Fluhunter: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1(Determination of virulence potential;PCR-typing of the pathogenicity) , FR304 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
Cause of high lethality and dissemination to human being, new development of rapid method for the detection of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is still necessary. For the detection of AIV subtype H5N1, typical pathogenic AIV, new method to confirm sub-typing of this virus is also needed. For the purpose of ultra-rapid detection and sub-typing of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of AIV, this study was planned. As the results we could demonstrate an ultra-rapid multiplex real-time PCR (URMRT PCR) for the detection of AIV In this study, the URMRT PCR were optimized with synthesized AIV H5- and AIV Nl-specific DNA templates and GenSpector TMC, which is a semiconductor process technology based real-time PCR system with high frequencies of temperature monitoring. Under eight minutes, the amplifications of two AIV subtype-specific PCR products were successfully and independently detected by 30 cycled ultra-rapid PCR, including melting point analysis, from |TEX|$1{\times}10^3$|/TEX| copies of
We performed a retrospective case-series study of patients with influenza A (H5N1) admitted to the National Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam, from January 2004 through July 2005 with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, a history of high-risk exposure or chest radiographic findings such as pneumonia, and positive findings for A/H5 viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. We investigated data from 29 patients (mean age 35.1 years) of whom 7 (24.1%) had died. Mortality rates were 20% (5/25) and 50% (2/4) among patients treated with or without oseltamivir (p = 0.24), respectively, and were 33.3% (5/15) and 14.2% (2/14) among patients treated with and without methylprednisolone (p = 0.39), respectively. After exact logistic regression analysis was adjusted for variation in severity, no significant effectiveness for survival was observed among patients treated with oseltamivir or methylprednisolone ...
Polybasic cleavage sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are considered to be the most important determinants indicating virulence of the avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, evidence is accumulating that these sites alone are not sufficient to establish high pathogenicity. There need to exist other sites located on the HA protein outside the cleavage site or on the other proteins expressed by AIV that contribute to the pathogenicity. We employed rule-based computational modeling to construct a map, with high statistical significance, of amino acid (AA) residues associated to pathogenicity in 11 proteins of the H5 type viruses. We found potential markers of pathogenicity in all of the 11 proteins expressed by the H5 type of AIV. AA mutations S-43HA1-D, D-83HA1-A in HA; S-269-D, E-41-H in NA; S-48-N, K-212-N in NS1; V-166-A in M1; G-14-E in M2; K-77-R, S-377-N in NP; and Q-48-P in PB1-F2 were identified as having a potential to shift the pathogenicity from low to high. Our results suggest that the
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt am Main), the Robert-Koch-Institute, Division for HIV ...
In December, the United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5 avian influenza in Whatcom County, Washington, in Winston, Oregon and in Butte County, California. This week, as a result of increased surveillance in the Pacific flyway, USDA has confirmed the presence of HPAI in a backyard flock in Benton County, Washington. On December 30, a backyard flock in Benton County, Washington, was reported to the State as experiencing high mortality in approximately 100 turkeys and some chickens. The flock was kept outdoors. Samples tested positive for H5 on a PCR test at the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, a NAHLN laboratory, on December 31; samples were sent January 2 to NVSL for confirmatory testing. On January 3, the National Veterinary Services Laboratories identified an avian influenza virus subtype H5N2, with 99% similarity to the recent H5N2 isolated from the duck at Wiser Lake, ...
Aartjan te Velthuis Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford.Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews.The Influenza A virus is an infectious agent that usually causes a mild respiratory disease and induces innate immune responses through the activation of RNA sensor RIG-I. However, infections with highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the H5N1 subtypes or the 1918 H1N1 virus, can lead to an innate immune dysregulation and severe disease. The genome of the virus is replicated and transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the context of viral RNA-nucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that consists of a central core composed of the viral proteins PB1, PB2 and PA, and at least three auxiliary domains involved in viral transcription. Various mutations in the RNA polymerase have been linked to host adaptation and viral virulence, but it is presently unclear what
Aartjan te Velthuis Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford.Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews.The Influenza A virus is an infectious agent that usually causes a mild respiratory disease and induces innate immune responses through the activation of RNA sensor RIG-I. However, infections with highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the H5N1 subtypes or the 1918 H1N1 virus, can lead to an innate immune dysregulation and severe disease. The genome of the virus is replicated and transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the context of viral RNA-nucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that consists of a central core composed of the viral proteins PB1, PB2 and PA, and at least three auxiliary domains involved in viral transcription. Various mutations in the RNA polymerase have been linked to host adaptation and viral virulence, but it is presently unclear what
Recent advances in sequencing technology and computing power mean that we are in an unprecedented position to analyse large viral sequence datasets using state-of-the-art methods, with the aim of better understanding pathogen evolution and epidemiology. This thesis concerns the evolutionary analysis of rapidly evolving RNA viruses, with a focus on avian influenza and the use of Bayesian methodologies which account for uncertainty in the evolutionary process. As avian influenza viruses present an epidemiological and economic threat on a global scale, knowledge of how they are circulating and evolving is of substantial public health importance. In the first part of this thesis I consider avian influenza viruses of haemagglutinin (HA) subtype H7 which, along with H5, is the only subtype for which highly pathogenic influenza has been found. I conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of available H7 HA sequences to reveal global evolutionary relationships, which can help to target influenza ...
By Stephen LeahySep 2 2020 (IPS-Partners) Having reported on SARS, Ebola, Bird Flu (H5N1) outbreaks, as well as writing about efforts to combat HIV, I was horrified by what was going on in Wuhan, China last Jan mainly because of how fast this new SARS-CoV-2 virus spread. By early Feb it seemed likely thered be a global pandemic and by the end of Feb I started to freak out as the pandemic took hold. Ive never been to Wuhan or China nor seen anyone who had; and I hadnt travelled any where recently. It was nearly impossible for me to have encountered the virus but that didnt keep me from getting si ...
Information received on 19/01/2021 from Dr Loic Evain, Directeur Général adjoint, CVO, Direction générale de l´alimentation, Ministère de l´Agriculture et de l´Alimentation, Paris, France ...
Influenza A virus is a collective name for a large number of different viruses that can infect birds and mammals. Humans are susceptible to a small subset of influenza A viruses; seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses cause yearly epidemics and are associated with mild disease in healthy adults, while highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, like H5N1, induce severe disease and mortality in 60% of the reported cases. Pathogenesis or the ability to cause severe disease is the result of a complex interplay between the virus and the infected host. We are interested in understanding the mechanisms and determinants involved in pathogenesis. One program in the laboratory focuses on the role of viral proteins in mediating severe disease. Reverse genetics technology is used to create chimera influenza A viruses containing gene segments of two parent viruses with low and high pathogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo characterization of these novel chimera viruses will identify the influenza genes responsible for ...
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Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified annexin A2 (ANXA2) as a target molecule interacting with NS1. Results from confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that NS1 co-localized with ANXA2 in the cell cytoplasm. Overexpression of ANXA2 significantly increased the titer of H5N1 subtype HPAIV, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ANXA2 markedly inhibited the expression of viral proteins and reduced the progeny virus titer. Our results indicate that ANXA2 interacts with NS1
Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis ...
One of United States top virologists has warned the health authorities to prepare themselves for a possible mutation of the H7N9 bird flu virus.
Humans infected with bird flu appear to have more of the virus in their throat and nose than people with standard human influenza strains a conference is due to hear today
Scientists in the Dutch city of Rotterdam know precisely what it takes for a bird flu to mutate into a potential human pandemic strain - because theyve created just such mutant viruses.
Dutch scientists who created probably one of the most dangerous viruses you can make have agreed to leave out details on how to construct the virus from published reports.
This page shows the record Loud And Nasty from the label Hardcore Intuitive Virus with its producers a description and mp3 including its country of origin. Listen to the record.
On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, ... read more some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2.3.4.4 group A from 2014 into four key waterbird species-Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and common pochard (Aythya ferina)-and compared virus excretion and disease severity with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Our results showed that excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was ...
Objective To discuss the imaging features of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2.Methods A descriptive study was carried out on a case of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2 in Meizhou,Guangdong Province,on June 18,2016.Results The patient was a child with cough,and white phlegm was detected followed by yellow sticky sputum,accompanying with fever.Imaging features included exudative patchy ground glass opacity,and pulmonary fibrosis was visible during the recovery period.The patient was discharged from hospital after antiviral and symptomatic treatments.Conclusion For pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2,except for the symptoms of influenza,exudative focus was present in bilateral lung CT images.Clinicians should consider the possibility of viral infection in children who had contact history with poultry and got fever and pulmonary infection.Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are important to improve the prognosis.
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Coopers hawk but not from waterfowl....
Free Online Library: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses.(RESEARCH) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Avian influenza Development and progression Encephalitis
Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.
NIAID CEIRS , Research Publication Commentary Smith, J. et al. A comparative analysis of host responses to avian influenza infection in ducks and chickens highlights a role for the interferon-induced transmembrane proteins in viral resistance. BMC Genomics (2015).. The recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 outbreak continues to have significant economic impacts on the international and domestic poultry industries and presents a potential public health concern. Avian influenza infects numerous avian hosts, including chickens and ducks. Reducing the spread of avian influenza requires an understanding of how the virus interacts with its avian hosts. However, it remains unclear why some species are more susceptible than others to certain strains of influenza. For instance, although ducks are infected they show minimal signs of disease to most HPAI viruses, while chickens are highly susceptible and quickly succumb to HPAI infections. Determining which genes are activated in chickens and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Limited detection of antibodies to clade 2.3.4.4 a/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage highly pathogenic h5 avian influenza virus in North American waterfowl. AU - Stallknecht, David E.. AU - Kienzle-Dean, Clara. AU - Davis-Fields, Nick. AU - Jennelle, Christopher S.. AU - Bowman, Andrew S.. AU - Nolting, Jacqueline M.. AU - Boyce, Walter M.. AU - Crum, James M.. AU - Santos, Jefferson J.S.. AU - Brown, Justin D.. AU - Prosser, Diann J.. AU - De La Cruz, Susan E.W.. AU - Ackerman, Joshua T.. AU - Casazza, Michael L.. AU - Krauss, Scott. AU - Perez, Daniel R.. AU - Ramey, Andrew M.. AU - Poulson, Rebecca L.. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - During 2014, highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) of the A/Goose/ Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGD-HP-H5), originating from Asia, were detected in domestic poultry and wild birds in Canada and the US. These clade 2.3.4.4 GsGD-HP-H5 viruses included reassortants possessing North American lineage gene segments; were detected in wild birds in ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Mexico Information received on 09/04/2015 from Dr Joaqu n Braulio Delgadillo lvarez, Director General de Salud Animal, Servicio
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Austria Information received on 06/04/2017 from Mr Dr Ulrich Herzog, Chief Veterinary Officer, Verbrauchergesundheit,
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of antibody response of turkeys to trivalent avian influenza vaccine by positively charged liposomal avridine adjuvant. AU - Fatunmbi, Olufemi O.. AU - Newman, John A.. AU - Sivanandan, V.. AU - Halvorson, David A. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Trivalent avian influenza (AIV) antigens (H4N8, H5N2 and H7N3), mixed with positively charged, negatively charged and neutral avridine-containing liposomes, and oil-emulsion were subcutaneously administered to 6-week-old turkeys. Charged liposomal avridine adjuvant, either positive or negative, produced a better antibody response than uncharged liposomal avridine or oil-emulsion adjuvants when used in a trivalent avian influenza vaccine. The antibody response to the different antigens was generally greater to the positively charged adjuvanted vaccine compared with the negatively or neutral charged or oil-emulsion adjuvanted vaccines and these differences were significant (p , 0.05) with the three antigens. The results suggest that ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
Genetic variation on internal protein matric (M1) and non structural protein (NS1) of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Samples from Changhua County, Yunlin County and Pingtung County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farms have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months. Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in two abattoirs in Taipei City and Pingtung County. Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis. H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI. The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir. After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within 48 hours for positive cases. The ...
The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required. of a 1/10 dilution of bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid [18] is deemed a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The primary subtypes of ...
Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was due to mutation of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 strain, which caused outbreaks in Italy between 1999 and 2000, and resulted in complete mortality of infected poultry. This outbreak places increased importance on the early detection of H7N1 AIV. Here we describe the development of a detection method for H7N1 virus from infected chickens using a specific antigen-capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA). A panel of mAbs was developed against the surface antigen HA of H7N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Singapore/94. The mAbs were screened by immunoflouorescence assays, ELISA and immunoblotting. Selected mAbs 5E5 and 8F10 were of isotypes IgM and IgG and were conformation- or linear epitope-specific, respectively. These mAbs were used as capture antibodies for AC-ELISA development. The detection limit was as little as 102-103 TCID50 units of virus derived from tissue culture supernatants. Virus from the tracheal swab samples of experimentally infected chickens ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. ...
National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats. The virus isolation was performed by inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and AIV isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay. For subtying of AIV, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were confirmed by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 subtypes was performed using 28 H5 AIV isolates. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 819 AIV were isolated from 141,560 samples. Virus isolation rates for AIV were 0.6, 0.4, 0.1, and 2.7% in wild birds (n = 202),
...Genetic analyses of avian influenza in wild birds can help pinpoint li...Persistence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) ...The new work by USGS has nationwide importance because it offers a met...In the study USGS scientists conducted the first-ever survey of avian...,New,research,findings,can,improve,avian,flu,surveillance,programs,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Hatta, M.; Kawaoka, Y., 2005: A clue to the molecular mechanism of virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in 2004
What is the meaning of H5N1 virus? How is H5N1 spread? Is Influenza A the same as bird flu? Bird flu known as Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. How does the bird flu spread? Who first discovered ...
To assess the impact of different routes of inoculation on experimental infection of avian influenza (AI) viruses in chickens, this study compared virus replication and cytokine gene expression in respiratory and gastrointestinal organ tissues of chickens, which were inoculated with four low pathogenic subtypes, H6N1, H10N7, H10N8, and H13N6 AI viruses via the aerosol, intranasal, and oral routes respectively. Aerosol inoculation with the H6N1, H10N7, and H10N8 viruses significantly increased viral titres and upregulated the interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β genes in the trachea and lung tissues compared to intranasal or oral inoculation. Furthermore, one or two out of six chickens died following exposure to aerosolized H6N1 or H10N8 virus respectively. The H13N6 virus reached the lung via aerosol inoculation although failed to establish infection. Collectively, chickens were more susceptible to aerosolized AI viruses compared to intranasal or oral inoculation, and virus ...
BIRD FLU Common Name Avian Influenza, influenza Virus A Flu. type AFlu, Genus A Flu (Eng.) Overview Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. Most cases of avian influenza in-fection in...
TOKYO: Japans western Kagawa prefecture has begun a cull of 91,000 chickens after the discovery of a highly contagious form of bird flu on a farm, the local government said.. The confirmation of the outbreak, which was reported earlier in the week, marked the countrys first cases of bird flu in poultry this winter.. The local government and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries said late Thursday that chickens at a farm in the area of Sanuki city in Kagawa had been confirmed testing positive for a highly pathogenic avian influenza.. Japans last outbreak of bird flu occurred in March. Between November 2016 and March 2017, a total of 1.67 million chickens were culled due to the H5N6 strain of bird flu, according to the ministry.. (Reporting by Osamu Tsukimori; editing by Richard Pullin) ...
BACKGROUND: The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006
Newsroom America) -- The avian H7N9 influenza virus that emerged earlier this year in China is poorly adapted for sustained transmission between humans, suggesting that the current form of the virus is unlikely to cause a pandemic, according to a new study led by Ian A. Wilson, Ph.D., and James C. Paulson, Ph.D., of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI). The study, published yesterday in Science, was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and other organizations.. As of November 6, 139 confirmed human cases of avian H7N9 influenza, including 45 deaths, have been reported by the World Health Organization. Most of these cases have been linked to exposure to infected poultry, but in some cases, limited human-to-human transmission may have occurred. In this study, the TSRI scientists examined the three-dimensional structures of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein on the surface of the virus and its interaction with the ...
Van Dam State Secretary for Economic Affairs just before the Netherlands set a ophok- and guard duty for all companies that keep birds intended for the production of meat, eggs or other products and for the release into the wild. This measure is taken as a precaution after it was found in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Switzerland in wild birds, highly pathogenic avian influenza of the type of Influenza A virus subtype H5N8. Also in the Netherlands are dead wildfowl found with suspected highly pathogenic avian influenza. The animals are further examined at this time. ...
Citation: Szretter, K.J., Gangappa, S., Zeng, H., Chen, H., Matsuoka, Y., Sambhara, S., Tumpey, T.M., Swayne, D.E., Katz, J.M. 2009. Early control of H5N1 influenza virus replication by the Type I interferon response in mice. Journal of Virology. 83(11):5825-5834. Interpretive Summary: H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) has caused infection in humans. This study examined the role of interferon, a naturally produced antiviral substance in animals, in preventing severe disease in a mouse model for human infection. When infected with the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, mice that could not produce interferon lost weight, had multiple organs with lesions, and had more rapid time-to-death compared to mice that produced interferon. This suggests that correct interferon response in animals will reduce the severity of disease from H5N1 HPAI virus infections. Technical Abstract: Widespread distribution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in domesticated ...
The reported signs and symptoms of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A virus infections in humans range from conjunctivitis to influenza-like illness (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to lower respiratory disease (pneumonia) requiring hospitalization.. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus infections in people have been associated with a wide range of illness from conjunctivitis only, to influenza-like illness, to severe respiratory illness (e.g. shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, respiratory failure) with multi-organ disease, sometimes accompanied by nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and sometimes neurologic changes (altered mental status, seizures).. ...