Background: Previous work has implicated accumulation of Zn2+ as a contributor to ischemic brain injury, however the sources of toxic Zn2+ accumulation are not fully understood. Previous data report that ICV delivery of a Zn2+ chelator limited mild focal stroke (Neuroscience 115 (2002) 871-8). We have recently demonstrated substantial synaptic Zn2+ release following spreading depolarization (JCBFM 31 (2011) 1073-84), and thus it is possible that repetitive spreading depolarization_ known to occur following stroke_ could be a major source of toxic Zn2+. In the present study, we examined whether synaptic Zn2+ release contributes to neuronal injury in a murine focal stroke model.. Methods The effect of synaptic Zn2+ was assessed using mice lacking synaptic Zn2+, due to genetic deletion of the synaptic vesicle transporter ZnT3 (ZnT3 KO). Wild type C57Bl/6 mice were age and sex matched as controls. Mice were anesthetized with isofluorane and the cortical branch of the right middle cerebral artery was ...
Home » Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Dependent Differences in Physical Exercise-Mediated Cognitive Recovery Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats. AU - Cohan, Charles H.. AU - Youbi, Mehdi. AU - Saul, Isabel. AU - Ruiz, Alex A.. AU - Furones, Concepcion C.. AU - Patel, Pujan. AU - Perez, Edwin. AU - Raval, Ami P.. AU - Dave, Kunjan R.. AU - Zhao, Weizhao. AU - Dong, Chuanhui. AU - Rundek, Tatjana. AU - Koch, Sebastian. AU - Sacco, Ralph L.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. PY - 2019/9/18. Y1 - 2019/9/18. N2 - Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. No current treatments exist to promote cognitive recovery in survivors of stroke. A previous study from our laboratory determined that an acute bout of forced treadmill exercise was able to promote cognitive recovery in 3 month old male rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 6 days of intense acute bout of forced treadmill exercise (physical exercise - PE) ...
During the first hours after acute ischemic stroke, the CT usually shows no abnormalities.Therapeutic trials of ischemia in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory involves decision-making when the CT may not show obvious ischemic changes. We reviewed 100 consecutive patients, admitted within 14 hours after a first stroke. Selective criteria were clinical presentation with MCA ischemia and at least two CTs (1 initial and 1 control). All CTs were retrospectively analyzed by at least two physicians blinded to the patients status. On the first CT, early signs were hyperdense MCA sign (HMCAS), early parenchymatous signs (attenuation of the lentiform nucleus [ALN], loss of the insular ribbon [LIR], and hemispheric sulcus effacement [HSE]), midline shift, and early infarction. Subsequent infarct locations were classified according to total, partial superficial (superior or inferior), deep, or multiple MCA territories. Clinical features, etiology, and Rankin scale were collected. There were 52 ...
BRAIN ischemia stroke is a devastating disease, with more than 10% stroke patients either severely disabled or dead. Although rodent fil- ament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model can mimic human brain ischemic stroke well, its wide use was
The main result of the present study is that a single measurement of the S100B serum concentration obtained within 12 to 24 hours after symptom onset can predict a malignant course of infarction in patients with proximal MCA occlusion with a high degree of diagnostic accuracy.. It is well known from previous studies that serum S100B values increase in ischemic stroke, reaching maximum levels 2 to 4 days after onset.12,13 Furthermore, infarct size was shown to be a major determinant of both the initial slope of the S100B kinetic and the absolute S100B peak value.14,15 Our findings fit well within this context (Figure 1). We found low S100B concentrations at hospital admission and 8 hours after symptom onset. Starting with the 12-hour S100B value, patients who later developed malignant infarction showed significantly higher S100B values compared with those with a nonmalignant course. This difference further increased within the following hours and was greatest for the 24-hour value (Figure 1), ...
Evidence suggests that brain infiltration of lymphocytes contributes to acute neural injury after cerebral ischemia. However, the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes during the late stage after cerebral ischemia remains unclear. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were subjected to sham, photothrombosis, or 60-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedures. Infarct volume, neurodeficits, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory factors, brain-infiltrating lymphocytes, and their activation as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ production were assessed. Brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were also measured in tissue sections from post-mortem patients after ischemic stroke by immunostaining. In mice subjected to transient MCAO or photothrombotic stroke, we found that lymphocyte infiltration persists in the ischemic brain until at least day 14 after surgery, during which brain infarct volume significantly diminished. These brain-infiltrating lymphocytes express
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether neuroprotection is feasible without cerebral blood flow augmentation in experimental permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. METHODS: Rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by the suture occlusion method and were treated 1 hour thereafter with a single 5-minute intravenous infusion of the postsynaptic density-95 protein inhibitor Tat-NR2B9c (7.5 mg/kg) or saline (n=8/group). Arterial spin-labeled perfusion-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted MRI were obtained with a 4.7-T Bruker system at 30, 45, 70, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes postmiddle cerebral artery occlusion to determine cerebral blood flow and apparent diffusion coefficient maps, respectively. At 24 hours, animals were neurologically scored (0 to 5), euthanized, and the brains stained with 2-3-5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride to ascertain infarct volumes corrected for edema. Additionally, the effects of Tat-NR2B9c on adenosine 5
The effect of the free radical spin-trap alpha-phenyl-butyl-tert-nitrone (alpha-PBN) in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats was examined in two series of experiments. In the first, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and treated 1 h after occlusion with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control ...
Lipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant properties. Although LA is neuroprotective in models of stroke, little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which it confers protection during the early stages of ischemia. Here, using a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we demonstrated that administration of LA 30 min prior to stroke, reduces infarct volume in a dose dependent manner. Whole-cell patch clamp Show moreLipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant properties. Although LA is neuroprotective in models of stroke, little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which it confers protection during the early stages of ischemia. Here, using a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we demonstrated that administration of LA 30 min prior to stroke, reduces infarct volume in a dose dependent manner. Whole-cell patch clamp ...
Here we present a protocol to produce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in elderly female rats with simultaneous...
The pathophysiological processes implicated in ischemic brain damage are strongly affected by an inflammatory reaction characterized by activation of immune cells and release of soluble mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in ischemic brain injury, however, to date, the mechanisms involved in the maturation of this cytokine in the ischemic brain have not been completely elucidated. We have previously suggested that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be implicated in cytokine production under pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that significant elevation of IL-1β occurs in the cortex as early as 1h after the beginning of reperfusion in rats subjected to 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). At this early stage, we observe increased expression of IL-1β in pericallosal astroglial cells and in cortical neurons and this latter signal colocalizes with elevated gelatinolytic activity. By gel ...
Video articles in JoVE about cerebral infarction include Quantification of Neurovascular Protection Following Repetitive Hypoxic Preconditioning and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice, A Thrombotic Stroke Model Based On Transient Cerebral Hypoxia-ischemia, Intravascular Perfusion of Carbon Black Ink Allows Reliable Visualization of Cerebral Vessels, Combined Near-infrared Fluorescent Imaging and Micro-computed Tomography for Directly Visualizing Cerebral Thromboemboli, Modeling Stroke in Mice: Permanent Coagulation of the Distal Middle Cerebral Artery, Photothrombotic Ischemia: A Minimally Invasive and Reproducible Photochemical Cortical Lesion Model for Mouse Stroke Studies, Embolic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for Ischemic Stroke with Homologous Blood Clots in Rats, Permanent Cerebral Vessel Occlusion via Double Ligature and Transection, Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia
FERGUSON: Further comments: Patient Age: Even though among younger patients malignant MCA infarction is more common, overall, ischemic cerebral stroke is a condition of older individuals. More specifically, more than 60% of patients are older than 50 years, and 40% are older than 60 years old (Hacke W et al. Arch Neurol 1996). Despite this, the DECIMAL and DESTINY trials only investigate the benefits of hemicraniectomy in patients younger than age 60. They had a reasonable basis for concentrating on surgical benefit for younger patients. A 2004 meta-analysis by Gupta et al., investigated the predictors of outcome following hemicraniectomy after malignant MCA infarction in138 patients. The authors found that younger age was the only pre-operative clinical determinant of survival with good functional outcome (Gupta et al., Stroke 2004). There are several other studies that come to a similar conclusion (Chen et al., J of Clin Neuroscience 2007; Curry et al., Neurosurgery 2005; Walz et al., J Neurol ...
The volume of cerebral tissue perturbed in experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can be highly variable. Thus, the territories of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) or oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) following MCAO might properly be defined using statistical parametric mapping within a population. In order to establish such a method, we mapped CBF and CMRO(2) in 18 pigs with acute MCAO. Parametric maps were flipped about the axis of symmetry, and CBF and CMRO(2) in the infarcted hemisphere were calculated as percentages of the magnitudes in mirror-image pixels. There were log-linear relationships between the volumes of affected tissue and the percentages of normal CFB or CMRO(2). This graphical analysis showed that the volume of the core deficit was smaller for CBF that for CMRO(2), but expanded more rapidly with decreasing CBF deficit than did the corresponding volumes of reduced CMRO(2). Thus, acute changes in CBF and CMRO(2) following MCAO in the pig can be defined as ...
Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has been shown to elicit substantial neuroprotective properties when given immediately after cerebral ischemia. We asked whether the continuous application of a selective A2AR antagonist within a clinically relevant time window will be a feasible and effective approach to treat focal cerebral ischemia. To answer this question, we subjected 20 male spontaneously hypertensive rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and randomized them equally to a verum and a control group. Two hours after stroke onset, the animals received a subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic minipump filled with 5 mg kg−1 day−1 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or vehicle solution. The serum level of CSC was measured twice a day for three consecutive days. The infarct volume was determined at days 1 and 3 using magnetic resonance imaging. We found the serum level of CSC showing a bell-shaped curve with its maximum at 36 h. The infarct volume was not affected by ...
Thrombolysis with intravenous(iv) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the only effective and approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The most frequent cause of ischemic stroke is thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Preliminary in vitro, animal and human studies suggest that ultrasound accelerates thrombolysis induced by t-PA, and recanalization of acute MCA occlusion due to thrombolysis is an independent predictor of good clinical outcome. Thus, insonation of an occluded MCA through the temporal bone in stroke patients who are treated with iv t-PA might enhance recanalization and improve clinical outcome. The present prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter pilot study will investigate the safety and efficacy of continuous 1-hour insonation of the occluded MCA with 2 MHz transcranial color duplex sonography in patients with ischemic stroke treated with iv t-PA within 3 hours after symptom onset. It is planned to randomize 400 patients in 6 Swiss centers during an ...
en] Using transgenic mice constitutively expressing the human inducible Hsp70, we examined the role of Hsp70 on cell survival after focal cerebral ischemia. Twenty-four hours after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, no difference in infarct area was detected between Hsp70-transgenic and non-transgenic mice. In the non-transgenic mice, many pyramidal neurons of the ipsilateral hippocampus were observed to be pyknotic. However, in all Hsp70-transgenic mice, hippocampal pyramidal neurons showed normal morphology and no evidence of pyknosis. This suggests that constitutive expression of Hsp70 reduces the extent of damage following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
Maximum intensity projections reconstructions from 2.5 mm unenhanced multidetector computed tomography axial slices were obtained from 49 patients within the first 6 h of anterior-circulation cerebral strokes to identify different patterns of the dense artery sign and their prognostic implications for location and extent of the infarcted areas. The dense artery sign was found in 67.3% of cases. Increased density of the whole M1 segment with extension to M2 of the middle cerebral artery was associated with a wider extension of cerebral infarcts in comparison to M1 segment alone or distal M1 and M2. A dense sylvian branch of the middle cerebral artery pattern was associated with a more restricted extension of infarct territory. We found 62.5% of patients without a demonstrable dense artery to have a limited peripheral cortical or capsulonuclear lesion. In patients with a 7-10 points on the Alberta Stroke Early Programme Computed Tomography Score and a dense proximal MCA in the first hours of ictus ...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic changes of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic changes of CCs during acute stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, ...
This is a Phase 1/2a, open-label, multi-center, sequential dose escalation, safety study of Plasmin (Human) in acute ischemic stroke caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion documented by arteriography. Plasmin (Human) will be administered through a catheter into the thrombus within 9 hours of stroke onset. Approximately sixty-one (61) patients will be enrolled and will receive Plasmin (Human). The objectives of this study are to determine the safety of escalating doses of Plasmin (Human) and to determine the proportion of patients with treatment success, defined as partial or full recanalization ...
Arenillas, J. F., D. Argibay-Quiñones, P. Garcia-Bermejo, A. I. Calleja, D. Martín-Martínez, J. M. Sierra, J. José Fuertes-Alija, and M. Martin-Fernandez, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of Neurorepair, STROKE, vol. 42, no. 3: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA, pp. E119-E119, 2011. ...
Arenillas, J. F., D. Argibay-Quiñones, P. Garcia-Bermejo, A. I. Calleja, D. Martín-Martínez, J. M. Sierra, J. José Fuertes-Alija, and M. Martin-Fernandez, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of Neurorepair, STROKE, vol. 42, no. 3: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA, pp. E119-E119, 2011. ...
Arenillas, J. F., D. Argibay-Quiñones, P. Garcia-Bermejo, A. I. Calleja, D. Martín-Martínez, J. M. Sierra, J. José Fuertes-Alija, and M. Martin-Fernandez, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Monitoring Of Motor Function Recovery After Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Searching For A DTI-Marker Of Neurorepair, STROKE, vol. 42, no. 3: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA, pp. E119-E119, 2011. ...
The neuroprotective effects of progesterone after ischemic stroke have been established, but the role of progesterone in promoting cerebrovascular repair remains under-explored. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90. min followed by reperfusion for 3. days. Progesterone (8. mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally at 1. h after initial occlusion followed by subcutaneous injections at 6, 24 and 48. h post-occlusion. Rats were euthanized after 72. h and brain endothelial cell density and macrophage infiltration were evaluated within the cerebral cortex. We also assessed progesterones ability to induce macrophage migration toward hypoxic/reoxygenated cultured endothelial cells. We found that progesterone treatment post-tMCAO protects ischemic endothelial cells from macrophage infiltration. We further demonstrate that infiltration of monocytes/macrophages can be induced by potent chemotactic factors such as monocyte chemoattractant ...
The neuroprotective effects of progesterone after ischemic stroke have been established, but the role of progesterone in promoting cerebrovascular repair remains under-explored. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90. min followed by reperfusion for 3. days. Progesterone (8. mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally at 1. h after initial occlusion followed by subcutaneous injections at 6, 24 and 48. h post-occlusion. Rats were euthanized after 72. h and brain endothelial cell density and macrophage infiltration were evaluated within the cerebral cortex. We also assessed progesterones ability to induce macrophage migration toward hypoxic/reoxygenated cultured endothelial cells. We found that progesterone treatment post-tMCAO protects ischemic endothelial cells from macrophage infiltration. We further demonstrate that infiltration of monocytes/macrophages can be induced by potent chemotactic factors such as monocyte chemoattractant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candesartan augments ischemia-induced proangiogenic state and results in sustained improvement after stroke. AU - Kozak, Anna. AU - Ergul, Adviye. AU - El-Remessy, Azza B.. AU - Johnson, Maribeth H.. AU - Machado, Livia S.. AU - Elewa, Hazem F.. AU - Abdelsaid, Mohammed. AU - Wiley, Daniel C.. AU - Fagan, Susan C.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background and Purpose-: We have shown that acute treatment with candesartan in an experimental model of stroke resulted in vascular protection and improved outcomes at 24 hours poststroke, but the mechanisms are unknown. We now examine effects of candesartan on proangiogenic factors and 7-day outcomes using the same treatment paradigm. Methods-: Male Wistar rats underwent 3 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. A single dose of 1 mg/kg candesartan intravenously was given at reperfusion. Animals received neurobehavioral testing before middle cerebral artery occlusion, at 24 hours after middle cerebral ...
An awake-primate model has been developed which permits reversible middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion during physiological monitoring. This method eliminates the ischemia-modifying effects of anesthesia, and permits correlation of neurological function with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuropathology. The model was used to assess the brains tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia. The MCA was occluded for 15 or 30 minutes, 2 to 3 hours, or permanently. Serial monitoring evaluated neurological function, local CBF (hydrogen clearance), and other physiological parameters (blood pressure, blood gases, and intracranial pressure). After 2 weeks, neuropathological evaluation identified infarcts and their relation to blood flow recording sites.. Middle cerebral artery occlusion usually caused substantial decreases in local CBF. Variable reduction in flow correlated directly with the variable severity of deficit. Release of occlusion at up to 3 hours led to clinical improvement. Pathological ...
An awake-primate model has been developed which permits reversible middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion during physiological monitoring. This method eliminates the ischemia-modifying effects of anesthesia, and permits correlation of neurological function with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuropathology. The model was used to assess the brains tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia. The MCA was occluded for 15 or 30 minutes, 2 to 3 hours, or permanently. Serial monitoring evaluated neurological function, local CBF (hydrogen clearance), and other physiological parameters (blood pressure, blood gases, and intracranial pressure). After 2 weeks, neuropathological evaluation identified infarcts and their relation to blood flow recording sites.. Middle cerebral artery occlusion usually caused substantial decreases in local CBF. Variable reduction in flow correlated directly with the variable severity of deficit. Release of occlusion at up to 3 hours led to clinical improvement. Pathological ...
Authors: Allen, Rachael S. , Sayeed, Iqbal , Oumarbaeva, Yuliya , Morrison, Katherine C. , Choi, Paul H. , Pardue, Machelle T. , Stein, Donald G. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Background/Objective: To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. Methods: MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κ B, nuclear NF-κ B, phosphorylated NF-κ B, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Results: …Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κ B and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κ B at 24 h in brain and ...
The term "stroke" is a fitting name for a sudden unexpected happenstance. In medicine the term "stroke" applies to the sudden onset of symptoms after circulatory problems arise in the brain. The movies typically portray the sudden devastation to ones physical functioning; for example the paralyzed father in "Legends of the Fall." The slow insidious onset of symptoms from circulatory problems is neither as dramatic or pictorial as the sudden manifestation, but it may cause as much or more functional impairment. The sudden classic middle cerebral artery stroke with left or right paralysis may be diagnosed by many non-professionals. The slow manifestation is often overlooked or misidentified by professionals.. Neuropsychological and medical training instills the belief that the former type of stroke is much more common than the latter; that the sudden "stroke" is much more common than the slowly evolving cerebral damage from altered circulation. Given the unique and dramatic symptoms of a stroke ...
Background The contribution of neuroinflammation and specifically mind lymphocyte invasion is recognized as a considerable pathophysiological mechanism after stroke increasingly. and behavioural dysfunction werent decreased 7d after long lasting occlusion from the distal middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Additionally, we didnt measure a substantial decrease in infarct quantity at 24h after 60 min filament-induced MCAO, and didnt see differences in human brain edema between FTY720 and PBS treatment. Analysis of human brain cytokine expression uncovered complex ramifications of FTY720 on postischemic neuroinflammation composed of a substantial reduced amount of postponed proinflammatory cytokine appearance at 3d but an early on boost of IL-1 and IFN- at 24 h after MCAO. Also, serum cytokine degrees of TNF- and IL-6 had been increased in FTY720 treated pets in comparison to handles. Conclusions/Significance In todays study we could actually detect a reduced amount of lymphocyte human brain ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. AU - Smith, Sabrina E.. AU - Kirkham, Fenella J.. AU - Deveber, Gabrielle. AU - Millman, Guy. AU - Dirks, Peter B.. AU - Wirrell, Elaine C. AU - Telfeian, Albert E.. AU - Sykes, Kim. AU - Barlow, Karen. AU - Ichord, Rebecca. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Aim: Mortality from malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) approaches 80% in adult series. Although decompressive craniectomy decreases mortality and leads to an acceptable outcome in selected adult patients, there are few data on MMCAI in children with stroke. This study evaluated the frequency of MMCAI and the use of decompressive craniectomy in children. Method: We retrospectively reviewed cases of MMCAI from five pediatric tertiary care centers. Results: Ten children (two females, eight males; median age 9y 10mo, range 22mo-14y) had MMCAI, with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6 (range 3-9). MMCAI ...
1. Bang OY, Lee PH, Heo KG, Joo US, Yoon SR, Kim SY. Specific DWI lesion patterns predict prognosis after acute ischaemic stroke within the MCA territory. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005. 76: 1222-8. 2. Berrouschot J, Sterker M, Bettin S, Köster J, Schneider D. Mortality of space-occupying ("malignant") middle cerebral artery infarction under conservative intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 1998. 24: 620-3. 3. Carter BS, Ogilvy CS, Candia GJ, Rosas HD, Buonanno F. One-year outcome after decompressive surgery for massive nondominant hemispheric infarction. Neurosurgery. 1997. 40: 1168-75. 4. Cho DY, Chen TC, Lee HC. Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Surg Neurol. 2003. 60: 227-32. 5. Clarke DJ, Forster A. Improving post-stroke recovery: The role of the multidisciplinary health care team. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2015. 8: 433-42. 6. Demchuk AM, Wein TH, Felberg RA, Christou I, Alexandrov AV. Evolution of rapid middle cerebral artery ...
This exhibit features two color coded illustrations of the brain, highlighting the territory of the middle cerebral artery. The first illustration consists of a lateral brain with the middle cerebral artery in situ. The area of blood supplied by the middle cerebral artery is delineated in yellow. The second image color codes the various areas of function within the middle cerebral artery territory of the brain.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraluminal suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats. AU - Dogan, Aclan. AU - Başkaya, Mustafa K.. AU - Rao, V. L Raghavendra. AU - Rao, A. Muralikrishna. AU - Dempsey, Robert J.. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - In models of middle cerebral artery occlusion using intraluminal suture, the size and the distribution of ischemic injury vary considerably among laboratories. In transcranial models of cerebral ischemia, a more consistent cerebral ischemic lesion is seen in Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we performed intraluminal suture occlusion of the MCA in SHR and compared its reproducibility with those in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male SHR and SD rats were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to 2 h of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion by an intraluminal suture. Comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow figures taken throughout the experiment and lesion volume figures taken at 24 h after ...
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and duration of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) and CSD-like episodes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) requiring craniotomy. DESIGN: A descriptive observational study was carried out during 19 months. SETTING: Neurocritical patients. PATIENTS: Sixteen patients were included: 9 with MMCAI and 7 with moderate or severe TBI, requiring surgical treatment. INTERVENTIONS: A 6-electrode subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) strip was placed onto the perilesional cortex. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: An analysis was made of the time profile and the number and duration of CSD and CSD-like episodes recorded from the ECoGs. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients enrolled, 9 presented episodes of CSD or CSD-like phenomena, of highly variable frequency and duration. CONCLUSIONS: Episodes of CSD and CSD-like phenomena are frequently detected in the ischemic penumbra and/or traumatic cortical regions of ...
Ischemic brain injury disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then triggers a cascade of events, leading to edema formation, secondary brain injury and poor neurological outcomes. Recently, we have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves functional and histological outcomes following experimental stroke. However, little is known about the effect of DHA on BBB dysfunction after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study was designed to determine whether DHA protects against BBB disruption after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Physiologically-controlled SD rats received 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). DHA (5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was administered I.V. at 3 h after onset of MCAo. Fluorometric quantitation of Evans Blue dye (EB) was performed in eight brain regions at 6 h, 24 h or 72 h after MCAo. Fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) - dextran leakage and histopathology was evaluated on day 3 after stroke. Physiological variables were stable and showed no significant
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil sequestration and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion. AU - Atochin, D. N.. AU - Fisher, D.. AU - Demchenko, I. T.. AU - Thom, S. R.. PY - 2000/12. Y1 - 2000/12. N2 - A rat model of reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was developed to assess the role of neutrophils and prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on cerebral injury. Blood flow to the ipsilateral caudate putamen nucleus was reduced by approximately 50% during 2 h of arterial occlusion, but unaffected on the contralateral side. Neutrophil accumulation in brain was documented as myeloperoxidase concentration, which was elevated in both ipsilateral and contralateral cerebral hemispheres at 1 and 46 h after occlusion/reperfusion. HBO2 administered before ischemia at 2.8 atm abs for 45 min, as well as antibody-induced neutropenia, reduced neutrophil accumulation, functional neurologic deficits, and cerebral infarct volume. These data ...
Free radical induced neuronal damage is implicated in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and antioxidants are reported to have neuroprotective activity. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have proved the antioxidant potential of curcumin and its metabolites. Hence, in the present study the neuroprotective potential of curcumin was investigated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced focal cerebral IR injury. 2 h of MCAO and 22 h of reperfusion resulted in the infarct volume of 210.39 +/- 31.25 mm3. Administration of curcumin 100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min. after MCAO produced 37.23 +/- 5.10% and 46.39 +/- 10.23% (p , 0.05) reduction in infarct volume, respectively. Ischemia induced cerebral edema was reduced in a dose dependent manner. Curcumin at 300 mg/kg, i.p. produced 50.96 +/- 6.04% reduction in edema (p , 0.05) volume. Increase in lipid peroxidation after MCAO in ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere of brain was observed, which was reduced by curcumin (300 mg/kg, ...
Recanalization of an occluded vessel with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is administered as alteplase, a formulation containing many excipients including L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide production. Most studies fail to compare the effects of alteplase on brain injury to its L-arginine carrier solution. This study aimed to verify the previously reported detrimental effects of alteplase after cerebral ischemia and delineate the contribution of L-arginine. Male Wistar rats, subjected to 90 minutes of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), were administered alteplase, the carrier solution or saline upon reperfusion. Neither alteplase nor the carrier affected cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration throughout the first 60 minutes of reperfusion. Alteplase treatment was associated with increased mortality after MCAO. Twenty-four hours after MCAO, neurologic function and
Recanalization of an occluded vessel with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is administered as alteplase, a formulation containing many excipients including L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide production. Most studies fail to compare the effects of alteplase on brain injury to its L-arginine carrier solution. This study aimed to verify the previously reported detrimental effects of alteplase after cerebral ischemia and delineate the contribution of L-arginine. Male Wistar rats, subjected to 90 minutes of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), were administered alteplase, the carrier solution or saline upon reperfusion. Neither alteplase nor the carrier affected cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration throughout the first 60 minutes of reperfusion. Alteplase treatment was associated with increased mortality after MCAO. Twenty-four hours after MCAO, neurologic function and
The territory of the middle cerebral artery is well illustrated with this complete MCA territory infarct. The frequently associated hyperdense artery sign indicative of intra-arterial clot is also evident.
The purpose of the study was to highlight the acute motor reflex adaptation and to deepen functional deficits following a middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO-r). Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were included in this study. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; 120 min) was performed on 16 rats studied at 1 and 7 days, respectively (MCAO-D1 and MCAO-D7, n = 8 for each group). The other animals were divided into 3 groups: SHAM-D1 (n = 6), SHAM-D7 (n = 6) and Control (n = 8). Rats performed 4 behavioral tests (the elevated body swing test, the beam balance test, the ladder-climbing test and the forelimb grip force) before the surgery and daily after MCAO-r. H-reflex on triceps brachii was measured before and after isometric exercise. Infarction size and cerebral edema were respectively assessed by histological (Cresyl violet) and MRI measurements at the same time points than H-reflex recordings. Animals with cerebral ischemia showed persistent functional deficits during the ...
OBJECTIVES: We aim to evaluate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) on testicular tissue after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. ...
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM MNC) have been effectively used to treat experimental stroke. Most of the preclinical trials have been performed in young and healthy laboratory animals, even though age and hypertension are major risk factors for stroke. To determine the influence of age on the properties of BM MNCs after cerebral ischemia, we compared the efficacy of aged and young BM MNC in an in vitro model of cerebral hypoxia and in an adapted in vivo model of stroke. Human BM MNCs were obtained from healthy young or aged donors and either co-cultured with rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), or transplanted intravenously 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged (18 months) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Efficacy was examined by quantification of hippocampal cell death, or respectively, by neurofunctional tests and MR investigations. Co-cultivation with young, but not with aged BM MNCs significantly reduced the hippocampal cell
Details of the image Haemorrhagic transformation of right middle cerebral artery ischaemic stroke Modality: CT (non-contrast)