Fluhunter: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1(Determination of virulence potential;PCR-typing of the pathogenicity) , FR304 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
We performed a retrospective case-series study of patients with influenza A (H5N1) admitted to the National Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam, from January 2004 through July 2005 with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, a history of high-risk exposure or chest radiographic findings such as pneumonia, and positive findings for A/H5 viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. We investigated data from 29 patients (mean age 35.1 years) of whom 7 (24.1%) had died. Mortality rates were 20% (5/25) and 50% (2/4) among patients treated with or without oseltamivir (p = 0.24), respectively, and were 33.3% (5/15) and 14.2% (2/14) among patients treated with and without methylprednisolone (p = 0.39), respectively. After exact logistic regression analysis was adjusted for variation in severity, no significant effectiveness for survival was observed among patients treated with oseltamivir or methylprednisolone ...
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt am Main), the Robert-Koch-Institute, Division for HIV ...
In December, the United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5 avian influenza in Whatcom County, Washington, in Winston, Oregon and in Butte County, California. This week, as a result of increased surveillance in the Pacific flyway, USDA has confirmed the presence of HPAI in a backyard flock in Benton County, Washington. On December 30, a backyard flock in Benton County, Washington, was reported to the State as experiencing high mortality in approximately 100 turkeys and some chickens. The flock was kept outdoors. Samples tested positive for H5 on a PCR test at the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, a NAHLN laboratory, on December 31; samples were sent January 2 to NVSL for confirmatory testing. On January 3, the National Veterinary Services Laboratories identified an avian influenza virus subtype H5N2, with 99% similarity to the recent H5N2 isolated from the duck at Wiser Lake, ...
Recent advances in sequencing technology and computing power mean that we are in an unprecedented position to analyse large viral sequence datasets using state-of-the-art methods, with the aim of better understanding pathogen evolution and epidemiology. This thesis concerns the evolutionary analysis of rapidly evolving RNA viruses, with a focus on avian influenza and the use of Bayesian methodologies which account for uncertainty in the evolutionary process. As avian influenza viruses present an epidemiological and economic threat on a global scale, knowledge of how they are circulating and evolving is of substantial public health importance. In the first part of this thesis I consider avian influenza viruses of haemagglutinin (HA) subtype H7 which, along with H5, is the only subtype for which highly pathogenic influenza has been found. I conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of available H7 HA sequences to reveal global evolutionary relationships, which can help to target influenza ...
Influenza A virus is a collective name for a large number of different viruses that can infect birds and mammals. Humans are susceptible to a small subset of influenza A viruses; seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses cause yearly epidemics and are associated with mild disease in healthy adults, while highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, like H5N1, induce severe disease and mortality in 60% of the reported cases. Pathogenesis or the ability to cause severe disease is the result of a complex interplay between the virus and the infected host. We are interested in understanding the mechanisms and determinants involved in pathogenesis. One program in the laboratory focuses on the role of viral proteins in mediating severe disease. Reverse genetics technology is used to create chimera influenza A viruses containing gene segments of two parent viruses with low and high pathogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo characterization of these novel chimera viruses will identify the influenza genes responsible for ...
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Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified annexin A2 (ANXA2) as a target molecule interacting with NS1. Results from confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that NS1 co-localized with ANXA2 in the cell cytoplasm. Overexpression of ANXA2 significantly increased the titer of H5N1 subtype HPAIV, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ANXA2 markedly inhibited the expression of viral proteins and reduced the progeny virus titer. Our results indicate that ANXA2 interacts with NS1
Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis ...
One of United States top virologists has warned the health authorities to prepare themselves for a possible mutation of the H7N9 bird flu virus.
Humans infected with bird flu appear to have more of the virus in their throat and nose than people with standard human influenza strains a conference is due to hear today
Scientists in the Dutch city of Rotterdam know precisely what it takes for a bird flu to mutate into a potential human pandemic strain - because theyve created just such mutant viruses.
Dutch scientists who created probably one of the most dangerous viruses you can make have agreed to leave out details on how to construct the virus from published reports.
This page shows the record Loud And Nasty from the label Hardcore Intuitive Virus with its producers a description and mp3 including its country of origin. Listen to the record.
On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree ...
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Coopers hawk but not from waterfowl....
Free Online Library: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses.(RESEARCH) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Avian influenza Development and progression Encephalitis
Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Austria Information received on 06/04/2017 from Mr Dr Ulrich Herzog, Chief Veterinary Officer, Verbrauchergesundheit,
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Vietnam Information received on 20/05/2019 from Dr Dong Pham Van, Director General, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
Genetic variation on internal protein matric (M1) and non structural protein (NS1) of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Samples from Changhua County, Yunlin County and Pingtung County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farms have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months. Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in two abattoirs in Taipei City and Pingtung County. Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis. H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI. The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir. After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.
Samples from Yunlin County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farm has been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farm have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farm are under intensified surveillance for three months ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within 48 hours for positive cases. The ...
The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required. of a 1/10 dilution of bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid [18] is deemed a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The primary subtypes of ...
Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was due to mutation of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 strain, which caused outbreaks in Italy between 1999 and 2000, and resulted in complete mortality of infected poultry. This outbreak places increased importance on the early detection of H7N1 AIV. Here we describe the development of a detection method for H7N1 virus from infected chickens using a specific antigen-capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA). A panel of mAbs was developed against the surface antigen HA of H7N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Singapore/94. The mAbs were screened by immunoflouorescence assays, ELISA and immunoblotting. Selected mAbs 5E5 and 8F10 were of isotypes IgM and IgG and were conformation- or linear epitope-specific, respectively. These mAbs were used as capture antibodies for AC-ELISA development. The detection limit was as little as 102-103 TCID50 units of virus derived from tissue culture supernatants. Virus from the tracheal swab samples of experimentally infected chickens ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. ...
...Genetic analyses of avian influenza in wild birds can help pinpoint li...Persistence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) ...The new work by USGS has nationwide importance because it offers a met...In the study USGS scientists conducted the first-ever survey of avian...,New,research,findings,can,improve,avian,flu,surveillance,programs,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Hatta, M.; Kawaoka, Y., 2005: A clue to the molecular mechanism of virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in 2004
What is the meaning of H5N1 virus? How is H5N1 spread? Is Influenza A the same as bird flu? Bird flu known as Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. How does the bird flu spread? Who first discovered ...
BIRD FLU Common Name Avian Influenza, influenza Virus A Flu. type AFlu, Genus A Flu (Eng.) Overview Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. Most cases of avian influenza in-fection in...
TOKYO: Japans western Kagawa prefecture has begun a cull of 91,000 chickens after the discovery of a highly contagious form of bird flu on a farm, the local government said.. The confirmation of the outbreak, which was reported earlier in the week, marked the countrys first cases of bird flu in poultry this winter.. The local government and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries said late Thursday that chickens at a farm in the area of Sanuki city in Kagawa had been confirmed testing positive for a highly pathogenic avian influenza.. Japans last outbreak of bird flu occurred in March. Between November 2016 and March 2017, a total of 1.67 million chickens were culled due to the H5N6 strain of bird flu, according to the ministry.. (Reporting by Osamu Tsukimori; editing by Richard Pullin) ...
Newsroom America) -- The avian H7N9 influenza virus that emerged earlier this year in China is poorly adapted for sustained transmission between humans, suggesting that the current form of the virus is unlikely to cause a pandemic, according to a new study led by Ian A. Wilson, Ph.D., and James C. Paulson, Ph.D., of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI). The study, published yesterday in Science, was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and other organizations.. As of November 6, 139 confirmed human cases of avian H7N9 influenza, including 45 deaths, have been reported by the World Health Organization. Most of these cases have been linked to exposure to infected poultry, but in some cases, limited human-to-human transmission may have occurred. In this study, the TSRI scientists examined the three-dimensional structures of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein on the surface of the virus and its interaction with the ...
Van Dam State Secretary for Economic Affairs just before the Netherlands set a ophok- and guard duty for all companies that keep birds intended for the production of meat, eggs or other products and for the release into the wild. This measure is taken as a precaution after it was found in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Switzerland in wild birds, highly pathogenic avian influenza of the type of Influenza A virus subtype H5N8. Also in the Netherlands are dead wildfowl found with suspected highly pathogenic avian influenza. The animals are further examined at this time. ...
Citation: Szretter, K.J., Gangappa, S., Zeng, H., Chen, H., Matsuoka, Y., Sambhara, S., Tumpey, T.M., Swayne, D.E., Katz, J.M. 2009. Early control of H5N1 influenza virus replication by the Type I interferon response in mice. Journal of Virology. 83(11):5825-5834. Interpretive Summary: H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) has caused infection in humans. This study examined the role of interferon, a naturally produced antiviral substance in animals, in preventing severe disease in a mouse model for human infection. When infected with the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, mice that could not produce interferon lost weight, had multiple organs with lesions, and had more rapid time-to-death compared to mice that produced interferon. This suggests that correct interferon response in animals will reduce the severity of disease from H5N1 HPAI virus infections. Technical Abstract: Widespread distribution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in domesticated ...
The reported signs and symptoms of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A virus infections in humans range from conjunctivitis to influenza-like illness (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to lower respiratory disease (pneumonia) requiring hospitalization.. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus infections in people have been associated with a wide range of illness from conjunctivitis only, to influenza-like illness, to severe respiratory illness (e.g. shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, respiratory failure) with multi-organ disease, sometimes accompanied by nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and sometimes neurologic changes (altered mental status, seizures).. ...
Bird flu (Avian influenza, AI) is an acute contact venereal toxicity infectious disease against the domestic poultry industry at present.
Bird flu (Avian influenza, AI) is an acute contact venereal toxicity infectious disease against the domestic poultry industry at present.
In a group of healthy blood donors, we have shown that the H5 HA of avian influenza virus is recognized in vitro and responses seem to correlate with responses to either the H1 or H3 strain Ags. The basis for the latter responses is thought to be vaccination and environmental exposure over recent decades; responses to H5, in contrast, are puzzling given that little epidemiologic evidence of exposure to H5 avian virus exists in the United States population. The nature of H5 responsiveness is of relevance not only to vaccination efforts (are they likely to be effective?) but also to concerns regarding the likelihood of a major avian influenza pandemic. Our focus has been on CD4, helper T cells because of their central role in promoting both B cell (neutralizing Ab) and CD8 T cell (elimination of infection) responses. Responses to H5 and the most closely phylogenetically related H1 are distinguished solely by a somewhat lower frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells, but IL-2 levels produced in response ...
We investigated influenza A(H5N6) viruses from migratory birds in Chungnam and Gyeonggi Provinces, South Korea following a reported die-off of poultry in nearby provinces in November 2017. Genetic analysis and virulence studies in chickens and ducks identified our isolate from December 2017 as a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. It resulted from reassortment between the highly virulent H5N8 strain from Korea with the N6 gene from a low-pathogenic H3N6 virus from the Netherlands.
Read "Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in cats than in dogs, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
With human resistance to viral infections falling, bird flu preparedness is a necessary aspect of survival training awareness. Avian influenza, also known as bird flu, is a naturally occurring virus..
The fifth wave of the H7N9 influenza epidemic in China was distinguished by a sudden increase in human infections, an extended geographic distribution, and the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Genetically, some H7N9 viruses from the fifth wave have acquired novel amino acid changes at positions involved in mammalian adaptation, antigenicity, and hemagglutinin cleavability. Here, several human low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and HPAI H7N9 virus isolates from the fifth epidemic wave were assessed for their pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammalian models, as well as their ability to replicate in human airway epithelial cells. We found that an LPAI virus exhibited a similar capacity to replicate and cause disease in two animal species as viruses from previous waves. In contrast, HPAI H7N9 viruses possessed enhanced virulence, causing greater lethargy and mortality, with an extended tropism for brain tissues in both ferret and mouse models. These HPAI ...
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute, which receives strategic funding from BBSRC, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Oxford working together as the Jenner Institute, have taken an important step towards a universal vaccine against avian influenza.
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