Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among children have been documented since 1981--1986, when 78% of children with AIDS were black or Hispanic (1). These racial/ethnic disparities have been reflected in rates of perinatal HIV infection. Although the total number of annual perinatal HIV infections in the United States has decreased approximately 90% since 1991 (3) and the findings in this report indicate a continued decrease during 2004--2007, racial/ethnic disparities persist. Of all reported diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection during 2004--2007, 85% were in children who were black or Hispanic, and rates were several-fold higher among black and Hispanic children than among white children. To eliminate perinatal transmission and racial/ethnic disparities, continued measures are needed, including primary HIV prevention for women, reproductive health and family planning for women with HIV infection, and prenatal care and early treatment with antiretroviral medications for ...
PLEASE NOTE: This review should be considered obsolete and outdated. Instead of this review, please refer to the following Cochrane reviews:. Read JS, Newell ML. Efficacy and safety of cesarean delivery for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19, Issue 4.. Wiysonge CS, Shey MS, Sterne JA, Brocklehurst P. Vitamin A supplementation for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19, Issue 4.. Wiysonge CS, Shey MS, Shang JD, Sterne JA, Brocklehurst P. Vaginal disinfection for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19, Issue 4.. Volmink J, Siegfried NL, van der Merwe L, Brocklehurst P. Antiretrovirals for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24, Issue 1.. Horvath T, Madi BC, Iuppa IM, Kennedy GE, Rutherford G, Read JS.. Interventions for preventing late postnatal ...
Early accurate diagnosis is one of the first crucial steps in care for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies upon early diagnosis and results in significant reductions in infant morbidity and mortality. There is little information on evidence-based interventions that specifically target improved attendance of postpartum clinic visits and subsequent infant HIV testing in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs. The investigators propose a randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of text messages sent to women enrolled in PMTCT programs on adherence to postpartum clinic visits and uptake of early infant diagnosis by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study seeks to test the hypotheses that (a) text messages sent to women enrolled in PMTCT will improve their attendance at the postnatal clinic within the first 6-8 weeks after childbirth; and (b) text messages sent to women enrolled in ...
This is the first published systematic review analysing the PMTCT cascade in China. Along with the relatively low and stable HIV prevalence among pregnant women in China (,0.1% since 2002), remarkable reduction of HIV vertical transmission has been achieved through expanding PMTCT interventions following the improved national guidelines and remarkably high government investment.34 ,41 The overall trend of HIV prevalence is consistent with official reports.9 ,42 Transmission rates among mother and infants enrolled in PMTCT have decreased from 31.8% (25.7-38.6%) prior to the roll-out of PMTCT to 12.9% (7.5%-21.4%) in 2003 and 2.3% (1.4%-3.8%) in 2011. However, when including pregnant women who did not attend ANC and hence not enrolled in PMTCT, the vertical transmission rate was 27.1% (17.4%-44.0%) in 2003 and 11.5% (8.0%--15.7%) in 2011, which is slightly higher than 7.4% reported by the 2012 progress report on PMTCT of HIV in China.17 This corresponds to similar findings published from other ...
IBETO, M; GIDDY, J y COX, V. Closing the gaps: Steps towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. South. Afr. j. HIV med. (Online) [online]. 2014, vol.15, n.3, pp.107-109. ISSN 2078-6751. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJHIVMED.1047.. BACKGROUND: With significant reductions in the rate of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in South Africa, each case of failed prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) should be investigated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the cause(s) of MTCT at Khayelitshas Community Health Centre (CHC) in order to identify obstacles to MTCT elimination. METHODS: Routinely collected data were reviewed for all HIV-infected infants identified at Khayelitsha Site B CHC from January 2012 to April 2013. RESULTS: A total of 926/1 158 (80%) of exposed infants had polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, with 15/926 (1.6%) PCR-positive. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) values for the maternal indicators were as follows: maternal age, 27 (23 - 31) years; parity, 2 (1 - 3); gestational age ...
Background Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women through family planning (FP) reduces pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, decreases the number of pediatric HIV infections, and has also proven to be a cost-effective way to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. A key element of a comprehensive HIV prevention agenda, aimed at avoiding unintended pregnancies, is recognizing the attitudes towards FP among HIV-positive women and their spouse or partner. In this study, we analyze FP attitudes among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a PMTCT clinical trial in Western Kenya. Methods and Findings Baseline data were collected on 522 HIV-positive pregnant women using structured questionnaires. Associations between demographic variables and the future intention to use FP were examined using Fishers exact tests and permutation tests. Most participants (87%) indicated that they intended to use FP. However, only 8% indicated condoms as a preferred FP method, and 59% of current
Opinion: International Community Must Keep Fighting to End Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
An emerging field known as implementation science may help reduce the nearly 150,000 instances of mother-to-child HIV transmissions that occur annually ...
Since the implementation of universal vaccination in 1984, the chronic HBV carier rate in our general population reduced from 15-20%, down to , 1% in the post-vaccination population. However, children born to HBeAg positive mothers still may be infected with HBV despite immunization. To further reducing the HBV infection in our people, strategies in reducing infection rate in this high risk group are mandatory. Previous small scale studies using lamivudine treatment in pregnant woman in the third trimester has proved effective in reducing children infection rate. The aims of the present study are to conduct a clinical trial in using Tenofovir (category B) to reduce mother-to-infant transmission, and to monitor the hepaitits B viral status and mother hepatitis occurrence. The clinical trials will screen cases of HBsAg positive pregnant women aged 20 to 40 years at gestational at 20-32 weeks. They will be tested for HBsAg and HBeAg. In whom both markers are positive, HBV viral load will be tested. ...
In 2013, an estimated 1.5 million women living with HIV gave birth, accounting for nearly 20% of all births in sub-Saharan Africa (1). Although mother-to-child transmission rates are decreasing due to improved availability of antiretrovirals (1), there is now a large and rapidly growing cohort of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. These children experience nearly twice the mortality rates compared to matched controls (7). The results of our study show that maternal HIV infection is associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, the HMO content trended toward being different based on maternal HIV status. Specific oligosaccharides appeared to be directly linked with specific bacteria within the infants microbiome. These data suggest that maternal HIV infection disrupts the normal development of the infant microbiome. This relatively immature and dysbiotic microbiome potentially could compromise development of the infants immune system. This may help to ...
Introduction. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most significant route of HIV infection in children. In South Africa, the risk of vertical transmission from HIV-infected mothers to their infants is estimated to be between 19% and 36%, depending on whether or not the child is breastfed (1). The prevalence of infection with HIV among expectant mothers attending public-sector clinics was 27.9% in 2003 (2), and an estimated 75 000 infants would be born infected with HIV-1 in South Africa each year in the absence of programmes to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HIV. International and local experience has shown that the provision of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis and replacement feeding can cause a dramatic reduction in the risk of transmission from mother to infant in resource-constrained settings (3 8).. In 1999, the Department of Health of the Western Cape initiated the first pilot programme for the prevention of mother-to-child ...
National HIV incidence for a given year x [I(x)] equals prevalence [P(x)] times the transmission rate [T(x)]. Or, simply rearranging the terms, T(x) = [I(x)/P(x)]*100 (where T(x) is the number of HIV transmissions per 100 persons living with HIV in a given year). The transmission rate is an underutilized measure of the speed at which the epidemic is spreading. Here, we utilize recently updated information about HIV incidence and prevalence in the U.S. to estimate the national HIV transmission rate for 2006 through 2008, and present a novel method to express the level of uncertainty in these estimates. Transmission rate estimates for 2006 through 2008 are as follows (respectively): 4.39 (4.01 to 4.73); 4.90 (4.49 to 5.28); and 4.06 (3.70 to 4.38). Although there are methodological challenges inherent in making these estimates, they do give some indications that the U.S. HIV transmission rate is at a historically low level ...
Despite expanded programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), HIV-infected infants may not be diagnosed until they are ill. Comparing HIV prevalence and outcomes in infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs to those in hospital settings may improve pediatric HIV diagnosis strategies. HIV-exposed infants |12 months old were recruited from 9 PMTCT sites in public maternal child health (MCH) clinics or from an inpatient setting in Nairobi, Kenya and tested for HIV using HIV DNA assays. A subset of HIV-infected infants |4.5 months of age was enrolled in a research study and followed for 2 years. HIV prevalence, number needed to test, infant age at testing, and turnaround time for tests were compared between PMTCT programs and hospital sites. Among the enrolled cohort, baseline characteristics, survival, and timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were compared between infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs versus hospital. Among 1,923 HIV-exposed infants, HIV prevalence was higher
HIV-positive pregnant women who take a single dose of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine at delivery to prevent vertical HIV transmission later could ...
After starting to receive prenatal care, to take advantage of interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, an HIV-infected pregnant woman must know her HIV status. Thus, she must be offered and must accept HIV testing. In an assessment of prenatal HIV counseling and testing practices in 14 states during 1996 and 1997, more than 70% of women recalled discussing HIV testing during prenatal care, and at least 50% reported being tested for HIV during pregnancy or delivery.54 However, despite national recommendations for universal prenatal HIV counseling and testing, rates varied by state, type of prenatal health care provider, health insurance, and maternal demographic characteristics. Higher rates of testing were reported for black women, younger women, and those who sought care from a public provider, received Medicaid benefits, or had low income while lower rates of testing were reported for white women or those with health insurance who might have been perceived to be at lower risk ...
Mother-to-Child Transmission. One of the most striking success stories of the HIV epidemic is the near elimination of vertical transmission of HIV in the developed world. This remarkable feat has been accomplished through universal HIV testing in pregnancy and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infected mothers. Optimal control of HIV in pregnancy requires knowledge of how pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals (ARVs) and adequate information on the safety of treatment for both mother and child. Raltegravir (RAL) is an effective well tolerated ARV that is guidelines preferred for non-pregnant patients, but currently designated for use only in special circumstances in pregnancy. RAL is classified by the FDA as pregnancy category C because of supernumerary rib formation after high dose exposures in rats. Safety data in human pregnancy is sparse. Therefore, additional studies of the safety and efficacy of RAL in pregnancy are needed. Jeantils et al reported on 31 ...
Downloadable! Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions reduce the cumulative probability of transmission from a HIV positive woman to her child by as much as 40 percentage points. This paper is the first economic analysis of the behavioral effects of PMTCT. I examine fertility responses to the scale-up of PMTCT in Zambia, a country where approximately 15 percent of adults age 15-49 are HIV positive. My results suggest that the local introduction of PMTCT reduced pregnancy rates by up to 20 percent, that the fertility response was greater among women who were more likely to be HIV positive, and that PMTCT substantially increased breastfeeding rates.
ABSTRACT. The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10). Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2), breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13;Department of Health, 2000:3). Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HIV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, ...
BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3.5% in 2010. METHODS: Two surveys were conducted (August 2011-March 2012 and October 2012-May 2013), in 580 health facilities, randomly selected after two-stage probability proportional to size sampling of facilities (the primary sampling unit), to provide valid national and sub-national-(provincial)-level estimates. Data collectors interviewed caregivers of eligible infants, reviewed patient-held ...
In most viral infections, protection through existing vaccines is linked to the presence of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). However, more than 30 years after the identification of AIDS, the design of an immunogen able to induce antibodies that would neutralize the highly diverse HIV-1 variants remains one of the most puzzling challenges of the human microbiology. The role of antibodies in protection against HIV-1 can be studied in a natural situation that is the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) context. Indeed, at least at the end of pregnancy, maternal antibodies of the IgG class are passively transferred to the fetus protecting the neonate from new infections during the first weeks or months of life. During the last few years, strong data, presented in this review, have suggested that some NAbs might confer protection toward neonatal HIV-1 infection. In cases of transmission, it has been shown that the viral population that is transmitted from the mother to the infant is usually
A team from Duke University’s Developing World Healthcare Technologies Lab have discovered a way to extend the lifespan of antiretroviral drugs in order to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing countries.
Brussels, 20 June 2002 New guidelines aimed at reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV are emerging from European research. The guidelines for the treatment of various groups of HIV-positive patients are to be published on 28 June 2002. A comparable set of guidelines for paediatric patients will be published in July 2002. A consortium of 15 research teams from 7 European countries, has worked together to produce the set of guidelines for best practice. Their report highlights that certain precautions and the appropriate use of anti-retroviral therapy during pregnancy, labour and in the neonatal period can reduce the risk of mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT) from 15-20% (without intervention) to less than 2%. Mothers should undergo HIV testing, caesarean section, anti-retroviral therapy, and avoid breast-feeding. Children should undergo anti-retroviral testing after birth. "The definition of HIV treatment guidelines that will limit the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the virus ...
Fact sheets about HIV/AIDS treatment information, the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and HIV treatment side effects. All the fact sheets are written specifically for patients in easy to read language.
Fact sheets about HIV/AIDS treatment information, the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and HIV treatment side effects. All the fact sheets are written specifically for patients in easy to read language.
Missed opportunities along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission services cascade in South Africa: uptake, determinants, and attributable risk (the SAPMTCTE).. Woldesenbet S, Jackson D, Lombard C, Dinh TH, Puren A, Sherman G, Ramokolo V, Doherty T, Mogashoa M, Bhardwaj S, Chopra M, Shaffer N, Pillay Y, Goga A, South African PET. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 6;10(7):e0132425. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132425. eCollection 2015.. Objectives: We examined uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, predictors of missed opportunities, and infant HIV transmission attributable to missed opportunities along the PMTCT cascade across South Africa.. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4-8 week old infants receiving first immunisations in 580 nationally representative public health facilities in 2010. This included maternal interviews and testing infants dried blood spots for HIV. A weighted analysis was performed to assess uptake of antenatal and perinatal ...
The vertical transmission of HBV from mothers to their infants at birth or in early infancy has a significant role in the endemicity of HBV infection. Tenofovir is one of the most potent anti-HBV agents with a high genetic barrier to resistance. The study is to evaluate the efficacy of tenofovir in preventing perinatal HBV transmission, as well as monitoring safety for mothers and infants. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, China) database were systematically reviewed for studies that compared the efficacy and safety of tenofovir with other treatments. Pooled estimates were expressed with weight mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% CIs. Nine studies involving 1046 pregnant patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with other treatments, tenofovir significantly reduced maternal HBV DNA levels (WMD = 2.33 log10 IU/mL, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.64; P | 0.001), infant HBsAg
AbbVie GK, the Japanese subsidiary of AbbVie, Eisai and its subsidiary EA Pharma received the additional approval for a new dosing regimen of Humira Pre-filled Syringe 40mg / 0.8mL for Subcutaneous Injection (adalimumab [recombinant], Humira).. Humira is a fully human, anti-TNF, monoclonal antibody formulation to be used in patients suffering from moderate to severe Crohns disease, and become less responsive to treatment with 40mg every two weeks to double the dose to 80mg every two weeks.. The usual adult dose of Humira used to treat Crohns disease includes an initial dose of 160mg of adalimumab (recombinant) administered subcutaneously (SC) followed by 80mg SC two weeks after the initial dose, and then after four weeks of the initial dose.. ...
A study led by researchers at The Saban Research Institute of Childrens Hospital Los Angeles suggests that maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of their HIV-uninfected infants.
Diagnosis of maternal HIV infection during the prenatal period is critical to applying complete preventative care for MTCT. In Brazil, following the protocol of the Ministry of Health, HIV testing of the mother by ELISA or a rapid test should be carried out in the first trimester and, in the case of a negative first test, should be repeated in the third trimester. If the mother is infected with HIV, she should be counseled about preventative treatments and receive joint monitoring in a basic health unit and in an HIV reference unit (9).. In different regions of the country, failure to attend prenatal care (13,17 ,37), late maternal diagnosis (13,37), and an incomplete ART regimen during pregnancy (13,16,17,37) were highlighted as significant risk factors for MTCT. A retrospective study conducted between 2000 and 2009 in the northeast of the country in the state of Pernambuco demonstrated the importance of prenatal care in the prophylaxis of vertical HIV transmission. Pregnant women who underwent ...
According to a source cited in Wilson 2013, Pg 4, approximately a tenth of all HIV infections circa 2000 were caused by mothers transmitting the virus to their babies, whether in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs arose in many countries to combat this problem. In Zambia, the site of the Wilson study, PMTCT efforts began around 2000, apparently focusing on providing HIV tests and counseling expectant mothers on such matters as breastfeeding. Within a few years, antiretroviral provision entered PMTCT practice in Zambia. "Single-dose nevirapine (NVP) was the main prophylaxis in the early years of the Zambian PMTCT program and zidovudine (ZDV) (also known as azidothymidine (AZT)) and NVP in the later years of the program" (Wilson 2013, Pg 6).. Until recently, the ability of the HIV virus to spread through breastfeeding created an excruciating choice for PMTCT programs: discourage breastfeeding in order to reduce infection ...
Abbreviated regimens for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission have been studied extensively. Certain regimens have included a postexposure component (antiretroviral medications given to the neonate). Although reduction in maternal viral load during late pregnancy, labor, and delivery seems to be a major factor in the effectiveness of these regimens, an additional effect is believed to occur because the neonate receives prophylaxis, which protects against infection from exposure to maternal HIV during labor and delivery (13,14). In a Ugandan perinatal trial, the rate of transmission at 14--16 weeks postpartum was substantially lower for women who received a single dose of nevirapine at the beginning of labor followed by a single dose of nevirapine to the neonate within 72 hours of birth (transmission rate: 13.1%) than for the women who received intrapartum zidovudine followed by 1 week of zidovudine to the neonate (transmission rate: 25.1%) (15). Similarly low transmission rates were noted ...
In the lead-off talk of a symposium on maternal fetal transmission, the CDCs Mary Glen Fowler gave a comprehensive overview of the progress and ...
The purpose of this issue of Spotlight is to provide decision makers, program managers, and health workers with guidance on how to support HIV-positive mothers who choose to breastfeed so that they can minimize the risk of transmission and protect their own health and the health of their infant. For many HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings, breastfeeding is the only or the safest infant feeding strategy available.
The purpose of this issue of Spotlight is to provide decision makers, program managers, and health workers with guidance on how to support HIV-positive mothers who choose to breastfeed so that they can minimize the risk of transmission and protect their own health and the health of their infant. For many HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings, breastfeeding is the only or the safest infant feeding strategy available.
Get detailed information about role of antiretroviral prophylaxis and breast feeding in preventing hiv transmission from mother to child.
The National Center for Training, Support, and Technical Assistance presents this HIV testing and pregnancy toolkit to help organizations reduce perinatal HIV infections in their communities. The kit includes reference guides, fact sheets, brochures and information on topics related to HIV and pregnancy. We hope that you find these resources useful in your work to prevent perinatal HIV transmission.. ...
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For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth, an international clinical trial has found. The ongoing PROMISE (Promoting Maternal-Infant Survival Everywhere) study also has found that one triple-drug regimen […]. ...
During the first 4-6 months of life, infants should be exclusively breastfed. This means that the healthy baby should receive breastmilk and no other fluids, such as water, teas, juice, cereal drinks, animal milk or formula.
Vertical Transmission (Perinatal Transmission)The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. PubMed Health Glossary(Source: NIH - National Library of Medicine)...
Pregnancy in HIV-infected women. Counseling and care--12 years experiences and results.: Although it is possible to reduce mother-to-infant transmission by zid
AIDS has emerged as a significant pediatric disease with the rate of infection in neonates born to HIV-infected mothers reported to be from 20- 50%. The clinical disease that occurs in HIV-infected infants is similar to the adult, although pediatric AIDS has a more rapid clinical course with a higher rate of mortality. About one-third of HIV-infected infants have a rapidly fatal disease course and die within l year; remaining infants develop clinical disease more slowly and survive for more than five years. The timing of vertical transmission, levels or type of maternal antiviral antibodies and, transmission of distinct maternal viral variants have been proposed to explain this bimodal pattern of disease progression, with the more rapid, severe outcome associated with prenatal infection, and due to transmission of highly pathogenic virus strains. HIV-infected children are frequently small-for-gestational-age or growth- restricted, and continue to exhibit poor weight gain and growth throughout ...
Ending paediatric AIDS is now within our reach thanks to the mass scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, the treatment needs for children already living with HIV must to be urgently addressed.. ...
Ending paediatric AIDS is now within our reach thanks to the mass scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, the treatment needs for children already living with HIV must to be urgently addressed.. ...
Chang K.-C; Chang M.-H; Lee C.-N; Chang C.-H; Wu J.-F; Ni Y.-H; Wen W.-H; MING-KWANG SHYU ; Lai M.-W; Chen S.-M; Hu J.-J; Lin H.H; Hsu J.-J; Mu S.-C; Lin Y.-C; Liu C.-J; Chen D.-S; Lin L.-H; Chen H.-L; Hwa H.-L; Su Y.-N; Shih J.-C; Chao K.-H; Hsu H.-Y; Chiu Y.-C; Su T.-H; Lin C.-C; Lin P.-Y; Yang W.-R; Zhao L.-L; Yang C.-K; Chang Y.-K; Chen K.-H; Lin Y.-H; Chen H.-J; Pan H.-S; Lau B.-H; Lee C.-L; Cheng P.-J; Chang Y.-L; Chiueh H.-Y; Wang T.-H; Lo L.-M; Hsieh C.-L; Cheng S.-W; Tsai M.-S; She B.-Q; Koh K.-J; Hung Y.-L; Lin H.-M; Peng F.-S; Wu T.-C; Chen C.-Y; Chen C.-P; Huang J.-P; Yeung C.-Y; Lin C.-J; Chiu W.-T; Wang D.-S; Lin W.-T; Hwang K.-S; Huang C.-F; The Taiwan Study Group for the Prevention of Mother-to-Infant Transmission of HBV (PreMIT study) ...
Chang K.-C; Chang M.-H; Lee C.-N; Chang C.-H; Wu J.-F; Ni Y.-H; Wen W.-H; MING-KWANG SHYU ; Lai M.-W; Chen S.-M; Hu J.-J; Lin H.H; Hsu J.-J; Mu S.-C; Lin Y.-C; Liu C.-J; Chen D.-S; Lin L.-H; Chen H.-L; Hwa H.-L; Su Y.-N; Shih J.-C; Chao K.-H; Hsu H.-Y; Chiu Y.-C; Su T.-H; Lin C.-C; Lin P.-Y; Yang W.-R; Zhao L.-L; Yang C.-K; Chang Y.-K; Chen K.-H; Lin Y.-H; Chen H.-J; Pan H.-S; Lau B.-H; Lee C.-L; Cheng P.-J; Chang Y.-L; Chiueh H.-Y; Wang T.-H; Lo L.-M; Hsieh C.-L; Cheng S.-W; Tsai M.-S; She B.-Q; Koh K.-J; Hung Y.-L; Lin H.-M; Peng F.-S; Wu T.-C; Chen C.-Y; Chen C.-P; Huang J.-P; Yeung C.-Y; Lin C.-J; Chiu W.-T; Wang D.-S; Lin W.-T; Hwang K.-S; Huang C.-F; The Taiwan Study Group for the Prevention of Mother-to-Infant Transmission of HBV (PreMIT study) ...
... - Health Commissioner Cites Requirement to Notify Mothers of Newborn Screening Results, Emphasis on Prenatal HIV Counseling and Testing
· Majority of COVID-19 positive neonates showed mild clinical signs and symptoms with no mortality.. · Most COVID-19 positive neonates require only supportive measures.. · Possibility of viral vertical transmission is very low..
Antiretroviral interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: challenges for health systems, communities and society Policy and Practice ...
Prevention of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from mother to fetus or newborn (vertical transmission) is a major goal in the care of pregnant women infected with HIV. An important advance in this regard was the demonstration that treatment of the mother with zidovudine (ZDV) during pregnancy and labor and of the neonate for the first 6 weeks after birth could reduce the transmission rate from 25% to 8% (1). Continuing research into vertical transmission of HIV suggests that a substantial number of cases occur as the result of fetal exposure to the virus during labor a... ...