtypes and one influenza B lineage (i.e. trivalent influenza vaccines or TIVs). Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) containing four influenza ...
Background Influenza vaccines are reviewed each year, and often changed, in an effort to maintain their effectiveness against drifted influenza viruses. There is however no regular review of influenza vaccine effectiveness during, or at the end of, Australian influenza seasons. It is possible to use a case control method to estimate vaccine effectiveness from surveillance data when all patients in a surveillance system are tested for influenza and their vaccination status is known. Methodology/Principal Findings Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is conducted during the influenza season in sentinel general practices scattered throughout Victoria, Australia. Over five seasons 2003-7, data on age, sex and vaccination status were collected and nose and throat swabs were offered to patients presenting within three days of the onset of their symptoms. Swabs were tested using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Those positive for influenza were sent to the World Health
Influenza, however, is unique among respiratory viral pathogens in that another effective intervention to prevent transmission exists: vaccination. Annual influenza vaccination has been available in the United States since 1945 and has been recommended for persons at high risk of influenza complications since 1960. Unlike many pathogens, the predominant circulating influenza strains vary from year to year, affecting the intensity and severity of the influenza season as well as vaccine effectiveness. According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of influenza vaccine protection, there was 59% effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine in adults aged 18 to 65 years and a higher effectiveness (83%) of the live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) in children.3Although not at levels of other vaccines, influenza vaccination provides some protection and may prevent complications due to influenza such as pneumonia, hospitalizations, and death. Recent studies in children have demonstrated that the ...
In April 2009, novel swine-origin influenza viruses (S-OIV) were identified in patients from Mexico and the United States. The viruses were genetically characterized as a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain originating in swine, and within a very short time the S-OIV strain spread across the globe via human-to-human contact.We conducted a comprehensive computational search of all available sequences of the surface proteins of H1N1 swine influenza isolates and found that a similar strain to S-OIV appeared in Thailand in 2000. The earlier isolates caused infections in pigs but only one sequenced human case, A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1 ...
Despite the 2009 Council Recommendation that seasonal influenza vaccination rates should be improved for the elderly, at risk groups and health care workers, there remains a concerning sub-optimal level of influenza vaccination coverage across Europe with 15,000-70,000 people dying each year due to influenza. These worrying facts led to the creation of a multi-stakeholder Steering Group on Influenza Vaccination, whose members are committed to raising awareness of influenza-related public health issues and encouraging stronger policy driven actions at European and national level in support of influenza vaccination. One of the Steering Groups tasks is to draft an EU Manifesto on Influenza Vaccination, a tangible means of aligning the community on the shared policy requirements to protect European citizens from influenza. The idea of developing a Manifesto will be presented during this satellite symposium. Participants will be invited to give their input to this initiative either during the ...
Recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination are standard in most developed countries. Many rapidly developing countries have recently begun to adopt recommendations for high-risk target groups, such as the elderly. Population-based surveys to determine use, rather than purchases, of seasonal …
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • Influenza vaccinated market (Children and Adult vaccinated market). • Influenza Vaccine Covered (Vaxigrip/Fluzone, Fluarix/ Flulaval, FluMist/Fluenz, Afluria/Fluvax and Fluvirin/Flucelvax, Anflu). • 23 Countries Covered (Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, ...
The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is a cornerstone in influenza pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. However, resistance to the drug is a growing concern. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is not degraded in surface water or sewage treatment plants and has been detected in river water during seasonal influenza outbreaks. The natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can thus be exposed to OC in aquatic environments. Environmental-like levels of OC induce resistance development in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards. There is a risk of resistance accumulation in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds when oseltamivir is used extensively. By reassortment or direct transmission, oseltamivir resistance can be transmitted to humans potentially causing a resistant pandemic or human-adapted highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus. There is a need for more research on resistance development in the natural influenza reservoir and for a prudent use of ...
During previous influenza seasons, only trivalent influenza vaccines that included antigen from 1 influenza B virus were available. However, since 1985, 2 antigenically distinct lineages (ie, Victoria or Yamagata) of influenza B viruses have circulated globally. In most years, vaccination against a B virus of 1 lineage confers little cross-protection against a B virus strain from the other lineage. Thus, trivalent vaccines offer limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the vaccine. Furthermore, in recent years, it has proven difficult to consistently predict which B lineage will predominate during a given influenza season. Therefore, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine with influenza B strains of both lineages may offer improved protection. Postmarketing safety and vaccine effectiveness data are not yet available, prohibiting a full risk-benefit analysis of newer versus previously available products.. For the 2013-2014 season, the inactivated influenza ...
Recently, a novel swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus was identified as a significant cause of febrile respiratory illnesses in Mexico and the United States. It rapidly spread to many countries around the world, prompting the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on June 11, 2009. Data from several cohorts in different age groups that received licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines suggest that these vaccines are unlikely to provide protection against the new virus. Adults are more likely to have measurable levels of serum hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) or neutralizing antibody than are children. These data indicate the need to develop vaccines against the new H1N1 strain and suggest that different vaccine strategies (e.g., number of doses, need for adjuvant) may be appropriate for persons in different age groups. Based on clinical data from other novel influenza A viruses, a higher dose, or multiple doses of an unadjuvanted, inactivated influenza H1N1 vaccine may be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal influenza vaccination rates in the HIV outpatient study-United States, 1999-2013. AU - Durham, Marcus D.. AU - Buchacz, Kate. AU - Armon, Carl. AU - Patel, Pragna. AU - Wood, Kathy. AU - Brooks, John T.. AU - Hays, Harlen. AU - Wood, Kathleen C.. AU - Hankerson, Darlene. AU - Debes, Rachel. AU - Subramanian, Thilakavathy. AU - Dean, Bonnie. AU - Palella, Frank J.. AU - Chmiel, Joan S.. AU - Jahangir, Saira. AU - Flaherty, Conor Daniel. AU - Dixon-Evans, Jerian Denise. AU - Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.. AU - Stewart, Cheryl. AU - Hammer, John. AU - Greenberg, Kenneth S.. AU - Widick, Barbara. AU - Franklin, Rosa. AU - Yangco, Bienvenido G.. AU - Chagaris, Kalliope. AU - Ward, Doug. AU - Thomas, Troy. AU - Avery, Patricia. AU - Fuhrer, Jack. AU - Ording-Bauer, Linda. AU - Kelly, Rita. AU - Esteves, Jane. AU - Tedaldi, Ellen M.. AU - Christian, Ramona A.. AU - Ruley, Faye. AU - Beadle, Dania. AU - Graham, Princess. AU - Novak, Richard M.. AU - Wendrow, Andrea. AU - Smith, ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish one universal immunoassay for universal influenza vaccine(s) because the approaches towards these vaccines ...
Hannah Blake. pharmaphorum. A new seasonal influenza vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. Developed by Protein Sciences Corp, Flubok is the first trivalent influenza vaccine made using an insect virus (baculovirus) expression system and recombinant DNA technology. Flublok is approved for the prevention of seasonal influenza in people 18 through 49 years of age.. Unlike current flu vaccines, Flublok does not use the influenza virus or eggs in its production. Flubloks novel manufacturing technology allows for production of large quantities of the influenza virus protein, hemagglutinin (HA) - the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that is essential for entry of the virus into cells in the body. The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA.. While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it has already been used to make vaccines to prevent other infectious diseases. These ...
The influenza A virus was isolated for the first time in 1931, and the first attempts to develop a vaccine against the virus began soon afterwards. In addition to causing seasonal epidemics, influenza viruses can cause pandemics at random intervals, which are very hard to predict. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing the spread of influenza infection. However, seasonal vaccination is ineffective against pandemic influenza viruses because of antigenic differences, and it takes approximately six months from isolation of a new virus to develop an effective vaccine. One of the possible ways to fight the emergence of pandemics may be by using a new type of vaccine, with a long and broad spectrum of action. The extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus is a conservative region, and an attractive target for a universal influenza vaccine. This review gives a historical overview of the study of M2 protein, and summarizes the latest developments in the preparation of M2e
Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of
Annual influenza vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention at both the individual and community level.26 Past concerns about an increase in HIV viral load following influenza vaccination have not been substantiated, particularly in individuals on ART.13,27-31 Currently in the United States, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is recommended for patients with HIV according to the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines. Studies examining the immune response of children and adolescents with HIV on ART to inactivated influenza vaccination have generally shown immune responses comparable to those seen in individuals without HIV.32 Children with HIV-related immunologic impairment or with symptomatic HIV demonstrate decreased immune responses to influenza vaccination (see Recommendation Table). High-dose IIV was recently studied in a small cohort of children and young adults with HIV, though it was not significantly more immunogenic in these patients than ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The most serious side effect that can occur after influenza vaccination is an allergic reaction in people who have a severe allergy to eggs. For this reason, children who have an allergy to eggs should not receive the influenza vaccine. According to the National Center for Infectious Diseases, part of the CDC, the influenza vaccine causes no side effects in most children who are not allergic to eggs.. Less than one-third of people who receive the vaccine experience some soreness at the vaccination site, and about 5 to 10 percent experience mild side effects, such as a headache or a low-grade fever for about a day after vaccination. Because these mild side effects mimic some influenza symptoms, some people believe influenza vaccine causes them to get influenza. However, according to the CDC, influenza vaccine produced in the United States has never been capable of causing influenza because the only type of influenza vaccine that has been licensed in the United States to the present time is made ...
Local disease burden data are necessary to set national influenza vaccination policy. In 2010 the population of South Africa was 50 million and the HIV prevalence was 11%. We used a previously developed methodology to determine severe influenza burden in South Africa. Hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) incidence was calculated, stratified by HIV status, for four age groups using data from population-based surveillance in one site situated in Gauteng Province for 2009-2011. These rates were adjusted for each of the remaining 8 provinces based on their prevalence of risk factors for pneumonia and healthcare- seeking behavior. We estimated non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI from healthcare utilization surveys at two sites and used the percent of SARI cases positive for influenza from sentinel surveillance to derive the influenza-associated SARI rate. We applied rates of hospitalized and non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI to census data to calculate the national ...
Excerpt] A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population, begins to cause serious illness and then spreads easily person-to- person worldwide. A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemics impact. Companies that provide critical infrastructure services, such as power and telecommunications, also have a special responsibility to plan for continued operation in a crisis and should plan accordingly. As with any catastrophe, having a contingency plan is essential. In the event of an influenza pandemic, employers will play a key role in protecting employees health and safety as well as in limiting the impact on the economy and society. Employers will ...