Synonyms for central arteries, posteromedial, of posterior cerebral artery in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for central arteries, posteromedial, of posterior cerebral artery. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for central arteries, posteromedial, of posterior cerebral artery?
Looking for central arteries, posteromedial, of posterior cerebral artery? Find out information about central arteries, posteromedial, of posterior cerebral artery. blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart heart, muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a... Explanation of central arteries, posteromedial, of posterior cerebral artery
Our results show that SWI is more sensitive than MRA for detecting a thrombus in acute cardioembolic stroke, and it is especially sensitive for detecting a single thrombus or multiple thrombi in distal intracranial arteries. MRA is useful in evaluating intracranial arteries, but it has a limitation in terms of visualizing abnormalities of distal intracranial arteries because of its insensitivity to slow flow or slow in-plane flow [13]. The SVS has been first reported through a study using T2*-weighted MRI [14]. However, the detection rate of the SVS is inconsistent among previous studies conducted using GRE: the heterogeneous etiologies of the enrolled stroke patients may affect the inconsistent sensitivity of the SVS on GRE [13-15]. The study of Cho et al. showed that the SVS on GRE was detected in 47.4% of 95 patients, especially in 77.5% of 40 patients with cardioembolic stroke [8]. Furthermore, a recent study conducted using SWI in acute posterior cerebral artery infarction showed that ...
1) The extent and severity of visual field loss has been compared in a series of 14 patients with occlusions of the posterior cerebral artery or its branches, all verified angiographically. Atheroma, embolism, and migraine were the commonest types of underlying vascular disease. (2) Occlusion of the main trunk of the artery was associated with severe and permanent field loss usually with some sparing of the central area and, in one case, of some field adjacent to the vertical meridian. It is suggested that this is due to collateral blood flow reaching the margins of the posterior cerebral territory from the adjacent middle cerebral territory via pial anastomoses. (3) Single or multiple occlusions of the main branches of the posterior cerebral artery gave variable amounts of field loss with considerable recovery in some cases. Collateral blood flow from the middle cerebral territory and from other branches of the posterior cerebral artery was demonstrated and the variation may be due to the size ...
A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. The posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from the anterior portion of the basilar artery. Only about 19% of adults retain PCommA ...
Painful contractures develop rapidly in weakened limbs and may impede recovery. Early and frequent performance of range of motion can help to prevent this problem. Weakened patients may fall and suffe... more
Painful contractures develop rapidly in weakened limbs and may impede recovery. Early and frequent performance of range of motion can help to prevent this problem. Weakened patients may fall and suffe... more
Background: A cardiac origin in ischemic stroke is more frequent than previously assumed, but it is not clear which patients benefit from cardiac work-up if obvious cardiac pathology is absent. We hypothesized that thromboembolic stroke with a cardiac source occurs more frequently in the posterior circulation compared with thromboembolic stroke of another etiology. Methods: We performed a multicenter observational study in 3,311 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were enrolled in an ongoing prospective stroke registry of 8 University hospitals between September 2009 and November 2014 in The Netherlands. In this initiative, the so-called Parelsnoer Institute-Cerebrovascular Accident Study Group, clinical data, imaging, and biomaterials of patients with stroke are prospectively and uniformly collected. We compared the proportions of posterior stroke location in patients with a cardiac stroke source with those with another stroke etiology and calculated risk ratios (RR) with ...
67 Bilateral infarction in the posterior cerebral artery ofr bution is the most common etiology and is often due to ver- tebrobasilar ischemia. 27.
This is a colour enhanced collapsed view from a normal MRA of the brain. You are visualizing normal anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. The faint structures are the orbits (with the eyes) and the skin of the scalp around the surface of the head. - Stock Image P332/0453
We describe two rare cases of alien limb syndrome following right posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. Both patients present with left hemianopia, visual neglect and proprioceptive loss in addition to their alien limb symptoms. Lesion subtraction from seven control PCA patients revealed that medial parietal-occipital and thalamic areas were selectively damaged in the alien limb patients. We propose that loss of the sense of motor intention and internal model of the current state of the arm, combined with deficient proprioceptive and visual feedback of the moving limb, are critical for genesis of posterior alien limb and discuss how affected regions normally function to ensure awareness of self-generated motor activity.
Occipital lobe infarcts are traditionally attributed to vertebrobasilar disease. However, anatomical studies indicate that in some people the supply of the posterior cerebral artery is via the carotid system. Jongen et al., retrospectively studied 212 conventional four-vessel cerebral angiograms. Eighteen subjects were excluded beforehand, because of vascular abnormalities causing important hemodynamic changes. They determined whether a fetal variant was present, and in other cases whether there was a functioning posterior communicating artery. In 11 % of hemispheres the posterior cerebral artery was exclusively supplied by the internal carotid artery; in a further 46 % of hemispheres the internal carotid artery might contribute, via a patent posterior communicating artery. In 75 % of subjects the internal carotid artery contributed in at least one hemisphere to the blood flow of the posterior cerebral artery. The implication of the findings is that an occipital lobe infarct can be caused by ...
A resource for neurologists, neurology residents, medical students on a neurology rotation, and people interested in neurology or neuroscience. Review questions to help you study for the Neurology boards or RITE exam. Helpful PDA medical software.
Background: Fractional flow across an atherosclerotic lesion measured with TOF-MRA signal intensity ratio (SIR) may be used to gauge hemodynamic severity and to predict subsequent stroke. The degree of flow impairment may also be ascertained by quantitative MRA (QMRA). We analyzed performance of these noninvasive imaging parameters to estimate risk of subsequent posterior circulation events in VERiTAS.. Methods: TOF-MRA data and QMRA were simultaneously acquired in VERiTAS. SIR were derived from TOF source images and normalized for analysis with volume flow ratios (VFR) on QMRA at standard anatomical landmarks and across the maximal stenosis. Statistics analyzed the correlation between SIR and VFR, and the ability of each to predict clinical events.. Results: 72 subjects (mean age 65.6±10.3 years, 32 (44%) women) with posterior circulation atherosclerosis were enrolled in VERiTAS. Posterior communicating artery (PCOMM) flow to the posterior circulation was detected in 85% on the right, in 86% ...
Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage ...
1. Bang OY, Lee PH, Heo KG, Joo US, Yoon SR, Kim SY. Specific DWI lesion patterns predict prognosis after acute ischaemic stroke within the MCA territory. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005. 76: 1222-8. 2. Berrouschot J, Sterker M, Bettin S, Köster J, Schneider D. Mortality of space-occupying ("malignant") middle cerebral artery infarction under conservative intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 1998. 24: 620-3. 3. Carter BS, Ogilvy CS, Candia GJ, Rosas HD, Buonanno F. One-year outcome after decompressive surgery for massive nondominant hemispheric infarction. Neurosurgery. 1997. 40: 1168-75. 4. Cho DY, Chen TC, Lee HC. Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Surg Neurol. 2003. 60: 227-32. 5. Clarke DJ, Forster A. Improving post-stroke recovery: The role of the multidisciplinary health care team. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2015. 8: 433-42. 6. Demchuk AM, Wein TH, Felberg RA, Christou I, Alexandrov AV. Evolution of rapid middle cerebral artery ...
We failed to find in the literature any report of fenestration-associated aneurysm in a child. In one series of 37 patients (3), which was mostly concerned with fenestrations and their possible association with aneurysms, the youngest patient was 18 years old. To our knowledge, this not only is the first report of a ruptured saccular aneurysm associated with a fenestrated posterior cerebral artery but also the first report of such an aneurysm in the pediatric population.. Fenestrations of the cerebral arteries are rare, and a significant discrepancy exists between their reported angiographic incidence of 0.03-1%) (1-3) and their postmortem incidence of 1.3-5.3%(4, 5). This discrepancy has been attributed to both the higher sensitivity of the postmortem examination and the likely under-reporting of fenestrations on angiographic reports due to their uncommon nature (3). A fenestration is a division of the arterial lumen, with resulting separate channels, each with its own endothelial layer and ...
Hypertension can cause inward artery remodeling, artery rarefaction, increased vascular resistance and blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. These conditions increase the risk of stroke and dementia. The differential effects of Ang II-induced hypertension on the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and parenchymal arterioles (PAs) have not been investigated. The PAs serve as bottlenecks for the perfusion of the cortex and are important in determining the outcome of stroke. We hypothesized that Ang II-induced hypertension would cause inward remodeling of the PAs and PCAs, artery rarefaction, and blood brain barrier breakdown. PAs and PCAs were collected from 20-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice to assess structure by pressure myography. Data collected at an intraluminal pressure of 60mmHg are presented as mean ± SEM; Sham (n=5) vs. Ang-II (n=5; 800ng/kg/day for 4 weeks). Ang II increased systolic (148 ± 4 vs 176 ± 6mmHg) and diastolic (115 ± 4 vs. 144 ± 6mmHg) blood pressures (p , 0.05). In the PAs, the ...
Home » Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of ...
A 43-year-old man presented with acute-onset hemianesthesia involving the right arm, the right leg, and the right side of the face. Six weeks earlier, he had a moderate occipital headache that lasted for 3 days. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a thalamic lesion of restricted diffusion on the left side (Panel A, arrow), which was consistent with acute posterior choroidal-artery infarction. T2-weighted MRI scans, a magnetic resonance angiogram, and a computed tomographic angiogram (Panels B, C, and D, respectively) revealed a dilatation of the left posterior cerebral artery, with a double lumen - that is, a true circulating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, lower arrows) and a false noncirculating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, upper arrows), divided by an intimal flap (Panel B, arrowheads), suggesting a dissecting aneurysm. Angiography confirmed an aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery (Panel E, arrows). The patient reported no specific risk factor (e.g., trauma) ...
A 43-year-old man presented with acute-onset hemianesthesia involving the right arm, the right leg, and the right side of the face. Six weeks earlier, he had a moderate occipital headache that lasted for 3 days. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a thalamic lesion of restricted diffusion on the left side (Panel A, arrow), which was consistent with acute posterior choroidal-artery infarction. T2-weighted MRI scans, a magnetic resonance angiogram, and a computed tomographic angiogram (Panels B, C, and D, respectively) revealed a dilatation of the left posterior cerebral artery, with a double lumen - that is, a true circulating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, lower arrows) and a false noncirculating lumen (Panels B, C, and D, upper arrows), divided by an intimal flap (Panel B, arrowheads), suggesting a dissecting aneurysm. Angiography confirmed an aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery (Panel E, arrows). The patient reported no specific risk factor (e.g., trauma) ...
Neck remodeling devices such as the Neuroform or Enterprise greatly facilitate the endovascular treatment of wide necked basilar apex aneurysms. The complex anatomy of the basilar apex affords opportunity for antegrade, multiple crossing and retrograde device placement strategies to facilitate coil embolization. A retrograde approach is possible in the presence of a posterior communicating artery large enough to allow device navigation. Our experience with a retrograde device placement strategy in three patients is reported. In two patients, device positioning extended from one P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery to the other across the basilar apex. In one patient, device positioning extended from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery across the basilar apex into the opposite superior cerebellar artery. All patients underwent reconstructive or deconstructive uncomplicated coil embolization after device placement with stable aneurysm occlusion on follow-up angiography. In ...
Objectives Infections in patients with stroke are common and significantly affect outcome. Various predictors of poststroke infections were determined, such as degree of neurological impairment and implementation of therapeutic interventions. The authors investigated whether stroke location and stroke size are independent risk factors for poststroke infections.. Methods 591 patients with acute stroke who were treated on our stroke unit were included in a prospective observational study. Predefined endpoints were pneumonia, urinary-tract infection (UTI) and other infections. The OR of infections was calculated for various stroke locations, stroke lateralisation and three categories of stroke size. Logistic regression models were used to adjust for factors significantly associated with poststroke infections in a single-factor analysis.. Results In the single-factor analysis, the left anterior cerebral artery territory was associated with pneumonia. After adjustment for relevant covariates, this ...
Arteriogenesis, the adaptive outward growth of pre-existing collateral arteries, is the most efficient endogenous rescue mechanisms in vertebrates against the occlusion of a major artery (biological bypass). Here, collateral growth was induced using the first model for cerebral arteriogenesis, the 3-vessel occlusion (3-VO) rat model. (I) 3-VO resulted in a significant diameter increase within 7 days in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and posterior communicating artery (Pcom), classifying the region of interest. Immunhistological staining demonstrated proliferative activation and macrophage invasion, already 24h post 3-VO within the PCA, confirming the arteriogenic phenotype. Furthermore, activation of the PCA endothelium was detected within 3 days post 3-VO by scanning electron microscopy. (II) For analysing the molecular mechanism of cerebral arteriogenesis, collateral tissue from the growing PCA was selectively isolated. Here, 24h post 3-VO 164 genes were detected to be significantly ...
Question - Have CVA infarct, left MCA distribution. CT scan shows polysinusitis, lacunar infarct. What does it mean?. Ask a Doctor about Posterior cerebral artery, Ask a Cardiologist
Twenty percent of ischemic events in the brain involve posterior circulation (vertebrobasilar) structures. This topic will review the major clinical syndromes associated with posterior circulation ischemia related to stenosis or occlusion of the larg
LMCA NSTEMI causing subendocardial infarction in its arterial territories reflects ST depression in anterior septal lateral leads with reciprocal change of ST elevation in avr. ReplyDelete ...
Branch of posterior cerebral artery which supplies hippocampus and hippocampal gyrus. These structures have been removed, but the vessels and pia mater have been left in place ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction resulting from explosion-type injury to the head and neck. AU - Lipschutz, Joshua H.. AU - Pascuzzi, Robert. AU - Bognanno, James. AU - Putty, Tim. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - A 43-year-old woman suffered a blast-type injury to the head and neck. She subsequently developed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction not demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging scan 24 hours after the explosion, but confirmed by a second scan 8 days after the explosion. In patients with blast-type injury to the head and neck who develop coma with a nonfocal neurological exam, the possibility of bilateral carotid artery occlusion and bilateral ischemic infarction should be considered.. AB - A 43-year-old woman suffered a blast-type injury to the head and neck. She subsequently developed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction not demonstrated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. AU - Smith, Sabrina E.. AU - Kirkham, Fenella J.. AU - Deveber, Gabrielle. AU - Millman, Guy. AU - Dirks, Peter B.. AU - Wirrell, Elaine C. AU - Telfeian, Albert E.. AU - Sykes, Kim. AU - Barlow, Karen. AU - Ichord, Rebecca. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Aim: Mortality from malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) approaches 80% in adult series. Although decompressive craniectomy decreases mortality and leads to an acceptable outcome in selected adult patients, there are few data on MMCAI in children with stroke. This study evaluated the frequency of MMCAI and the use of decompressive craniectomy in children. Method: We retrospectively reviewed cases of MMCAI from five pediatric tertiary care centers. Results: Ten children (two females, eight males; median age 9y 10mo, range 22mo-14y) had MMCAI, with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6 (range 3-9). MMCAI ...
We present a new approach to create painterly renderings of an animated 3D scene, allowing a controllable trade-off between scene fidelity and stylistic design. Our approach extends and complements existing systems in order to ensure temporal coherence while maintaining consistent stroke density, and allowing a wide variety of stroke styles. It is based on a new dynamic painting algorithm which selects a suitable set of sample stroke locations based on an object-space hierarchy. Strokes are created at these locations, with attributes assigned using arbitrary stylistic choices: examples include scene-derived decisions such as having stroke orientation follow curvature or silhouette directions, or user-supplied constraints such as global orientation or thickness. Stroke rendering is then performed using appropriately filtered information from a set of G-buffers. We describe an improved stroke rendering technique which allows a faithful depiction of the scene while letting the user specify his prefered
Arenillas, J. F., D. Argibay-Quiñones, P. Garcia-Bermejo, A. I. Calleja, D. Martín-Martínez, J. M. Sierra, J. José Fuertes-Alija, and M. Martin-Fernandez, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of Neurorepair, STROKE, vol. 42, no. 3: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA, pp. E119-E119, 2011. ...
Arenillas, J. F., D. Argibay-Quiñones, P. Garcia-Bermejo, A. I. Calleja, D. Martín-Martínez, J. M. Sierra, J. José Fuertes-Alija, and M. Martin-Fernandez, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of Neurorepair, STROKE, vol. 42, no. 3: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA, pp. E119-E119, 2011. ...
Arenillas, J. F., D. Argibay-Quiñones, P. Garcia-Bermejo, A. I. Calleja, D. Martín-Martínez, J. M. Sierra, J. José Fuertes-Alija, and M. Martin-Fernandez, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of Neurorepair, STROKE, vol. 42, no. 3: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA, pp. E119-E119, 2011. ...
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and duration of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) and CSD-like episodes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) requiring craniotomy. DESIGN: A descriptive observational study was carried out during 19 months. SETTING: Neurocritical patients. PATIENTS: Sixteen patients were included: 9 with MMCAI and 7 with moderate or severe TBI, requiring surgical treatment. INTERVENTIONS: A 6-electrode subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) strip was placed onto the perilesional cortex. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: An analysis was made of the time profile and the number and duration of CSD and CSD-like episodes recorded from the ECoGs. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients enrolled, 9 presented episodes of CSD or CSD-like phenomena, of highly variable frequency and duration. CONCLUSIONS: Episodes of CSD and CSD-like phenomena are frequently detected in the ischemic penumbra and/or traumatic cortical regions of ...
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Fig 2. Classification of the anatomic variations in the circle of Willis. In the "textbook" type, both the precommunicating segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) and that of the posterior cerebral artery (P1) were normal in size. The next group included both right and left A1 hypoplasia. Because no significant difference between cerebral arteries on the right and left sides has been established,5,18 we combined right and left A1 hypoplasia into A1 hypoplasia. The next group included right and left P1 hypoplasia, which again were treated as a single category, P1 hypoplasia. "Other" type included a combination of A1 hypoplasia and P1 hypoplasia, bilateral P1 hypoplasia, as well as other unclassified variations. ACA indicates anterior cerebral artery; ACo, anterior communicating artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; ICA, internal cerebral artery; PCo, posterior communicating artery; PCA, posterior cerebral artery; BA, basilar artery ...
Materials and methods A retrospective evaluation of our clinical records over the last 10 years. Patients were initially evaluated clinically followed by cross-sectional imaging. The definitive diagnosis, angioarchitecture, planning and risk stratification was done on a digital subtraction angiography study. Out of a total of 27 patients with 28 aneurysms, the average age was 35.8 years (range: 16-60 years). 11(39%) aneurysms were on right side. Most 10(35.7%) were located on P1segment while 7(25%) were on P2segment. 5(17.8%) were on P1-P2 junctional segment, 4(14.3%) on P2-P3 junction and 2(7.14%) on P4 segments of PCA. Most were 7(25%) were small dissecting type. The rest included completely thrombosed aneurysm (2), bleb blister-like (1), large dissecting (3), partially thrombosed (6), giant (3), saccular (1), serpentine (2) and fusiform (3). Comparison was done with other large scale surgical and endovascular series of PCA aneurysms and the outcomes were compared.. Most of the aneurysms were ...
The dorsal intersegmental arteries in the cervical segments anastomose into a longitudinal channel called the vertebral artery. Ventral to the myelencephalon the vertebral artery on each side joins its counterpart in the midline to form the single basilar artery. The basilar artery supplies the myel- and metencephalon before it bifurcates near the mesencephalon into right and left posterior cerebral arteries that supply the di- and mesencephalon and later on the telencephalon. An anastomosis called the posterior communicating artery develops on each side connecting the posterior cerebral and internal carotid arteries. A circular vascular channel called the Circle of Willis is thereby completed at the base of the brain ...
Variations of the Circle of Willis at the End of the Human Embryonic Period[4] "Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely, at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage. Variations were observed in 17 of 20 samples-only anterior parts (anterior communicating artery [Acom] and anterior cerebral artery [ACA]) in 10 samples, only posterior parts (posterior communicating artery [Pcom]) in one sample, and both anterior and posterior parts in six samples. Variations ...
Variations of the Circle of Willis at the End of the Human Embryonic Period[4] "Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely, at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage. Variations were observed in 17 of 20 samples-only anterior parts (anterior communicating artery [Acom] and anterior cerebral artery [ACA]) in 10 samples, only posterior parts (posterior communicating artery [Pcom]) in one sample, and both anterior and posterior parts in six samples. Variations ...
Most commonly there is vasogenic oedema within the occipital and parietal regions (~95% of cases), perhaps relating to the posterior cerebral artery supply. The oedema is usually symmetrical. Despite being termed posterior, PRES can be found in a non posterior distribution, mainly in watershed areas, including within the frontal, inferior temporal, cerebellar and brainstem regions 2. Both cortical and subcortical locations are affected.. Parenchymal infarctions and hemorrhage are associated with PRES in respectively 10-25 % and 15 % of cases. ...
During the first hours after acute ischemic stroke, the CT usually shows no abnormalities.Therapeutic trials of ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory involves decision-making when the CT may not show obvious ischemic changes. We reviewed 100 consecutive patients, admitted within 14 hours after a first stroke. Selective criteria were clinical presentation with MCA ischemia and at least two CTs (1 initial and 1 control). All CTs were retrospectively analyzed by at least two physicians blinded to the patients status. On the first CT, early signs were hyperdense MCA sign (HMCAS), early parenchymatous signs (attenuation of the lentiform nucleus [ALN], loss of the insular ribbon [LIR], and hemispheric sulcus effacement [HSE]), midline shift, and early infarction. Subsequent infarct locations were classified according to total, partial superficial (superior or inferior), deep, or multiple MCA territories. Clinical features, etiology, and Rankin scale were collected. There were 52 ...
Roughly 10% to 32% of the population has a fetal origin PCA supplying their parieto-occipital lobes in which the P1 segment is hypoplastic and the PCA is supplied primarily by a larger diameter homolateral posterior communicating artery [5, 10]. Other potentially persistent primitive carotid basilar anastomoses include the primitive trigeminal artery, the primitive acoustic (otic) artery, the primitive hypoglossal artery, and the primitive proatlantic artery. The fetal origin PCA anatomic variant provides a potential conduit for emboli from ipsilateral ICA disease [6-9]. To the best of our knowledge, artery-to-artery embolism from cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm to fetal PCA has not been previously reported. Pseudoaneurysm usually develops as a result of trauma, with rupture of the affected artery through the intima and media into the subadventitial plane. The resulting tear is contained by the adventitia forming a pseudoaneurysm. Unlike true aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms do not involve dilatation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile-onset multiple brain infarcts localized in the posterior circulation. T2 - A case report. AU - Maruyama, Kenji. AU - Oya, Yasushi. AU - Shigeto, Hiroshi. AU - Ogawa, Masafumi. AU - Kawai, Mitsuru. PY - 2002/3/14. Y1 - 2002/3/14. N2 - We report a 37-year-old male patient with multiple brain infarcts due to arterial lesions localized in the posterior circulation, who developed a paramedian pontine infarct on the left side. He had been treated as schizophrenia for 20 years. A cranial CT performed one year before showed old small infarcts in the territories of the bilateral thalamo-perforating and left thalamo-geniculate arteries and the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The vertebral and basilar arteries were small in diameter on MRI and MR angiography (MRA). Cerebral angiography revealed a narrow smooth basilar artery. In addition, the P 2 segments of the bilateral posterior cerebral arteries were markedly narrow with irregular walls. Carotid arteriograms were ...
Background Cerebral arteries respond to an increase in intraluminal pressure with vasoconstriction, being referred to as myogenic tone. A number of studies have postulated the mechanisms involved in the development of myogenic tone; however, less information is available about how myogenic tone is maintained. The present study thus investigated the mechanisms underlying sustained myogenic constriction in isolated rat posterior cerebral arteries.. Methods and Results Long-term elevation of intraluminal pressure from 5 to 60 mmHg for 1 hr caused sustained constriction and [Ca2+]i elevation. In the presence of rottlerin, a PKCδ inhibitor, the pressure-induced constriction and [Ca2+]i elevation were gradually declined, and nearly abolished at the end of the 1-hr stimulation (sustained phase). In contrast, Gö 6976, a cPKC inhibitor, significantly inhibited the constriction for up to 5 min after the start of stimulation (initial phase), but had no effects on the [Ca2+]i elevation. The pressure ...
The vein of Galen is located under the cerebral hemispheres and drains the anterior and central regions of the brain into the sinuses of the posterior cerebral fossa. The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a choroidal type of arteriovenous malformation involving the vein of Galen forerunner and is distinct from an arteriovenous malforma...
Background and Purpose-Detection of acute infarction in the posterior circulation is challenging. We aimed to determine the additional value of tomograpy (CT) perfusion to noncontrast CT and CT angiography source images for infarct detection and localization in patients suspected of acute ischemic posterior circulation stroke. Methods-Patients with suspected acute ischemic ... read more posterior circulation stroke were selected from the Dutch acute Stroke Trial (DUST) study. Patients underwent noncontrast CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion within 9 hours after stroke onset and CT or MRI on follow-up. Images were evaluated for signs and location of ischemia. Discrimination of 3 hierarchical logistic regression models (noncontrast CT [A], added CT angiography source images [B], and CT perfusion [C]) was compared with C-statistics. Results-Of 88 patients, 76 (86%) had a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke on discharge and 42 patients (48%) showed a posterior circulation infarct on follow-up ...
The specimen shown in the preceding photograph has been reoriented for this view so that the left orbit extends above and to the left of the area included in the photograph. The brain stem has been cut across through the rostral part of the mesencephalon. The left optic tract has been removed and the optic chiasm has been lifted slightly out of its normal position. The components of the arterial circle of Willis that are related to the optic pathways (i.e., internal carotid artery (6), anterior cerebral artery (5), anterior communicating artery (between 5 and 19, unlabeled), posterior communicating artery (8) and posterior cerebral artery (11)) remain in position ...